All posts by Charles D. Schultz

Charles D. Schultz is President of Beyta Gear Service and one of Gear Technology's technical editors.

School’s Out for Summer?

Charles D. Schultz

President at Beyta Gear Service
Charles D. Schultz is President of Beyta Gear Service and one of Gear Technology's technical editors.

Latest posts by Charles D. Schultz (see all)

June has always been a favorite month for me because it signaled the start of summer vacation. In the many years since I graduated high school, it is apparent that the academic calendar has shifted to allow for an earlier end to classes. Yet June remains forever imprinted on me.

An insightful reader of this blog recently noted that you never finish your gear education, and summer is just as good a time as any to refresh your memory on a neglected topic, or to become enthused again about an old one. This prompts me to wonder whether your company took my unsolicited — but well-intentioned — advice and brought in an intern or two for the summer months. If so, instead of merely giving them a book to (hopefully) read on gears, why not prepare a short class on the topic and present it to the interns — and, even better — interested employees as well?

You never really understand a topic until you try to teach it. Example: to comply with ISO continuous improvement/training requirements, I prepared classes on cost estimating; part processing; heat treating; gear geometry; gear inspection; and a few other topics. And I’m glad I did.

Not everyone was receptive to sitting in a class an hour a week for several weeks; but overall, I think the program was a success based upon the questions I got for months afterward. This demonstrated that they had not only attended and paid attention — but later had also thought about what they had learned.

It is difficult to know what level of knowledge is “needed” to accomplish a specific task, so for best results you might as well provide more information than is generally thought necessary. Sometimes just teaching the “how” of something and skipping the “why” leads to the erroneous conclusion that any drone could do the job at hand. In truth, modern shop and office environments need engaged and enlightened people working at every task.

The Error of Hiding Failures

Charles D. Schultz

President at Beyta Gear Service
Charles D. Schultz is President of Beyta Gear Service and one of Gear Technology's technical editors.

Latest posts by Charles D. Schultz (see all)

The General Motors ignition switch fiasco remains in the headlines, having cost many lives, millions of dollars, and a number a careers. What seems to engineers as a relatively simple issue becomes very complicated in light of company politics, legal concerns, and accident settlements. As one colleague tersely put it: “Just tell people to stop hanging four pounds of junk on their key fob and the switches are just fine.”

The engineer in me wants to endorse this approach, but unfortunately the general public doesn’t see it so simply. We have a responsibility to anticipate misuse of our products and to do what we can to prevent misuse from harming people. This puts the engineer at odds with his employer’s need to limit liability and keep failures quiet.

We see this dynamic in action at AGMA technical committee meetings. A problem will come up in conversation and people will immediately start backpedaling on how they happen to be so well informed on it. It is an interesting bit of maneuvering — necessary for legal purposes but detrimental to solving the problem.

Closer to home, there are a number of ongoing issues bedeviling gear makers these days. One of them is grinding burn; despite claims to the contrary, gears occasionally get burned during tooth grinding. Instead of making a combined effort to identify the conditions that cause it and to develop methods of minimizing it, we pretend it only happens to “the other guy.”

A colleague has been trying to raise money for a test program on grinding burn, with an eye toward developing rework methods suitable for salvaging very expensive parts. Unfortunately he is not getting much support, because it is “the other guy’s” problem. Many potential funders are quite interested, however, in seeing his rework methods if and when they are developed. Without disclosure and evidence sharing, it is more difficult to solve problems.

Perhaps we need a South African-style “Truth and Reconciliation Commission,” where companies can get indemnification for previously undisclosed technical failures.

Regrets, I Have a Few

Charles D. Schultz

President at Beyta Gear Service
Charles D. Schultz is President of Beyta Gear Service and one of Gear Technology's technical editors.

Latest posts by Charles D. Schultz (see all)

Like many Baby Boomers, I have a strong attachment to the music of my youth. I don’t suppose many people under sixty remember folk singer Tom Rush, but his song “No Regrets” has been a favorite since I first heard it. Unfortunately, unlike Mr. Rush, I have plenty of regrets.

One of them is never having really learned to speak another language. I marvel at people who can seamlessly move from one language to another. My family apparently stopped speaking German when The Great War broke out. Prior to that conflict, Milwaukee had fourteen German newspapers. By the time it was over, only one survived. So intense was the anti-German campaign that even bakeries renamed their products.

I attempted to learn German while in middle school and college — to no avail. Sure, I can recite most of the first lesson, but once I’ve asked Louisa if she wants to go to the library I am completely lost. It doesn’t help that my hereditary tongue is so complicated. No less of an authority than Mark Twain noted:

“My philological studies have satisfied me that a gifted person ought to learn English (barring spelling and pronouncing) in thirty hours, French in thirty days, and German in thirty years.”

