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Barber-Colman, Div of Bourn & Koch
Bourn & Koch designs and builds new machines for hobbing, grinding, turning and shaping. We also provide parts and service for legacy machine tool products, including Barber-Colman, Fellows and many others.

Bourn & Koch Inc.
Established in 1974, Bourn & Koch Inc. is a manufacturer of industrial machine tools for a wide variety of industries. Bourn & Koch Inc. expanded in the new machine market by purchasing Barber-Colman Machine Tool Division in 1985, by purchasing Fellows and Roto-Technology in 2002, and by purchasing DeVlieg Bullard in 2004.

Capital Tool Industries
CTI is a long established company producing quality Gear Cutting Tools. We specialize in the manufacture of Gear Hobs, Worm Gear Hobs, Involute Gear Cutters, Gear Shaper Cutters, Gear Shaving Cutters & all types of Milling Cutters.

DTR Corp. (formerly Dragon Precision Tools)
DTR offers a complete line of coarse pitch to fine pitch hobs including involute, worm, chain sprocket, timing pulley, serration, parallel spline or special tooth shape, shaper cutters and milling cutters for auto, aerospace, wind, mining, construction and other industrial gear cutting applications.

Erwin Junker Machinery, Inc.
The JUNKER Group is a global leader in the market for high-speed CBN grinding machines. Since 50 years the JUNKER group has been driven by the belief in the constant improvement of grinding solutions. From individual machines to complete production lines, we offer solutions to suit our customers’ needs in nearly every area of precision grinding. We have the right machine for any grinding task: Double disc grinding machines, hard turning/grinding machines, profile grinding machines, flute grinding machines, cylindrical grinding machines, cutting tool grinding machines, tool grinding machines, centerless grinding machines, non-circular grinding machines. Moreover, JUNKER boasts comprehensive references for the engineering and implementation of production lines as well as for the development of customized grinding machines, specially tailored to customers’ grinding needs.

Excel Gear
EXCEL-LENT gear design software can optimize rack and pinion, spur, helical, internal, external, and circular pitch gears in English or metric units. Our gear/gear box design software quickly determines product parameters for various applications saving HUNDREDS of engineering hours.

Fellows Machine Tools
We long have been known for manufacturing new hobbing horizontal hobbing machines under our Bourn & Koch name. We also build new Fellows Gear Shapers, Motch Vertical Turning machines, Springfield Vertical OD/ID Grinding machines, and Blanchard Rotary Grinding Machines.

Involute Simulation Softwares Inc.
Involute Simulation Softwares specializes in the development of gear calculation and manufacturing software. The main product, HyGEARS™ V 4.0, offers gear designers and manufacturers a standalone software package providing all the design, analysis and manufacturing tools needed from idea to production.

KISSsoft USA LLC
The KISSsoft calculation program has been developed to focus on the needs of mechanical engineers and power transmission profes

Machine Tool Builders
MTB recontrols existing CNC machines and rebuilds manual change gear machines, such as gear shapers, hobbers, and grinders into precision machines by converting mechanical components to motorized servos with multiple axes and spindles using CNC controls. Specializing in Fellows, Fromag-Rapida, Hoglund, Kapp, Liebherr, Lorenz, Module, Pfauter, and Red Ring brands.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America
Our family of gear cutting machines shares a name and a whole lot more. Mitsubishi gear hobbers, shapers, shavers and grinders also share Mitsubishi machine construction and Mitsubishi software and have common controls. That is why only Mitsubishi gear machines--the most complete family of gear machines--can deliver the fastest CNC learning curves and the highest quality gears.

Norton | Saint-Gobain
Norton, a brand of Saint-Gobain, is a leading manufacturer of a wide array of abrasive products. For applications ranging from rapid stock removal to precision finishing in all industries, products are offered in BEST, BETTER and GOOD performance/price tiers to meet the needs of all end-user applications.

Pentagear Products
Pentagear, a builder of special machines and automated systems for over 50 years, offers the ND430 Next Dimension® Gear Measurement System. The Next Dimension® has been designed with the latest in motion control technology.

Precision Gage Co., Inc.
Precision Gage Co., Inc. is the manufacturer and supplier of the VARI-ROLL and GearMaster Dual Flank Composite Gear Tester.

R.E. Smith & Co.
Over 60 years experience in the gear industry. Over 20 years consulting experience in all types of industries. Over 140 different clients with applications from tiny camera gears to large hydro-electric plant drive gears. We have published numerous articles and technical papers in the area of gear metrology, noise, and transmission error (single flank composite) testing.

Solar Atmospheres
Solar Atmospheres specializes in vacuum heat treating, vacuum nitriding, vacuum brazing as well as vacuum carburizing services. With processing expertise and personalized service, Solar will process your small or large parts efficiently with our unique range of 40 vacuum furnaces. Sizes range from lab furnaces to the world's largest commercial vacuum furnace.

Star Cutter Co.
Headquartered in Farmington Hills, MI, StarCut Sales, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Star Cutter Company and is a partner in the Star SU LLC enterprise for marketing, sales, and service. Through Star SU and StarCut Sales, Inc.'s international organization Star Cutter Company markets and services its products in North America, South America, Europe and the Far East.

Steelmans Broaches Pvt. Ltd.
Manufacturers and Exporters of Push and Pull style Spline, Serration, Keyway, Surface, Standard Broaches and Broach Sets. We also manufacture Gear Hobs, Gear Cutters, Serration Cutters,Gear Shaper Cutter, Shaving Cutters , Milling Cutters....

Tianjin No.1 Machine Tool Works
In China, Tianjin No.1 Machine Tool Works (TMTW), with a history of 54 years, is one of the large scale manufacturers for gear cutting machines.

Accurate Specialties Inc.
AGMA - American Gear Manufacturers Association
American Bearing Manufacturers Association
American Gear Tools
American Wind Energy Association
AMT - The Association For Manufacturing Technology
Bega Special Tools
Broaching Machine Specialties
C & B Machinery
C.E. Sweeney & Associates
Celanese
Drake Manufacturing Services Co. Inc.
Drewco Workholding
Fässler by Daetwyler Industries
Forging Industry Association
Induction Hardening Specialists
Ingersoll Cutting Tools
Parker Industries Inc.
Premier Furnace Specialists Inc.
Ravjeet Engineering Specialty Ltd.
Roto-Flo / U.S. Gear Tools
Sandvik Coromant
Seco/Warwick Corp.
Special Cutting Tools
Specialty Heat Treating
Specialty Steel Treating Inc.
Suresh Mehta Associates
U.S. Gear Tools

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BRECOflex CO., L.L.C.
BRECOflex CO., L.L.C. ? The world leader in the polyurethane timing belt industry sets higher standards with new state-of-the-art products. BRECOflex timing belts, pulleys and accessories are scientifically designed and manufactured for undeviatin...

Circle Gear & Machine Co.
Quality Custom Gearing Complete Machine Shop ? Reverse Engineering ? Breakdown Service Available

DieQua Corp.
Thanks for checking us out! Diequa is a manufacturer and supplier of a wide range of premium quality power transmission and motion control gear drive and connecting components designed specifically to enhance the performance of your machine designs. These include speed reducers, gearmotors, servo planetary reducers, spiral bevel gearboxes, shaft phasing gearboxes, shaft couplings, torque limiters, and screw jack lifting systems.

Excel Gear, Inc.
Excel Gear engineers have over 50 yrs of experience in machine tool design, gearbox design and manufacturing, wind turbine gearbox, gear manufacturing, analysis and testing of gears, high speed spindles, CNC gimbal heads and attachments. Our qualified engineers can assist in virtually any phase of your project, however complex.

Hangzhou Xingda Machinery Co. Ltd.
ounded in 1984, Hangzhou xingda machinery co.,ltd specialized in the development, manufacture and sales of machanic products. The factory has more than 33000 square meters workshop, and with more than 100 sets of advanced process machines and test equipments. Our main produces SPEED REDUCER E-RV worm speed reducer,passed the ISO 9001, are sold to more than hundreds of cities all over the world,both at home and abroad, in area of food industries, Kitchen word machinery, printing machinery, woodworking machinery, small textile machinery, rubber machinery, small chemical machinery, plastic machinery etc.

Lafert North America
Your best source for metric motors, gearboxes and coolant pumps, by providing quality products with the highest level of service in the industry.

Luoyang SBI Special Bearing Co. Ltd.
With highly advanced technology, Luoyang SBI Special Bearing Co., Ltd. has been dedicated to providing a wide variety of bearing solutions for industries all around the world since its establishment in 1989.

Midwest Gear & Tool, Inc.
With more than 20 years in gear manufacturing, Midwest Gear & Tool has an elaborate straight and spiral bevel gear manufacturing capability. We also manufacture a complete line of hydraulic, electric and manual transmissions and reducers. We m...

NSK Corporation
NSK is a global manufacturer of bearings and other motion & control products. It operates 51 manufacturing facilities worldwide and 12 global technology centers of excellence that draw from world-leading industry knowledge and manufacturing experience. NSK's dedication to engineering innovation results in state-of-the-art products designed to improve performance and extend service life. NSK's unique Asset Improvement Program helps customers improve productivity and efficiency to significantly reduce operating costs. The company’s industry and process-specific expertise and solutions are applied to identify and solve problems that are limiting productivity. This enables customers to achieve improved performance, enhanced competitiveness and increased profitability.

Precipart
We're building solutions to critical motion control specifications every day. That's because custom speedreducers and gearmotors from 7mm diameter and larger are our specialty. And our profound knowledge of materials and gear manufacturing gives youan edge. From our engineering expertise to prototype and production runs, we work in a wide range of industries, including the aerospace/avionics, scientific instrumentation and medical diagnostic and clinical equipment markets.

RJ Link International, Inc.
We design and manufacture custom gearboxes, provide precision machined components and perform contract machining services - including gear grinding.