Still, it was embarrassing — the first time I visited Germany — for the passport clerk to consider my name and appearance and to begin instructing me in German. She displayed a mixture of horror and amusement when I replied, “Meine Deutsch is nicht seir gute.”

I mention this subject here as a continuation to previous posts on “failure.” All told, I am nowhere near 10,000 hours into my study of the German language, so perhaps I will lobby for a grade of “Incomplete.” Certain German words — such as schadenfreude and backpfeifengesicht — have a special appeal to me and I hope to visit the country again.

Until I gain a bit more fluency, however, I’ll share another of Mark Twain’s comments on the complicated language:

“How charmed I am when I overhear a German word which I understand!”

Is the 10,000 Hour “Rule” a Myth?

Charles D. Schultz

President at Beyta Gear Service
Charles D. Schultz is President of Beyta Gear Service and one of Gear Technology's technical editors.

Latest posts by Charles D. Schultz (see all)

Malcomb Gladwell popularized the notion that 10,000 hours of repetition could make you a virtuoso in his 2008 book, Outliers: The Story of Success. Since then this “10,000 Hour Rule” has been batted about like a ping pong ball in training, education, and sports circles. Gladwell based his claims on research by a Florida State University professor, Anders Ericsson. Ericsson has since distanced himself from the “rule” by saying it is a bit more complex than that.

Dr. Ericsson ought to know, having studied a large group of violin players for the original study. It isn’t just “mindless” repetition, he points out, but rather a disciplined pattern of increasingly difficult exercises plus desire plus talent plus many other things that makes a musician a virtuoso.

10,000 hours is 5 years of 40 hour weeks with two weeks off each year for vacation. About the amount of time needed to earn a Masters degree at an American university. Not that a Masters degree signals “mastering” any topic. In the sports world, some have claimed that 10,000 hours represents the total amount of practice and games needed to reach the professional ranks.

A typical apprenticeship is much less than 10,000 hours. Just defining a program in terms of hours seems insufficient to prepare one for a productive professional life. It matters what you do with those hours of training, and even more with what you do after you have “graduated.”

My career in gears has taken me many places and gotten me involved in many things. It would have been a much different “me” today had I stayed in one place and confined myself to one particular type of gear or gearbox. 10,000 hours can pass very quickly if you are doing something you enjoy; it is cruel and unusual punishment if you are required to do something you hate.

Among the saddest things I have witnessed are those who continue to do something that bores them because it pays well or they are too old to do what they’d really love to do. Life is too short to just go through the motions.

Failures Need Not Be Permanent

Charles D. Schultz

President at Beyta Gear Service
Charles D. Schultz is President of Beyta Gear Service and one of Gear Technology's technical editors.

Latest posts by Charles D. Schultz (see all)

The mailman delivered some used books to my house this week, so I expect to be blogging a bit about their content in the coming weeks. Two are by longtime favorite Henry Petroski, a civil engineering professor at Duke University. Dr. Petroski has been writing about design engineering for many years and was one of the first people I can recall to talk about “failure” in a positive way.

Our national debate on educational standards has broadened this “failure” debate to include schools, administrators, and teachers. No one dares call children or parents or grandparents failures, however, so the discussion can seem a little ideological (rather than logical) at times.

All of us were failures at something for varying lengths of time. We all fell down a lot before we could walk. It took forever for anyone but close family members to understand a word we spoke. Most of us managed to learn to ride a bike before the pain of crashing became too much to bear. A sizeable group of people have not learned to swim because early failures were just too terrifying.

Why are we so impatient with our children over the pace of their intellectual knowledge acquisition? Some children take longer than others to learn a sport; some never get the hang of it. What gets the superstar to that level of accomplishment is not a lucky draw in the genetic lottery — although that clearly helps. What succeeds above all is persistence, good coaching, and a passion to succeed at whatever that activity is.

These same things apply in your work/school life. If you want to master any subject or task, you need to stick with it and find a more accomplished person to coach you. In our trade that “coach” is often a well-thumbed reference book; I am extremely grateful for the “founding fathers” putting pencil to paper. Writing about gears or most other topics does not pay well in a monetary sense, so our canon of gear books is truly a blessing from the past.

What Defines Success?

Charles D. Schultz

President at Beyta Gear Service
Charles D. Schultz is President of Beyta Gear Service and one of Gear Technology's technical editors.

Latest posts by Charles D. Schultz (see all)

The last of my uncles died this week. In my parents’ generation he was considered a successful man, despite not having a college degree. At the age he “should” have been in college, the U.S. Army had need of his services in a far off place named Korea. After that “police action” was concluded he returned home and became a tool and die maker.

Tool and die making is a demanding occupation that pays well by most people’s standards. Not Dow-Jones-500-CEO-well — but good enough that smart, hard-working youngsters of both genders still pursue the trade today. Growing up in Milwaukee, it was a respected position on a par with many white collar jobs.

As the years pass I have noticed a change in attitude towards the “skilled trades.” While there were always teachers who looked down on kids in “manual training” classes, most people had relatives or friends who worked in manufacturing and this tempered any elitist feelings they might have towards those who showered after work instead of beforehand.

I recall that — at a pre-school program for my now-28-year-old daughter — I was shocked to see how much things had changed. Two very junior attorneys and I were introduced to another young father. This man happened to be a journeyman tool and die maker at a client company of the other men’s law firm. They were rather incredulous over how much money the average tool and die maker had in the pension plan they were reviewing. How could a workman be earning as much as a junior associate?

This seemed a rude breach of decorum to me. So I asked them if they had any idea of what tool and die work involved. No clue. They never visited the plant or even looked at the client’s project showcase. Neither knew how much training a journeyman received or the financial risk his employer incurred if the worker made a mistake — that a single tool might involve $10,000 in raw material.

Just to drive home the point, I asked if they were writing the pension plan from scratch. Of course not — they were marking up another plan and having a paralegal type it and proof read it. They did not seem amused when I wondered if society needed good tools or more plagiarism to build a better world.

My uncle laughed when I told him that story a year or two later. “I guess all those dinner table arguments weren’t wasted after all” he concluded.

RIP, Uncle Dick. The world benefited from guys like you.

The Arsenal of Democracy

Charles D. Schultz

President at Beyta Gear Service
Charles D. Schultz is President of Beyta Gear Service and one of Gear Technology's technical editors.

Latest posts by Charles D. Schultz (see all)

The Memorial Day holiday means different things to different people. To some it is the official start of summer, although the erratic weather makes planning outdoor activities chancy. To others it is still a much older holiday, Decoration Day, with roots in the post-Civil War tradition of sprucing up cemeteries after winter has done its worst to trees, shrubs, and monuments.

I grew up the son a World War II sailor who didn’t want to talk much about “his” war. So later, when the country publicly fought about the then current war in Southeast Asia, I did not get much exposure to cemetery clean-ups, parades, or speeches. Schools taught plenty of history, though, and I enjoyed every minute of it.

A phrase that stuck with me from that period was “Arsenal of Democracy.” When called upon, American industry quickly converted from making consumer and industrial goods to weapons of war. The gear companies of the day were in the thick of it.

Years later, fortunate to apprentice at The Falk Corporation in Milwaukee, I was privileged to hear the wonderful stories about the thousands of gearboxes made for U.S. Navy ships. Supposedly, they employed a troop of ex-circus “little people” to crawl into the giant boxes and file off any bumps likely to make them fail noise testing.

Later, I worked for Brad Foote. The Cicero Avenue plant still has signs on the building identifying it as a security zone due to its military work. Much of the building was constructed under wartime steel restrictions; the beautiful wooden roof trusses were an engineering marvel. Thousands of people worked in that building during the war, a building that had parking problems for a hundred people in modern times.

We stumbled on to a Navy “E” flag once while cleaning a storeroom at the Quaker City Gear Works. Despite its name, this family-owned firm got the majority of its work from defense contracts. Unfortunately, it didn’t survive the transition from analog to digital instruments and that framed “E” is now in some collector’s game room. I hope, via this blog entry, to make at least a few of you remember the contributions our industry has made that allow us to worry more about ball games than bomb sights.

Failing Boldly

Charles D. Schultz

President at Beyta Gear Service
Charles D. Schultz is President of Beyta Gear Service and one of Gear Technology's technical editors.

Latest posts by Charles D. Schultz (see all)

Aside from the pure mechanical beauty of it, my favorite thing about the Indy 500 is the tradition. What’s more, few events can match it in terms of size or spectacle; you can’t really appreciate it on television.

Many longtime fans boast of never missing the race and can expound for hours on race strategies, heroic drivers, and genius builders. My own special memories are more engineering-oriented. I am a student of the spectacular failures that have shaped the results over the years. Some of my pals think I have applied that history of failure to my own midget racing team. But that is a topic for another day.

The first 500 radio broadcast I can recall was the 1963 event. I was a fan of the new rear-engine Lotus Fords and thought the officials robbed Jimmy Clark of the win by not black-flagging the leaking Watson-Offy of eventual winner Parnelli Jones. The start of the 1964 race was marred by a fatal wreck, and after the long, sad delay, Lotus fans were disappointed as the Dunlop tires the Lotus team used were shedding big chunks of tread.