Schaeffler Group USA, Inc
Schaeffler North America is responsible for the engineering, production, sales and marketing for the INA, LuK, FAG and Barden brands throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. All four brands provide high-performance, precision technologies for the Automotive OEM, Industrial OEM and Distribution markets as well as the Aerospace industry. INA is a leading supplier of rolling bearings, linear motion, engine components, plain bearings and precision components. LuK is a key source for automotive clutch, torque converter, hydraulic and transmission systems. FAG is a major global supplier of bearings with core competencies in ball, taper, cylindrical and spherical bearing products. The Barden Corporation focuses on high precision, miniature and aerospace products.

Smalley Steel Ring Company
Smalley Steel Ring Company manufactures Spirolox® Retaining Rings and Smalley Wave Springs. Spiral/Spirolox rings are interchangeable with stamped ring grooves; require no special tooling for removal. Wave springs reduce heights by 50%, with equal force/deflection as standard coil springs. Fit in tight radial/axial spaces. 10,000 stock parts, carbon/stainless steel. Specials from .200"- 120"; No-Tooling-Charges.

Taiwan Precision Gear Corp.
TPG is one professional factory who manufactures all kinds motors, gear box, PMDC motor, drive, clutch, brake, coupling, vibration motor, variable speed drive, disco, right angle worm gear, other power transmission parts.

Yaskawa America, Inc.
The Drives & Motion Division of Yaskawa America, Inc. manufactures industrial automation equipment. Our products include industrial AC variable speed drives; commercial HVAC drives; servo systems and machine controllers; spindle drives and motors; and low-voltage industrial control switches. These products are used in a variety of industries including automotive, building automation, chemical, food/beverage, irrigation, machine tool, material handling, metal forming, oil/gas, packaging, pharmaceutical, power generation, solar, plastics and rubber, textile, and water/wastewater.

Articles About CIA


1 A Mechanically Marvelous Sea Saga (September 2013)

In the summer of 1974, long before Argo, there was “AZORIAN” -- the code name for a CIA gambit to recover cargo entombed in a sunken Soviet submarine -- the K-129 -- from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. The challenge: exhume -- intact -- a 2,000-ton submarine and its suspicious cargo from 17,000 feet of water.

2 The Sum of Our Fears (November/December 1992)

Last month I attended a meeting in Mexico City sponsored by CIATEQ, a quasi-governmental organization in Mexico, which has as one of its aims the encouragement of the growth of the gear industry in Mexico. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a catalyst among the attendees to form a Mexican equivalent of AGMA and to encourage an alliance with AGMA. Joe Franklin, the Executive Director of AGMA, Bill Boggess, the President, Vice-President Ray Haley, and I were among the few Americans at the meeting.

3 Riding the Rails (November/December 2013)

Are trains still a growth industry prospect for manufacturers?

4 Untraditional Gear Machining (October 2013)

Look beyond the obvious, and you may well find a better way to machine a part, and serve your customer better. That’s the lesson illustrated in a gear machining application at Allied Specialty Precision Inc. (ASPI), located in Mishawaka, Indiana.

5 Musings on Turning 65 (November/December 2007)

Recently, I reached a milestone. In October, I turned 65. I've been thinking a lot about it lately...

6 Building on Your Foundation (May 2010)

When you graduated from school and made your way into the world, you probably thought you’d learned everything you needed to know to be successful. But those of us who’ve been out in the workforce for some time know that you never stop learning.

7 Your Tax Dollars at Work: U.S. Commerce Department, Your Boots on the Ground Overseas (May 2010)

Easily one of the central issues affecting U.S. manufacturing is what one might call the exports deficit—the inability of American companies to sell products to, for instance, Asian markets, developing countries and other ports of call—due to what they perceive to be unfair trade agreements and or policies.

8 Other People's Footsteps (May/June 1996)

Earlier this year, a relative of mine, Sidney Mandell, tragically passed away. I had the good fortune to serve with Sidney on the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the Machinery Dealers National Association (MDNA). Though he started before me, his MDNA career and mine overlapped for about 2 years. As I think back on the many things I learned form him, one of his favorite phrases keeps come to mind: "We walk in the footsteps of those who have gone before us."

9 Special Gears Help Hatch a Summer Movie (January/February 2001)

Chicken Run - the summer that used stop-motion clay figures - is about a group of chickens laying a plan to escape from their farm before they're turned into chicken pies. Distributed by Steven Spielberg's Dream Works, Chicken Run is also about a group of specially-made worms and wheels.

10 Special Machine Manufacturer Brings Gear Making In-House (September/October 1997)

When you have a multi-million-dollar transfer line sitting on the shop floor waiting for gears that might take up to two months to get, you have a costly bottleneck.

11 Face Gears: An Interesting Alternative for Special Applications - Calculation, Production and Use (September/October 2001)

Crown gearings are not a new type of gear system. On the contrary, they have been in use since very early times for various tasks. Their earliest form is that of the driving sprocket, found in ancient Roman watermills or Dutch windmills. The first principles of gear geometry and simple methods of production (shaper cutting) were developed in the 1940s. In the 1950s, however, crown gears' importance declined. Their tasks were, for example, taken over by bevel gears, which were easier to manufacture and could transmit greater power. Current subject literature accordingly contains very little information on crown gears, directed mainly to pointing out their limitations (Ref. 1).

12 Software Bits Our New Products Special Edition (January/February 2000)

Software Bits for January/February 2000.

13 Predicted Scuffing Risk to Spur and Helical Gears in Commercial Vehicle Transmissions (November/December 2012)

AGMA925–A03 scuffing risk predictions for a series of spur and helical gear sets of transmissions used in commercial vehicles ranging from SAE Class 3 through Class 8.

14 EDM Specialty Gears (May/June 1996)

The capabilities and limitations of manufacturing gears by conventional means are well-known and thoroughly documented. In the search to enhance or otherwise improve the gear-making process, manufacturing methods have extended beyond chip-cutting - hobbing, broaching, shaping, shaving, grinding, etc. and their inherent limitations based on cutting selection and speed, feed rates, chip thickness per tooth, cutting pressure, cutter deflection, chatter, surface finish, material hardness, machine rigidity, tooling, setup and other items.

15 DFM Crucial for Gear Industry Success (March/April 2013)

"Design for manufacturability" (DFM) is a well-established practice, essential to realizing the successful transformation of concepts into mass-produced gears and motion control devices. And yet, all too often issues that could have been avoided are identified very late in the process that impact production costs and schedules. This suggests that key DFM principles are often underutilized in practice and are not applied consistently - or to the degree necessary - to avoid these negative results.

16 The Unofficial Guide to Gear Expo (September/October 2003)

The Unofficial Guide to Gear Expo.

17 The "Unofficial Guide" to Gear Expo 2001 (September/October 2001)

We've contacted many of the companies that will be exhibiting at Gear Expo 2001 to compile the following directory of exhibits. Use this directory to help plan your visit to the show, or to stay up-to-date on the industry's suppliers and technology.

18 Arrow Gear: Spiral Bevel Specialist (July/August 2003)

James J. Cervinka and Frank E. Pielsticker must've known the future when they named their new business Arrow Gear Co. in 1947. They started out to manufacture gears for hand tools and machine tools, but their business has taken off since then.

19 Captive vs. Commercial Heat Treaters? A Split Decision (August 2007)

Heat treating is a vital step in the gear making process—that’s a given. But how that step is taken can happen in a number of ways.

20 The Next Generation of Gear Specialists (January/February 1996)

AGMA has an excellent Training School for Gear Manufacturing. It's a great product providing a great service to the gear industry. Thus far we've educated 117 employees from 71 companies; students range from new hires with no experience to company presidents. Essentially every class since December, 1992, has been sold out.

21 Gear Expo 2009 Special Events (September/October 2009)

Details about the Solutions Center, SME and AGMA special events at the show.

22 The Unofficial Guide to Gear Expo (September/October 2007)

Map of the show and booth listings.

23 High Accurate Hobbing with Specially Designed Finishing Hobs (November/December 2003)

Load-carrying capacity of gears, especially the surface durability, is influenced by their tooth surface roughness in addition to their tooth profiles and tooth traces.

24 AGMA--American Name, International Association (May 2010)

AGMA Voices is a new feature brought to you by Gear Technology in cooperation with the American Gear Manufacturers Association. AGMA Voices will give you opinions, insight and information presented by various AGMA staff members, board members, committee heads and volunteers. In this column, Gear Technology will bring you guest editorials from the gear industry’s leading association.

25 The Unofficial Guide to Gear Expo 2005 (September/October 2005)

Booth Listings for Gear Expo 2005 in Detroit.

26 Marine Gears: Special Aspects for High Performance (May/June 2006)

A gearbox that absorbs 30 percent of external forces, transmits power from two engines operating at different speeds, and uses gears that meet several design and specification standards at the same time...

27 Initial Design of Gears Using an Artificial Neural Net (May/June 1993)

Many CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems have been developed and implemented to produce a superior quality design and to increase the design productivity in the gear industry. In general, it is true that a major portion of design tasks can be performed by CAD systems currently available. However, they can only address the computational aspects of gear design that typically require decision-making as well. In most industrial gear design practices, the initial design is the critical task that significantly effects the final results. However, the decisions about estimating or changing gear size parameters must be made by a gear design expert.

28 The Geometry of Helical Mesh (September/October 1997)

In 1961 I presented a paper, "Calculating Conjugate Helical Forms," at the semi-annual meeting of the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA). Since that time, thousands of hobs, shaper cutters and other meshing parts have been designed on the basis of the equations presented in that paper. This article presents the math of that paper without the formality of its development and goes on to discuss its practical application.