Almost every year since there has been a very public and expensive failure to talk about. Lloyd Ruby’s car ripped apart by a fuel hose; the STP turbine car forced out due to a $6 ball bearing in its gearbox.

Things weren’t much better the next year for the cheese wedge Lotus-turbine when it lost a fuel pump. It was almost like the curse of the Novi stuck to the STP brand.

Ignore how much money or engineering know-how has been thrown at it — “The Brickyard” has a way of humbling even the most experienced racers. Historians recall the 1935 entry of ten Ford V-8-powered Miller race cars and their weak point — a steering box too close to the exhaust pipes. 1920’s genius Harry Miller continued to bring advanced technology to the event, only to see his reputation tattered by their failure.

The lesson I take from this is that bold engineering breakthroughs seldom succeed without lots of testing and careful development. This is true on the race track and in the gear shop. I wonder what failure will be remembered from the 2014 race.

Ideas Ahead of Their Time

Charles D. Schultz

President at Beyta Gear Service
Charles D. Schultz is President of Beyta Gear Service and one of Gear Technology's technical editors.

Latest posts by Charles D. Schultz (see all)

The magazine is celebrating its 30th anniversary this year and many special features will be published about technological breakthroughs that occurred during that time. I’ve been a subscriber from the first issue and look forward to having my memory jogged with the next few issues.

One of my favorite features in the early years was the sequence of Leonardo Da Vinci sketches on the cover. The artist/engineer/inventor was way ahead of his time in many areas and has inspired several books, movies, and television shows. (Indeed, if Hollywood, Cable TV and the New York Times Best Seller List are any indication, he’s hotter than ever.) Only now can some of his inventions be made operational.

Research into gear technology at the turn of the previous century revealed that all of the manufacturing methods we currently enjoy were already in use. The machines were slower and less accurate. The tooling was softer and less capable. Even slide rules weren’t readily available until the 1880s.

Yes, they were grinding gears in 1900 — by several different methods, too. The logo of the Citroen automobile company is a reflection of the herringbone gear type the firm pioneered. As mentioned here in previous blogs, there were many different tooth forms in use. It was a time of great experimentation in all forms of mechanics. Not everything worked, of course. The tools and materials were often not up to the task. We see this most frequently today in measuring instruments, but our predecessors had little need to measure in microns when the process capability was in thousandths.

The Auburn-Cord-Duesenberg Museum in Auburn, Indiana has preserved a 1930s design studio complete with clay models and an analog coordinate measuring machine (CMM) that was used to develop full-scale car bodies. Beautiful boat tail speedsters were sketched, modeled in clay, and scaled up to full size using a device made from scraps of wood and sections of dowels. It functioned like a modern CMM, but required someone to write down the results and proportion them to “full size” — a clever, low-tech solution to a problem that vexed designers for years. A friend used a homemade version of the device to scale up a model car; he had a commission to construct a version large enough to mount on an adult go-kart and the 1930s technology did not let him down.

I fully expect to see more of Leonardo’s inventions brought to life in the years ahead. Great ideas are timeless. Some are only awaiting our ability to implement them.

The Journey or the Destination?

Charles D. Schultz

President at Beyta Gear Service
Charles D. Schultz is President of Beyta Gear Service and one of Gear Technology's technical editors.

Latest posts by Charles D. Schultz (see all)

I belong to a number of online technical forums besides contributing to the occasional “Ask the Expert” column here at Gear Technology. Lately I have noticed a disturbing (at least to me) trend of questioners just wanting to be directed to an app or given the specific answer, rather than wade through an explanation or a reference book/paper. At the risk of sounding like a curmudgeon — or your old math teacher — sometimes you have to experience the trials of the journey to appreciate the wonders of the destination. To be perfectly blunt — there should be no helicopter rides to the mountain top.

Early on I posted about the dangers of using computer software without understanding what was going on inside that “black box.” I am not saying everyone needs to write their own code; just that you have to understand the process and the influence factors before you can really know the answer provided is what you are looking for.

The incident that inspired this particular rant concerned microgeometry modifications. I have no idea what kind of gears the inquirer was working on. The loads and duty cycle were as unknown to me as were his part quality. My friend Ray Drago (www.gear-doc.com) says the best answer for a consulting engineer always begins with “It depends.”

So I guess “it depends” upon whether you want to understand why you are doing something, or just want to put numbers down on the drawing. I appreciate the pressure of deadlines and the desire to impress a supervisor, but over the span of a career you will never regret the time spent studying good references.

Shortcuts are tempting, but often result in “answers” that don’t fit your particular problem. Going on a journey involves certain risks. So does copying answers without understanding how they were arrived at.

The gear world needs more mountain climbers and fewer helicopter passengers.