29 Involute Inspection Methods and Interpretation of Inspection Results (July/August 1997)

What is so unique about gear manufacturing and inspection? Machining is mostly associated with making either flat or cylindrical shapes. These shapes can be created by a machine's simple linear or circular movements, but an involute curve is neither a straight line nor a circle. In fact, each point of the involute curve has a different radius and center of curvature. Is it necessary to go beyond simple circular and linear machine movements in order to create an involute curve? One of the unique features of the involute is the fact that it can be generated by linking circular and linear movements. This uniqueness has become fertile soil for many inventions that have simplified gear manufacturing and inspection. As is the case with gear generating machines, the traditional involute inspection machines take advantage of some of the involute properties. Even today, when computers can synchronize axes for creating any curve, taking advantage of involute properties can be very helpful. I t can simplify synchronization of machine movements and reduce the number of variables to monitor.

30 Detroit in 97 - the Biggest Gear Expo Ever (July/August 1997)

"A Decade of Performance" is the theme of the American Gear Manufacturers Association Gear Expo 97, to be held October 19-22 at Detroit's Cobo Hall. Products and services related to every aspect of the gear manufacturing process, from turning and grinding the blanks to coating and inspection of the gears,will be represented at the show.

31 Composite Electroless Nickel Coatings for the Gear Industry (January/February 1997)

Electroless Nickel (EN) plating, a process dating back to the 1940s, is one of the predominant metal finishing methods today. It is especially suitable for the gear industry, whose end uses span innumerable other industries, providing an endless assortment of requirements, environments, materials and specifications. EN plating has a broad array of functional features, which include:

32 Capitalizing on Your Human Capital (November/December 1997)

A fundamental characteristic of the gear industry is that it is capital intensive. In the last decade, the gear manufacturing industry has been undergoing an intense drive toward improving and modernizing its capital equipment base. The Department of Commerce reports that annual sales of gear cutting equipment have increased nearly 60% since 1990. While this effort has paid off in increased competitiveness for the American gear industry, it is important to remember that there is another capital crucial to manufacturing success - "human capital."

33 Calculating Gears (January/February 1997)

Interesting gear factoids discovered wasting time on the Net while pretending to be working...The first four-function mechanical calculator was built by the mathematician Gottfried Leibniz in 1694. While not commercially available for nearly 200 years, the design was the basis of many such calculators until well into this century.

34 Gear Software You Didn't Know About (January/February 1997)

Designing and manufacturing gears requires the skills of a mathematician, the knowledge of an engineer and the experience of a precision machinist. For good measure, you might even include the are of a magician, because the formulas and calculations involved in gear manufacturing are so obscure and the processes so little known that only members of an elite cadre of professionals can perform them.

35 The Advantages of Ion Nitriding Gears (November/December 1996)

When it comes to setting the standard for gear making, the auto industry often sets the pace. Thus when automakers went to grinding after hardening to assure precision, so did the machine shops that specialize in gearing. But in custom manufacturing of gears in small piece counts, post-heat treat grinding can grind away profits too.

36 CNC Gear Grinding Methods (May/June 1997)

Grinding in one form or another has been used for more than 50 years to correct distortions in gears caused by the high temperatures and quenching techniques associated with hardening. Grinding improves the lead, involute and spacing characteristics. This makes the gear capable of carrying the high loads and running at the high pitch line velocities required by today's most demanding applications. Gears that must meet or exceed the accuracy requirements specified by AGMA Quality 10-11 or DIN Class 6-7 must be ground or hard finished after hear treatment.

37 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Power Honing on Gear Surface Topography (January/February 1999)

Gear noise associated with tooth surface topography is a fundamental problem in many applications. Operations such as shaving, gear grinding and gear honing are usually used to finish the gear surface. Often, gears have to be treated by a combination of these operations, e.g. grinding and honing. This is because gear honing operations do not remove enough stock although they do create a surface lay favorable for quiet operation. See Fig. 1 for typical honing process characteristics. Gear grinding processes, on the other hand, do remove stock efficiently but create a noisy surface lay.

38 Vectors in Gear Design (July/August 1999)

Friction weighs heavily on loads that the supporting journals of gear trains must withstand. Not only does mesh friction, especially in worm gear drives, affect journal loading, but also the friction within the journal reflects back on the loads required of the mesh itself.

39 One Fast Gear Boxx (November/December 1999)

You go, and if your name is Ryan Boxx, you go faster than everyone else. Boxx became the fastest 15-year-old in America this summer when he won his division of the National Hot Rod Association's Junior Drag Racing League National Championship.

40 The Effect of Material Defects on Gear Perfomance - A Case Study (March/April 2000)

The quality of the material used for highly loaded critical gears is of primary importance in the achievement of their full potential. Unfortunately, the role which material defects play is not clearly understood by many gear designers. The mechanism by which failures occur due to material defects is often circuitous and not readily apparent. In general, however, failures associated with material defects show characteristics that point to the source of the underlying problem, the mechanism by which the failure initiated, and the manner in which it progressed to failure of the component.

41 The Politics of Denial (September/October 1996)

A good many things bother me about election years - the annoying sound bites, the negative commercials, the endless political over-analysis. But what bothers me most about the coming election is this: So far (when I'm writing this, it's admittedly early in the campaign) there's little or no talk about what is one of the most critical national issues of the next thirty years - our growing government debt.

42 Cutting Tools Roundup (May/June 1999)

The cutting tool industry has undergone some serious changes in the last couple of years in both technology and the way the industry does business. The emerging technology today, as well as for the foreseeable future, is dry cutting, especially in high volume production settings. Wet cutting continues to be as popular as ever with lubrication advances making it more economical and environmentally friendly. There has also developed a process called "near dry cutting." this process offers many of the benefits of fluids while eliminating many of hte associated problems.

43 Fatigue Aspects of Case Hardened Gears (March/April 1999)

The efficient and reliable transmission of mechanical power continues, as always, to be a central area of concern and study in mechanical engineering. The transmission of power involves the interaction of forces which are transmitted by specially developed components. These components must, in turn, withstand the complex and powerful stresses developed by the forces involved. Gear teeth transmit loads through a complex process of positive sliding, rolling and negative sliding of the contacting surfaces. This contact is responsible for both the development of bending stresses at the root of the gear teeth and the contact stresses a the contacting flanks.

44 Choosing the Right Heat Treater (March/April 1998)

Heat treating is a critical operation in gear manufacturing. It can make or break the quality of your final product. Yet it is one that frequently gear manufacturers outsource to someone else. Then the crucial question becomes, how do you know you're getting the right heat treater? How can you guarantee your end product when you have turned over this important process to someone else?

45 AGMA and ISO Accuracy Standards (May/June 1998)

The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to write all U.S. standards on gearing. However, in response to the growing interest in a global marketplace, AGMA became involved with the International Standards Organization (ISO) several years ago, first as an observer in the late 1970s and then as a participant, starting in the early 1980s. In 1993, AGMA became Secretariat (or administrator) for Technical Committee 60 of ISO, which administers ISO gear standards development.

46 The Basics of Gear Metrology and Terminology Part I (September/October 1998)

It is very common for those working in the gear manufacturing industry to have only a limited understanding of the fundamental principals of involute helicoid gear metrology, the tendency being to leave the topic to specialists in the gear lab. It is well known that quiet, reliable gears can only be made using the information gleaned from proper gear metrology.

47 Gear Crack Propagation Investigations (November/December 1997)

A common design goal for gears in helicopter or turboprop power transmission is reduced weight. To help meet this goal, some gear designs use thin rims. Rims that are too thin, however, may lead to bending fatigue problems and cracks. The most common methods of gear design and analysis are based on standards published by the American Gear Manufacturers Association. Included in the standards are rating formulas for gear tooth bending to prevent crack initiation (Ref. 1). These standards can include the effect of rim thickness on tooth bending fatigue (Ref 2.). The standards, however, do not indicate the crack propagation path or the remaining life once a crack has started. Fracture mechanics has developed into a useful discipline for predicting strength and life of cracked structures.

48 Every Reason In the World to Go (July/August 1994)

IMTS 94, the Association for Manufacturing Technology's biennial machine tool extravaganza opens September 7 at McCormick Place in Chicago. As always, the size of this show is astonishing. Over 100,000 visitors, enough to populate a medium-size town, will converge on Chicago's lakefront to visit more than 1,200 exhibits spread over the entire McCormick Place complex.

49 Effect of Extended Tooth Contact on the Modeling of Spur Gear Transmissions (July/August 1994)

In some gear dynamic models, the effect of tooth flexibility is ignored when the model determines which pairs of teeth are in contact. Deflection of loaded teeth is not introduced until the equations of motion are solved. This means the zone of tooth contact and average tooth meshing stiffness are underestimated, and the individual tooth load is overstated, especially for heavily loaded gears. This article compares the static transmission error and dynamic load of heavily loaded, low-contact-ratio spur gears when the effect of tooth flexibility has been considered and when it has been ignored. Neglecting the effect yields an underestimate of resonance speeds and an overestimate of the dynamic load.

50 Goldstein's Paradox (March/April 2000)

I just got off the phone with an associate of mine at a large gear manufacturing company.I was congratulating him on being awarded a new contract when he told me that they had just experienced a substantial downsizing.

51 CNC Basics (January/February 1995)

NC and CNC machines are at the heart of manufacturing today. They are the state-of-the-art equipment everybody has (or is soon going to get) that promise to lower costs, increase production and turn manufacturers into competitive powerhouses. Like many other high tech devices (such as microwaves and VCRs), lots of people have and use them - even successfully - without really knowing much about how they operate. But upgrading to CNC costs a lot of money, so it's crucial to separate the hype from the reality.

52 The Tech Prep Approach to Worker Training (May/June 1994)

"More than half our young people leave school without the knowledge or foundation required to find and hold a job." according to a 1991 report from the U.S. Dept. of Labor. A huge gap exists between the needs of employers (especially in manufacturing) and the training received by most high school students.

53 The Fundamentals of Gear Press Quenching (March/April 1994)

Most steel gear applications require appreciable loads to be applied that will result in high bending and compressive stresses. For the material (steel) to meet these performance criteria, the gear must be heat treated. Associated with this thermal processing is distortion. To control the distortion and achieve repeatable dimensional tolerances, the gear will be constrained during the quenching cycle of the heat treatment process. This type of fixture quenching is the function of gear quench pressing equipment.

54 CNC Bevel Gear Generators and Flared Cup Gear Grinding (July/August 1993)

New freedom of motion available with CNC generators make possible improving tooth contact on bevel and hypoid gears. Mechanical machines by their nature are inflexible and require a special mechanism for every desired motion. These mechanisms are generally exotic and expensive. As a result, it was not until the introduction of CNC generators that engineers started exploring motion possibilities and their effect on tooth contact.

55 Cutting Worm Gears with Standard Gear Hobs (January/February 1994)

We make a lot of single-start worm and worm gear sets, and it always seems as though we're buying another special hob. We also do a lot of spur gear cutting, and the spur gear hobs and the worm gear hobs look alike, so we wonder why we cannot use the standard hobs for cutting worm gears too. Can we do this?

56 Random Thoughts for the New Year... (January/February 1994)

Another year has passed and, because of the short term ups and downs of the economy, it's still hard to judge whether we are in an appreciably different place than we were a year ago. The economy doesn't seem to be worse than it was, but it also doesn't seem to be a whole lot better.

57 Long-Life, Low-cost, Near-Net-Shape forged Gears (May/June 1995)

Near-net gear forging today is producing longer life gears at significantly lower costs than traditional manufacturing techniques. Advances in forging equipment, controls and die-making capability have been combined to produce commercially viable near-net-shape gears in diameters up to 17" with minimum stock allowances. These forged gears require only minimal finishing to meet part tolerance specifications.

58 Gear Grinding Comes of Age (July/August 1995)

In the quest for ever more exacting and compact commercial gears, precision abrasives are playing a key production role - a role that can shorten cycle time, reduce machining costs and meet growing market demand for such requirements as light weights, high loads, high speed and quiet operation. Used in conjunction with high-quality grinding machines, abrasives can deliver a level of accuracy unmatched by other manufacturing techniques, cost-effectively meeting AGMA gear quality levels in the 12 to 15 range. Thanks to advances in grinding and abrasive technology, machining has become one of the most viable means to grind fast, strong and quiet gears.

59 Minimizing Gear Distortion During Heat Treating (March/April 1996)

Graded hardening technology has proven over the years to yield very good results when used in the heat treating of carburized gears. It is especially advantageous for smaller companies, subject to higher competitive pressures. Unfortunately, despite the fact that graded hardening is a very well-known method, its use has been limited. We strongly recommend this technology to all of those who need to produce gears with high metallurgical quality.

60 Heat Treating Challenges for the Future (March/April 1996)

The heat treating of gears presents a difficult challenge to both the heat treater and the gear manufacturer. The number and variety of variables involved in the manufacturing process itself and the subsequent heat treating cycle create a complex matrix of factors which need to be controlled in order to produce a quality product. A heat treater specializing in gears or a gear manufacturer doing his own heat treating must have a clear understanding of these issues in order to deliver a quality product and make a profit at the same time. The situation also presents a number of areas that could benefit greatly from continued research and development.

61 Cylkro Gears: An Alternative in Mechanical Power Transmission (May/June 1996)

Bevel gears have been the standard for several decades in situations where power transmission has to occur between shafts mounted at a given angle. Now a new approach has been developed that challenges the bevel gear's de facto monopoly in such applications. The concept is based on the principle of the crown gear; i.e., a cylindrical pinion mates with a face gear. Crown Gear B.V. in Enschede, Holland, is the developer of these specialty gear teeth, which are marketed under the trade name Cylkro.

62 The Next Step in Bevel Gear Metrology (January/February 1996)

In recent years, gear inspection requirements have changed considerably, but inspection methods have barely kept pace. The gap is especially noticeable in bevel gears, whose geometry has always made testing them a complicated, expensive and time-consuming process. Present roll test methods for determining flank form and quality of gear sets are hardly applicable to bevel gears at all, and the time, expense and sophistication required for coordinate measurement has limited its use to gear development, with only sampling occurring during production.

63 A Huge Success (September/October 1995)

Sivyer Steel Corporation, Bettendorf, IA, an ISO-9002-certified casting specialist, is familiar with tackling tough jobs. The company has built an international reputation as a supplier of high-integrity castings, especially those which require engineering and/or full machining. Its not unusual for Sivyer's customers, especially those in the mining, recycling, power generation, valve and nuclear fields, to ask the foundry to produce a one-of-a-kind casting - often something revolutionary - but AnClyde Engineered Products' request was a special challenge, even for Sivyer.

64 Dry Gear Hobbing (July/August 1995)

Question: We are contemplating purchasing a hobbing machine with dry hobbing capabilities. What do we need to know about the special system requirements for this technology?

65 Gear Inspection For The Long Haul (September/October 1995)

Question: We just received permission to purchase our first CNC gear inspection system. With capital approvals so hard to come by, especially for inspection equipment, I want to be sure to purchase a system I can count of for years to come. My past experience with purchasing CNC equipment has shown me that serviceability of the computer and the CNC controller portion of the system can be a problem in just a few years because of the obsolescence factor. What information do I need to look for when selecting a supplier to reduce the risk of obsolescence, as well as to reduce the long-term servicing costs in the computer and controls portion of the system?

66 Gear Expo 95: Bigger and Better (September/October 1995)

Gear Expo '95, scheduled for November 12-15 at the Indiana Convention center in Indianapolis, IN, will attract more exhibitors from a wider array of industries than any previous show, according to the show's sponsor, the American Gear Manufacturers Association.

67 Generating Precision Spur Gears By Wire EDM (May/June 1996)

Over the past decade, the wire electrical discharge machine (EDM) has become an increasingly important tool for machining non-standard shapes. It has even been used to cut gears and gear cavities for plastic molds. While generally accepted as a quick and versatile method for cutting spur gears, the EDM gear has lacked the precision of a mechanically machined or ground gear. We suspected that many of the errors associated with these gears were caused by inexact setup procedures, poor tool path control and improper cutting parameters. We decided to test the potential for the wire EDM to make the most accurate gear possible.

68 Carbide Hobbing Case Study (May/June 2002)

Bodine Electric Co. of Chicago, IL., has a 97-year history of fine-and medium-pitch gear manufacturing. Like anywhere else, traditions, old systems, and structures can be beneficial, but they can also become paradigms and obstacles to further improvements. We were producing a high quality product, but our goal was to become more cost effective. Carbide hobbing is seen as a technological innovation capable of enabling a dramatic, rather than an incremental, enhancement to productivity and cost savings.

69 Gear Standards and ISO GPS (October 2013)

In today’s globalized manufacturing, all industrial products having dimensional constraints must undergo conformity specifications assessments on a regular basis. Consequently, (standardization) associated with GD&T (geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing) should be un-ambiguous and based on common, accepted rules. Of course gears - and their mechanical assemblies - are special items, widely present in industrial applications where energy conversion and power transmission are involved.

70 Understanding Oil Analysis: How it Can Improve Reliability of Wind Turbine Gearboxes (November/December 2013)

Historically, wind turbine gearbox failures have plagued the industry. Yet an effective oil analysis program will increase the reliability and availability of your machinery, while minimizing maintenance costs associated with oil change-outs, labor, repairs and downtime. Practical action steps are presented here to improve reliability.

71 Practical Considerations for the Use of Double-Flank Testing for the Manufacturing Control of Gearing - Part I (January/February 2014)

Part I of this paper describes the theory behind double-flank composite inspection, detailing the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. Part II, which will appear in the next issue, includes a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection, especially for large-volume operations. Part II covers statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.

72 The Past, Present and Future of Gear Manufacturing (June 2014)

The gear industry is full of storytellers. It's a niche market that boasts a remarkable cast of characters that have been sharing their stories with us for 30 years. In that time, the editors and staff of Gear Technology magazine have had the privilege to report the ins and outs of this highly-specialized industry. From technical articles to case studies and features, the main focus of this magazine has been to "provide a forum of discovery and innovation for you, the gear manufacturing industry." Our Publisher, Michael Goldstein, said as much in our inaugural issue of May/June 1984.

73 Showstoppers (September 2013)

Our special advertising section featuring exhibitors from Gear Expo and ASM Heat Treat 2013

74 Magnetic Gearing Attracting More Followers (August 2013)

"Going green" and energy efficiency are goals that all industries -- especially in Europe and the United States -- are working on, in such sectors as electric motors, lubrication, gears and on and on. Drumroll here please for magnetic gearing

75 Turn Off the Noise (March/April 2013)

Trying to figure out what’s going on in this crazy economy of ours seems a bit like reading tea leaves—one part pseudoscience and three parts wild conjecture. Of course some pundits are telling us that this bull market has legs, while others insist that we’re due for a major correction. Some pump us up with positive news, while others remind us about scary stuff like the budget deficit, the European financial crisis and unemployment.

76 How to Conduct a Heat Treat Audit (March/April 2013)

Audits of the heat treating department are a vital part of any good quality program - either as part of a self-assessment or ISO program for a captive shop or - of equal importance - as part of an evaluation of the capabilities of a commercial heat treat supplier. In either case, the audit process needs to be formal in nature and follow specific guidelines.

77 Showstoppers - Gear Expo 2013 (August 2013)

Our special advertising section featuring Gear Expo exhibitors.

78 Gear Ratio Epicyclic Drives Analysis (June 2014)

It has been documented that epicyclic gear stages provide high load capacity and compactness to gear drives. This paper will focus on analysis and design of epicyclic gear arrangements that provide extremely high gear ratios. Indeed, a special, two-stage planetary arrangement may utilize a gear ratio of over one hundred thousand to one. This paper presents an analysis of such uncommon gear drive arrangements and defines their major parameters, limitations, and gear ratio maximization approaches. It also demonstrates numerical examples, existing designs, and potential applications.

79 AGMA Recognizes Member Achievements at Annual Meeting (June 2014)

The AGMA/ABMA Annual Meeting took place April 10-12 in St. Petersburg, Florida. Between committee meetings, networking opportunities and social events, many individuals in the gear industry were presented awards.

80 Gear Industry Heat Treat Resource Guide (July 2014)

Heat treating is one of the most critical operations in the manufacture of quality gears. Everything can be done to perfection, but if the heat treating isn’t right, all of your hard work and efforts are wasted. We know how important it is for gear manufacturers to find the right heat treating service provider. That’s why we’ve compiled this Heat Treat Resource Guide -- the only directory of heat treat service providers that’s specific to the gear industry. The companies listed here are all interested in working with gear manufacturers, and many of them have specialties and capabilities that are uniquely suited to the types of products you manufacture.

81 Innovative Induction Hardening Process with Pre-heating for Improved Fatigue Performance of Gear Component (July 2014)

Contact fatigue and bending fatigue are two main failure modes of steel gears, while surface pitting and spalling are two common contact fatigue failures -- caused by alternating subsurface shear stresses from the contact load between two gear mates. And when a gear is in service under cyclic load, concentrated bending stresses exist at the root fillet -- the main driver of bending fatigue failures. Induction hardening is becoming an increasingly popular response to these problems, due to its process consistency, reduced energy consumption, clean environment and improved product quality -- but not without issues of its own (irregular residual stresses and bending fatigue). Thus a new approach is proposed here that flexibly controls the magnitude of residual stress in the regions of root fillet and tooth flank by pre-heating prior to induction hardening. Using an external spur gear made of AISI 4340 as an example, this new concept/process is demonstrated using finite element modeling and DANTE commercial software.

82 IMTS 2014 Show Stoppers (August 2014)

Special advertising section featuring IMTS 2014 booths you won't want to miss!

83 Topological Gearing Modifications: Optimization of Complex Systems Capable of Oscillation (May 2014)

Vibration and noise from wind turbines can be significantly influenced - and therefore reduced - by selecting suitable gearing modifications. New options provided by manufacturers of machine tools and grinding machines, and especially state-of-the-art machines and controls, provide combined gearing modifications - or topological gearing corrections - that can now be reliably machined. Theoretical investigations of topological modifications are discussed here with the actual machining and their possible use.

84 Practical Considerations for the Use of Double-Flank Testing for the Manufacturing Control of Gearing - Part II (March/April 2014)

Part I of this paper, which appeared in the January/February issue of Gear Technology, described the theory behind double-flank composite inspection. It detailed the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. The concluding Part II presents a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection -- especially for large-volume operations. It also addresses statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.

85 PPD Wear Protection Treatment for Large Parts Opens New Horizons (March/April 2014)

Environmentally friendly, highly efficient and lasting a product's lifetime. With characteristics like this, Pulsed-Plasma Diffusion (PPD) technology from Oerlikon Balzers has established itself as an industry standard for the treatment of large automotive press tooling. Now the technology specialists are targeting new applications with this advanced process, offering an alternative to traditional hard-chrome processes.

86 Press Quenching and Effects of Prior Thermal History on Distortion during Heat Treatment (March/April 2014)

Precision components (industrial bearing races and automotive gears) can distort during heat treatment due to effects of free or unconstrained oil quenching. However, press quenching can be used to minimize these effects. This quenching method achieves the relatively stringent geometrical requirements stipulated by industrial manufacturing specifications. As performed on a wide variety of steel alloys, this specialized quenching technique is presented here, along with a case study showing the effects of prior thermal history on the distortion that is generated during press quenching.

87 Technological Potential and Performance of Gears Ground by Dressable CBN Tools (March/April 2014)

Dressable vitrified bond CBN grinding tools combine the advantages of other common tool systems in generating gear grinding. Yet despite those technological advantages, there is only a small market distribution of these grinding tools due to high tool costs. Furthermore, scant literature exists regarding generating gear grinding with dressable CBN. This is especially true regarding the influence of the grinding tool system on manufacturing-related component properties. The research objective of this report is to determine the advantages of dressable CBN tools in generating gear grinding.

88 Large Pinions for Open Gears - The Increase of Single Mesh Load (January/February 2013)

This paper introduces mandatory improvements in design, manufacturing and inspection - from material elaboration to final machining - with special focus on today's large and powerful gearing.

89 ITAMCO Offers Industrial Bluetooth Transmitter (November/December 2012)

Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies (ITAMCO) has released iBlue—the first handheld bluetooth transmitter that gathers crucial production data and sends it to bluetooth-enabled smartphones, tablets and computers.

90 Failures of Bevel-Helical Gear Units on Traveling Bridge Cranes (November/December 2000)

Bridge cranes are among the most useful machines in many branches of modern industry. Using standard hooks or other specialized clamping devices, they can lift, transport, discharge, and stack a variety of loads.

91 Dry Hobbing Proess Technology Road Map (March/April 2001)

Recent trends in gear cutting technology have left process engineers searching for direction about which combination of cutting tool material, coating, and process technology will afford the best quality at the lowest total cost. Applying the new technologies can have associated risks that may override the potential cost savings. The many interrelated variables to be considered and evaluated tend to cloud the issue and make hobbing process development more difficult.

92 Gearbox Field Performance From a Rebuilder's Perspective (May/June 2001)

The major focus of the American Gear Manufacturers Association standards activity has been the accurate determination of a gearbox's ability to transmit a specified amount of power for a given amount of time. The need for a "level playing field" in the critical arena was one of the reasons the association was formed in the first place. Over the past 85 years, AGMA committees have spent countless hours "discussing" the best ways to calculate the rating of a gear set, often arguing vigorously over factors that varied the resulting answers by fractions of a percentage point. While all that "science" was being debated in test labs and conference rooms all over the country, out industry's customers were conducting their own experiments through the daily operation of gear-driven equipment of all types.

93 Eyes on Detroit (July/August 2001)

If you think of Gear Expo as only a machine tool show, you're not seeing all of its potential. You may be tempted to skip it this year, especially if you're struggling to fill your current capacity. I've heard too many stories of canceled orders, falling profits and slashed budgets to believe that great numbers of you will be attending Gear Expo with buying new machines as your No. 1 priority.

94 Gear Up for Performance: An Introduction to Synthetic Lubricants for Fractional Horespower Applications (September/October 2000)

Editor's Note: The following article details the advantages of synthetic lubricants in certain applications. However, the user should be aware of certain design issues arising from the extract chemistry of the synthetic. For example, some synthetics may have low solvency for additives. Others may not be compatible with mineral oils or nonmetallic components such as seals and paints. Some synthetics may absorb water and may not have the same corrosion resistance as mineral oils. Finally, the user should consider biodegradability or toxicity before switching to any new lubricant. Many of these concerns are present in petroleum-based lubricants as well, so consult a lubrication specialist before specifying a lubricant.

95 IMTS 2000: The World of Manufacturing (September/October 2000)

For eight days every other year, the sponsor of the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS), the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT), strives to turn Chicago's McCormick Place into a "productivity marketplace," the largest and most completer display and demonstration of manufacturing technology ever seen in the Americas. If the growth of the show is any indicator, that effort has been very successful indeed. With over 1.4 million square feet of exhibit space taking up all five levels and all three exhibit halls of McCormick Place, each level would rank as one of the nation's 200 largest trade shows. That wasn't always the size or scope of the show. Its inception, while impressive for the time, was humble by today's standards.

96 Management on the High Seas (May/June 2000)

Most Navy brass would say that Commander D. Michael Abrashoff ran a loose ship. But his style of empowering his crew by delegating authority is changing the way the Navy thinks about management. His speech at the recent annual meeting of the American Gear Manufacturers Association offered a simple, common-sense approach that can be applied not only to running a ship, but also to gear manufacturing or any other industry.

97 Gear Measurement Traceability and Uncertainty (July/August 2000)

Until recently, there was a void in the quality control of gear manufacturing in this country (Ref. 1). Gear measurements were not traceable to the international standard of length through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The U.S. military requirement for traceability was clearly specified in the military standard MIL-STD-45662A (Ref. 2). This standard has now been replaced by commercial sector standards including ISO 9001:1994 (Ref. 3), ISO/IEC Guide 25 (Ref, 4), and the U.S. equivalent of ISO/IEC Guide 25 - ANSI/NCSL Z540-2-1997 (Ref. 5). The draft replacement to ISO/IEC Guide 25 - ISO 17025 states that measurements must either be traceable to SI units or reference to a natural constant. The implications of traceability to the U.S. gear industry are significant. In order to meet the standards, gear manufacturers must either have calibrated artifacts or establish their own traceability to SI units.

98 The IMTS 2000 Primer (July/August 2000)

Founded in 1927 as the Machine Tool Show and held every two years, the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) has grown into the largest manufacturing trade show in both North and South America. The statistics for the 1998 show offer a glimpse of the magnitude. Over 1,440 exhibitors showed off 60 million pounds of machinery and went through 5 million pounds of display materials during the week long show. The show organizers themselves sent out 2,632,560 promotional pieces. Twenty-three foreign machine tool associations participated. It took 4,600 trucks to get everything to McCormick Place for the show. There were 450 journalists covering the event, which was attended by 121,764 people. There was $1,034.618,000 worth of business transacted on the show floor of IMTS 1998.

99 Who Makes the Nails (November/December 2001)

I've been thinking a lot about the importance of manufacturing over the last couple of years, especially as I've watched more and more of it leave our country. We work in an industry that is both economically and strategically vital, but I'm concerned that most Americans do not realize the importance of manufacturing, or what will happen if it continues to dissipate.

100 The Gear Analysis Handbook by James L. Taylor Vibration Consultants Inc. (January/February 2002)

The author has written this book primarily from the viewpoint of analyzing vibrations on heavy industrial and mill gearing that may have been in service for a prolonged time. The purpose is to diagnose problems, especially the source or cause of failure. However, the principles and analysis techniques can be used for all types and sizes of gears, as well as for gear noise analysis.

101 Showstoppers (September 2012)

Special advertising section for IMTS 2012

102 Keeping Time Hawaiian Style (September 2012)

Clayton Boyer specializes in kinetic sculpture -- especially wooden gear clocks -- and he'd like to share his plans with you.

103 Romax Technology Launches Gearbox and Driveline Design Software Package (November/December 2012)

Romax Technology, the gearbox, bearing and driveline engineering specialist, has launched a new design software package that will increase speed, quality, creativity and innovation when designing gearboxes and drivelines. Called Concept, the new product delivers on the Romax vision of streamlining the end-to-end, planning-to-manufacture process with open, easy to use software solutions. It has been developed in close collaboration with engineers in the largest ground vehicle, wind energy and industrial equipment companies around the globe.

104 IMTS Showstoppers (August 2012)

A special advertising section featuring gear industry exhibitors at IMTS 2012.

105 Opportunity and Obligation (September/October 2003)

I was recently honored by the European Association of Machine Tool Merchants (EAMTM) at the organization's annual meeting this past June in Mallorea, Spain. The organization inducted me as a Fellow, EAMTM's highest honor, bestowed on members who have made significant contributions as volunteers serving the organization, which was originally founded in 1940. I felt especially honored, as I am only the 19th person and the second non-European to have been given this award.

106 From Russia, With Teeth (May/June 2002)

In a little-known incident, Soviet machinists at Mil Helicopter worked in 1988 and 1989 on a special project to be used against Americans.

107 Money Business: Exporting - Part III (July/August 1993)

The object of any business transaction, be it foreign or domestic, is making a profit. That's why you go through all the effort of making and selling your product in the first place. Getting paid in a timely manner is crucial to making profit, but when your customer is in another country, this "timely and convenient" payment can become complicated; hence, your need for a banker with expertise in international markets.

108 Characterizaton of Retained Austenite in Case Carburized Gears and Its Influence on Fatigue Performance (May/June 2003)

Carburized helical gears with high retained austenite were tested for surface contact fatigue. The retained austenite before test was 60% and was associated with low hardness near the case's surface. However, the tested gears showed good pitting resistance, with fatigue strength greater than 1,380 MPa.

109 The Design and Testing of a Low Noise Marine Gear (May/June 2000)

This article offers an overview of the practical design of a naval gear for combined diesel or gas turbine propulsion (CODOG type). The vibration performance of the gear is tested in a back-to-back test. The gear presented is a low noise design for the Royal Dutch Navy's LCF Frigate. The design aspects for low noise operation were incorporated into the overall gear system design. Therefore, special attention was paid to all the parameters that could influence the noise and vibration performance of the gearbox. These design aspects, such as tooth corrections, tooth loading, gear layout, balance, lubrication and resilient mounting, will be discussed.

110 Factors Influencing Fracture Toughness of High-Carbon Martensitic Steels (January/February 1989)

Plane strain fracture toughness of twelve high-carbon steels has been evaluated to study the influence of alloying elements, carbon content and retained austenite. The steels were especially designed to simulate the carburized case microstructure of commonly used automotive type gear steels. Results show that a small variation in carbon can influence the K IC significantly. The beneficial effect of retained austenite depends both on its amount and distribution. The alloy effect, particularly nickel, becomes significant only after the alloy content exceeds a minimum amount. Small amounts of boron also appear beneficial.

111 Gear Expo 2007 Showstoppers (September/October 2007)

[special advertising section]

112 Design of Oil-Lubricated Machine Components for Life and Reliability (November/December 2007)

This article summarizes the use of laboratory fatigue data for bearings and gears coupled with probabilistic life prediction and EHD theories to predict the life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox.

113 Where Manufacturing and Education Mesh (January/February 2007)

But associations and grassroots organizations lack public awareness.

114 Winds of Change (January/February 2008)

It seems that nothing can hold back the power of the wind—unless, of course, it's the availability of rugged, reliable, specially designed gearboxes. How Gleason is Keeping up with Demand.

115 Gear Expo 2007 Show Preview (August 2007)

The organizers of Gear Expo 2007 promise to combine the most popular features of shows past with some innovations for this year’s attendees. By the time the show closes on October 10, the association hopes its targeted 175 exhibitors walk away with new insights leading to profitability and renewed contacts.

116 Optimism in Wind Abounds (January/February 2009)

Big gears and wind turbines go together like bees and honey, peas and carrots, bread and butter and—well, you get the idea. Wind isn’t just big right now, it’s huge. The wind industry means tremendous things for the energy dependent world we live in and especially big things for gear manufacturers and other beleaguered American industries.

117 Gear Expo: Changing with the Times (September/October 2009)

"One of the reasons AGMA has been successful over our 93-year history is that the association’s agenda, programs and activities reflect the voices of our members," says Joe T. Franklin, Jr., AGMA President.

118 Austempered Nodular Cast Irons (March/April 1985)

Austempering heat treatments (austenitizing followed by rapid cooling to the tempering temperature) have been applied to nodular irons on an experimental basis for a number of years, but commercial interest in the process has only recently come to the surface.

119 Surface Damage Caused by Gear Profile Grinding and its Effects on Flank Load Carrying Capacity (September/October 2004)

Instances of damage to discontinuous form ground and surface-hardened gears, especially of large scale, have recently increased. This may be attributed partly to a faulty grinding process with negative effects on the surface zones and the surface properties.

120 Constant Innovation Keeps Suppliers to Race Car Manufacturers Earning Trophies (May/June 2006)

When the fans start screaming at the Daytona 500, they're cheering for Jeff Gordon. Only the die-hard racing fan can appreciate the gearing and engineering that goes into each race car.

121 Determining Power Losses in the Helical Gear Mesh (September/October 2005)

This article reviews mathematical models for individual components associated with power losses, such as windage, churning, sliding and rolling friction losses.

122 GPSys Critical to Spiral Bevel Gear Life (September/October 2008)

Impact Technologies considers commercial version of software package.

123 Induction Hardening of Gears and Critical Components - Part I (September/October 2008)

Induction hardening is a heat treating technique that can be used to selectively harden portions of a gear, such as the flanks, roots and tips of teeth, providing improved hardness, wear resistance, and contact fatigue strength without affecting the metallurgy of the core and other parts of the component that don’t require change. This article provides an overview of the process and special considerations for heat treating gears. Part I covers gear materials, desired microsctructure, coil design and tooth-by-tooth induction hardening.

124 The Anatomy of a Micropitting-Induced Tooth Fracture Failure (June 2010)

Micropitting has become a major concern in certain classes of industrial gear applications, especially wind power and other relatively highly loaded, somewhat slow-speed applications, where carburized gears are used to facilitate maximum load capacity in a compact package. While by itself the appearance of micropitting does not generally cause much perturbation in the overall operation of a gear system, the ultimate consequences of a micropitting failure can, and frequently are, much more catastrophic.

125 Best Supporting Gears (August 2008)

No one seems to appreciate gears more than a Hollywood cinematographer.

126 Basic Gear Noise Short Course Covers Fundamentals (August 2008)

More than 1,350 engineers and technicians have attended the basic course at Ohio State's GearLab.

127 Measuring Pitch Diameter (September/October 2005)

Wait a minute, we don't measure pitch diameter. We're sometimes asked to measure it by customers, though, especially ones with older drawings.

128 Latest Generation of Quieter Plastic Gears Can Take the Heat (November/December 2005)

Ten years ago, most mainstream gear manufacturers didn't even consider plastics as an option, especially in higher power applications.

129 Guidelines for Modern Bevel Gear Grinding (August 2008)

This paper acknowledges the wide variety of manufacturing processes--especially in grinding--utlized in the production of bevel gears...

130 Viewpoint (March/April 1985)

The cost of teaching salesmen the ins and outs of gearing has proven to be expensive. Your journal is Just what we have been looking for. We found your article on lubrication analysis on gearing very interesting. More on the basics and more on lubrication would be appreciated.

131 Conversation with Joe Franklin, AGMA President (September/October 2004)

Gear Technology talks with AGMA's president about the association and its role in the gear industry.

132 Green Heat Treating - No Sweat (November/December 2009)

Bob McCulley of Comprehensive Heat Treat Specialists describes how even the most energy intensive industrial processes can be made "green."

133 Why Do You Read Gear Technology (September/October 2009)

A year ago, we sent out a small e-mail survey with one simple question: “Why do you read Gear Technology?” At that time, we were extremely gratified, even somewhat overwhelmed, by the enthusiastic and appreciative response of our readers, and I wrote about the survey and the results in my editorial in the September/October 2008 issue. When we sent out the survey this year with the same question, you’d think we would have been prepared for the results. We weren’t. If anything, our readers are even more appreciative than they were a year ago.

134 Bending Fatigue Tests of Helicopter Case Carburized Gears: Influence on Material, Design and Manufacturing Parameters (November/December 2009)

A single tooth bending (STB) test procedure has been developed to optimally map gear design parameters. Also, a test program on case-carburized, aerospace standard gears has been conceived and performed in order to appreciate the influence of various technological parameters on fatigue resistance and to draw the curve shape up to the gigacycle region.

135 Gleason Cutter Head Improves Tool Life and Productivity (November/December 2009)

The Pentac Plus is the latest generation of Gleason’s Pentac bevel gear cutting system. It is designed to allow much higher tool life and improved productivity, especially for cutters using multiple face blade geometry.

136 Fallen Leaves (November/December 2009)

Publisher Michael Goldstein reflects on the recent passing of several gear industry friends and associates.

137 NASA's Return to Flight (May 2007)

Gear specialists at the NASA Glenn Research facility helped determine it was safe for the space shuttle to fly again.

138 Nonstandard Tooth Proportions (June 2007)

With the right selection of nonstandard center distance and tool shifting, it may be possible to use standard tools to improve the gear set capacity with a considerable reduction in cost when compared to the use of special tools.

139 Hypoloid Gear with Small Shaft Angles and Zero-to-Large Offsets (November/December 2009)

Beveloid gears are used to accommodate a small shaft angle. The manufacturing technology used for beveloid gearing is a special setup of cylindrical gear cutting and grinding machines. A new development, the so-called Hypoloid gearing, addresses the desire of gear manufacturers for more freedoms. Hypoloid gear sets can realize shaft angles between zero and 20° and at the same time, allow a second shaft angle (or an offset) in space that provides the freedom to connect two points in space.

140 IMTS 2004 Showstoppers (advertising) (September/October 2004)

Special advertising section featuring gear industry exhibitors.

141 Gear Expo 2009 Product Preview (September/October 2009)

Sure, Gear Expo undoubtedly has a ton to offer attendees in education, research and networking alone, but what really draws the crowd in are the physical products and technology on display from exhibitors. Otherwise it would just be another technical meeting or social reception—and AGMA could save a few bucks on space to say the least.

142 The Replacements - Taking Steps to Strengthen the Future Skilled Workforce (January/February 2009)

For years, politicians, educators and business leaders have generated various ideas to revitalize U.S. manufacturing and engineering. These include manufacturing initiatives, internal training programs and an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in the classroom. The declining expertise in these fields, however, continues to be a growing problem in every facet of manufacturing and engineering.

143 Greener Gears (July/August 2004)

Companies around the world are learning to embrace the environment, and the gear industry is no exception. This special section takes a look at how some gear manufacturers are doing their part to conserve resources, preserve and protect the environment, and give back to the land. What we’ve found is that adopting environmental measures is far more than just good corporate citizenship. For many gear industry companies, good environmental practices also turn out to be good for the bottom line.

144 High Speed Steel: Different Grades for Different Requirements (September/October 2004)

Hobs, broaches, shaper cutters, shaver cutters, milling cutters, and bevel cutters used in the manufacture of gears are commonly made of high speed steel. These specialized gear cutting tools often require properties, such as toughness or manufacturability, that are difficult to achieve with carbide, despite the developments in carbide cutting tools for end mills, milling cutters, and tool inserts.

145 Showstoppers (advertising section) (July/August 2004)

This special advertising section features some of the premier gear-related exhibitors at IMTS 2004.

146 Application of the First International Calculation Method for Micropitting (May 2012)

The first edition of the international calculation method for micropitting—ISO TR 15144–1:2010—was just published last December. It is the first and only official, international calculation method established for dealing with micropitting. Years ago, AGMA published a method for the calculation of oil film thickness containing some comments about micropitting, and the German FVA published a calculation method based on intensive research results. The FVA and the AGMA methods are close to the ISO TR, but the calculation of micropitting safety factors is new.

147 Windpower 2009 Relocates in Light of Record Growth (January/February 2009)

It’s not too often a trade show so far surpasses organizers’ expectations for size that it must be relocated. This was just the dilemma the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) faced with the Windpower 2009 Conference and Exhibition, which was originally scheduled to take place in Minneapolis, but will now be held at McCormick Place, Chicago.

148 Globalization Brings AGMA, ISO Standards Closer (May/June 2004)

“The gear marketplace is a global marketplace.” Bill Bradley says it easily, with no special emphasis. The vice president of AGMA’s technical division sees the statement as an obvious fact.

149 Siemens Plant Management 101 (May 2012)

Once upon a time there was a computer. This computer served as a conduit to waste a great deal of time through social networking and online video games. Still, there was always potential to turn these rather sedentary activities into something more positive and useful to mankind. Siemens may have stumbled upon such a concept.

150 Gear Applications All the Rage at Windpower 2010 (June 2010)

Capitalizing on a burgeoning new technology where gears are of great import, the gear community gathered en masse at the American Wind Energy Association’s Windpower Expo 2010.

151 Optimizing Gear Geometry for Minimum Transmission Error, Mesh Friction Losses and Scuffing Risk Through Computer- Aided Engineering (August 2010)

Minimizing gear losses caused by churning, windage and mesh friction is important if plant operating costs and environmental impact are to be minimized. This paper concentrates on mesh friction losses and associated scuffing risk. It describes the preliminary results from using a validated, 3-D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program to optimize cylindrical gears for low friction losses without compromising transmission error (TE), noise and power density. Some case studies and generic procedures for minimizing losses are presented. Future development and further validation work is discussed.

152 Calculation of Optimum Tooth Flank Corrections for Helical Gears (September/October 1988)

The load carrying behavior of gears is strongly influenced by local stress concentrations in the tooth root and by Hertzian pressure peaks in the tooth flanks produced by geometric deviations associated with manufacturing, assembly and deformation processes. The dynamic effects within the mesh are essentially determined by the engagement shock, the parametric excitation and also by the deviant tooth geometry.

153 Fillet Geometry of Ground Gear Teeth (January/February 1989)

This article investigates fillet features consequent to tooth grinding by generating methods. Fillets resulting from tooth cutting and tooth grinding at different pressure angles and with different positions of grinding wheel are compared. Ways to improve the final fillet of the ground teeth with regard to tooth strength and noise, as well as the grinding conditions, are shown. "Undergrinding" is defined and special designs for noiseless gears are described.

154 On The Interference of Internal Gearing (July/August 1989)

Since size and efficiency are increasingly important considerations in modern machinery, the trend is gear design is to use planetary gearing instead of worm gearing and multi-stage gear boxes. Internal gearing is an important part of most of planetary gear assemblies. In external gearing, if the gears are standard (of no-modified addenda), interference rarely happens. But in an internal gearing, especially in some new types of planetary gears, such as the KHV planetary, the Y planetary, etc., (1) various types of interference may occur. Therefore, avoiding interference is of significance for the design of internal gearing.

155 Editorial (November/December 1989)

The press release on my desk this morning said, "The (precision metal working) industry cannot attract enough qualified applicants. As many as 1,500 jobs a year (in the Chicago are alone) are going unfilled." So what else is new? That's just hard proof confirming the suspicion many of us have had for some time. Some of the best, most qualified and experienced people in our shops are reaching retirement age, and there's no one around to fill their spots. And, if the situation is bad in the metal working trades in general, it's even more critical in the gearing industry. Being small and highly specialized, gear manufacturing attracts even less attention and finds recruitment harder than the other precision metal trades.

156 The Uses and Limitations of Transmission Error (July/August 1988)

The concept of "transmission error" is relatively new and stems from research work in the late 1950s by Gregory, Harris and Munro,(1) together with the need to check the accuracy of gear cutting machines. The corresponding commercial "single flank" testing equipment became available in the 1960s, but it was not until about ten years ago that it became generally used, and only recently has it been possible to test reliably at full load and full speed.

157 Contact Surface Topology of Worm Gear Teeth (March/April 1988)

Among the various types of gearing systems available to the gear application engineer is the versatile and unique worm and worm gear set. In the simpler form of a cylindrical worm meshing at 90 degree axis angle with an enveloping worm gear, it is widely used and has become a traditional form of gearing. (See Fig. 1) This is evidenced by the large number of gear shops specializing in or supplying such gear sets in unassembled form or as complete gear boxes. Special designs as well as standardized ratio sets covering wide ratio ranges and center distanced are available with many as stock catalog products.

158 Helical Gears With Circular Arc Teeth: Simulation of Conditions of Meshing and Bearing Contact (July/August 1987)

Circular arc helical gears have been proposed by Wildhaber and Novikov (Wildhaber-Novikov gears). These types of gears became very popular in the sixties, and many authors in Russia, Germany, Japan and the People's Republic of China made valuable contributions to this area. The history of their researches can be the subject of a special investigation, and the authors understand that their references cover only a very small part of the bibliography on this topic.

159 Don't Sell Us Short! (November/December 1987)

How is it that we woke up one day in the early 1980s to find that apparently American industry was suddenly inefficient, our workforce unproductive and our management inept? Almost overnight industry found its sales dropping dramatically, while for many companies foreign competition became excruciatingly intense. This sudden change in the economic climate proved fatal for many companies and has been nearly as hard on our collective morale. In a country used to winning, we began to hear ourselves talked of as losers.

160 The Seeds of Our Future Are Now Being Planted (January/February 1988)

A medieval philosopher once said that if he knew for certain the world was to end tomorrow, he would be sure to take time to plant an apple tree in his garden today. The recent events in the world financial capitals have seemed a bit like prior notice of something cataclysmic, but like the philosopher, we can still find some reasons for hope in the face of an uncertain future. The good news for our industry is that four important efforts on the part of various organizations promise to have long-term positive effects on both the gear and machine tool businesses.

161 Capital Gains, Societal Gains, or No Gains At All (March/April 1990)

Taxes may be one of the only two sure things in life, but that doesn't make them popular. Nobody is happy to pay them, and the bigger the amount due, the unhappier the taxpayer. Conversely, politicians know that coming out in favor of a tax cut is the equivalent of voting for apple pie and motherhood. It's a sure-fire success at the ballot box.

162 Growing Pains - Renewables Hang on in Turbulent Energy Market (June/July 2012)

The turbines are still spinning. They’re spinning on large wind farms in the Great Plains, offshore in the Atlantic and even underwater where strong tidal currents offer new energy solutions. These turbines spin regularly while politicians and policy makers— tied up in discussions on tax incentives, economic recovery and a lot of finger pointing—sit idle. Much like the auto and aerospace industries of years past, renewable energy is coping with its own set of growing pains. Analysts still feel confident that clean energy will play a significant role in the future of manufacturing—it’s just not going to play the role envisioned four to five years ago.

163 Investment Tax Credits - A Good Idea Whose Time Has Come (March/April 1992)

Of timing is crucial in the successful implementation of good ideas, then now is the time to reinstate a good idea that fell into disfavor in the mid-1980s. Now is the time to include the investment tax credit as part of whatever inevitable tax structure tinkering is going to take place during this election year.

164 A Hidden Treasure (March/April 1992)

At the next meeting of your association's marketing committee, notice what happens. The rate of taking notes increases dramatically when the market analysis and international trade trends reports begin. Even with the handouts to match the overhead projections of numbers, the audience's pace is furious. This is vital, apparently hard-to-come-by information, and no one wants to miss out. Almost all of the information comes from one source, yet the data offered is only one small dip from an enormous treasure chest - the U.S. Government.

165 Grinding of Spur and Helical Gears (July/August 1992)

Grinding is a technique of finish-machining, utilizing an abrasive wheel. The rotating abrasive wheel, which id generally of special shape or form, when made to bear against a cylindrical shaped workpiece, under a set of specific geometrical relationships, will produce a precision spur or helical gear. In most instances the workpiece will already have gear teeth cut on it by a primary process, such as hobbing or shaping. There are essentially two techniques for grinding gears: form and generation. The basic principles of these techniques, with their advantages and disadvantages, are presented in this section.

166 Looking To The Future - Part II (November/December 1990)

Beginning with our next issue, some of the promised changes in format for Gear Technology will begin showing up in these pages. As part of our commitment to provide you with important information about the gear and gear products industry, we are expanding our coverage. In addition to continuing to publish some of the best results of gear research and development throughout the world, we will be adding special columns covering vital aspects of the gearing business.

167 Approximating an Involute Tooth Profile (September/October 1990)

On many occasions a reasonably approximate, but not exact, representation of an involute tooth profile is required. Applications include making drawings, especially at enlarged scale, and laser or EDM cutting of gears, molds, and dies used to produce gears. When numerical control (NC) techniques are to be used, a simple way to model an involute can make the NC programming task much easier.

168 Comparative Load Capacity Evaluation of CBN-Finished Gears (May/June 1990)

Cubic boron nitride (CBN) finishing of carburized gearing has been shown to have certain economic and geometric advantages and, as a result, it has been applied to a wide variety of precision gears in many different applications. In critical applications such as aerospace drive systems, however, any new process must be carefully evaluated before it is used in a production application. Because of the advantages associated with this process, a test program was instituted to evaluate the load capacity of aerospace-quality gears finished by the CBN process as compared to geometrically identical gears finished by conventional grinding processes. This article presents a brief description of the CBN process, its advantages in an aerospace application, and the results of an extensive test program conducted by Boeing Helicopters (BH) aimed at an evaluation of the effects of this process on the scoring, surface durability, and bending fatigue properties of spur gears. In addition, the results of an x-ray diffraction study to determine the surface and subsurface residual stress distributions of both shot-peened and nonshot-peened CBN-ground gears as compared to similar conventionally ground gears are also presented.

169 IMTS 1990 Coming To Chicago (July/August 1990)

IMTS-90 - the Western Hemisphere's largest trade show - is coming to Chicago September 5 -13, 1990. The event, sponsored by NMTBA - The Association For Manufacturing Technology - will be held at the McCormick Place Complex. Over 1200 exhibitors will display their products at this event.

170 Of Trees, Whales & Practicality (July/August 1990)

One of the hot items on the public agenda these days is "The Environment." Suddenly everyone wants to save the whales and the rain forest. Politicians, rock stars, and big business have all discovered that you can't get anything but good press for saying that you're in favor of trees and marine mammals.

171 Gear Roll-Finishing (May/June 1987)

In this discussion of gear roll-finishing particular attention is called to the special tooth nomenclature resulting from the interaction between the rolling die teeth and the gear teeth. To eliminate confusion the side of a gear tooth that is in contact with the "approach" side of a rolling die tooth is also considered to be the approach side. The same holds true for the "trail" side. Thus, the side of the gear tooth that is in contact with the trail side of a rolling die is also considered to be the trail side.

172 Checking Large Gears (March/April 1987)

Gear manufacturing schedules that provide both quality and economy are dependent on efficient quality control techniques with reliable measuring equipment. Given the multitude of possible gear deviations, which can be found only by systematic and detailed measuring of the gear teeth, adequate quality control systems are needed. This is especially true for large gears, on which remachining or rejected workpieces create very high costs. First, observation of the gears allows adjustment of the settings on the equipment right at the beginning of the process and helps to avoid unproductive working cycles. Second, the knowledge of deviations produced on the workpiece helps disclose chance inadequacies on the production side: e.g., faults in the machines and tools used, and provides an opportunity to remedy them.

173 Showstoppers (September 2011)

Our special Gear Expo advertising section.

174 2011 AGMA Fall Technical Meeting (September 2011)

The AGMA Fall Technical Meeting provides an opportunity to share ideas with others on the design, analysis, manufacturing and application of gears, gear drives, and related products, as well as associated processes and procedures.

175 Gear Expo 2011 - Show Stoppers (October 2011)

Our special advertising section brings you the highlights of Gear Expo 2011.

176 Perhaps When You Need It Most (September 2011)

Gear Expo 2011 may well be a special event. Interviews with show organizers.

177 Gear Expo 2011 Classifieds (September 2011)

A special edition of Help Wanted classified ads takes over the publisher's page.

178 Zerol Bevel Gears: Tribology Aspects in Angular Transmission Systems, Part III (November/December 2010)

Zerol bevel gears are the special case of spiral bevel gears with a spiral angle of 0°. They are manufactured in a single-indexing face milling process with large cutter diameters, an extra deep tooth profile and tapered tooth depth.

179 Gear Measuring Machine by NDG Method for Gears Ranging from Miniature to Super-Large (March/April 2011)

A new inspection method has several advantages over traditional methods, especially for very large or very small gears.

180 No Shortage of New Technology at EMO Hannover (August 2011)

Metalworking technology specialists will be front and center for six days at EMO Hannover 2011 (September 19–24). More than 2,000 companies from 38 countries will be on-hand to show off products and services, spotlighting their performance capabilities.

181 Manufacturers Guide to Heat Treating Large Gears (March/April 2012)

The large gears found in mining, steel, construction, off-road, marine and energy applications—massive and robust in nature—need to tackle the greatest production demands. This, in turn, means that a special emphasis must be put on the heat treating methods used to increase the wear resistance and strength properties of gears this size.

182 Guest Editorial (May/June 1984)

At a time when there are many pressures on the Gear Industry and its representative Association, the American Gear Manufacturers Association, it seems particularly appropriate that Gear Technology - The Journal of Gear Manufacturing appears. AGMA is particularly pleased to have the opportunity to write the first editorial for this magazine.

183 Gear Noise and the Sideband Phenomenon (January/February 1987)

Gear noise can be a source of intense annoyance. It is often the primary source of annoyance even when it is not the loudest noise component. This is because of the way it is perceived. Gear noise is a collection of pure tones which the human ear can detect even when they are 10dB lower than the overall noise level. Another reason for our sensitivity to transmission noise is that we associate it with impending mechanical failure.

184 Stopping the Great American Giveaway (January/February 1987)

Inviting an American shipbuilding industry official to discuss the subject of meeting foreign competition is like inviting Jackie Gleason to speak on dieting. I am painfully aware of the commercial shipbuilding industry situation. Let me tell you a little about it.

185 Industry Shows Shift Emphasis (January/February 1987)

A change has taken place within the industry that is going to have an enormous effect on the marketing, sales, and purchasing of gear manufacturing and related equipment. This change was the American Gear Manufacturers' Association, first biennial combination technical conference and machine tool minishow.

186 The Competitive Edge (November/December 1986)

Now that the new tax bill has been passed, the time has come to begin evaluating how it will affect investment strategies in the machine tool business. Your first reaction may be to think that any motivation to invest in capital improvements in your company is gone, because both the investment tax credit and the accelerated depreciation on capital investment have been removed from the tax law. After all, if Uncle Sam is not going to help us out through some short term tax gains, why should we bother? Can we afford to bother?

187 Curvic Coupling Design (November/December 1986)

Curvic Couplings were first introduced in 1942 to meet the need for permanent couplings and releasing couplings (clutches), requiring extreme accuracy and maximum load carrying capacity, together with a fast rate of production. The development of the Curvic Coupling stems directly from the manufacture of Zerol and spiral bevel gears since it is made on basically similar machines and also uses similar production methods. The Curvic Coupling can therefore lay claim to the same production advantages and high precision associated with bevel gears.

188 Maximum Surface Temperature of the Thermoplastic Gear in a Non-Lubricated Plastic-Steel Gear Pair (August/September 1984)

One of the major problems of plastic gear design is the knowledge of their running temperature. Of special interest is the bulk temperature of the tooth to predict the fatigue life, and the peak temperature on the surface of the tooth to avert surface failure. This paper presents the results of an experimental method that uses an infrared radiometer to measure the temperature variation along the profile of a plastic gear tooth in operation. Measurements are made on 5.08, 3.17, 2.54, 2.12 mm module hob cut gears made from nylon 6-6, acetal and UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene). All the tests are made on a four square testing rig with thermoplastic/steel gear pairs where the plastic gear is the driver. Maximum temperature prediction curves obtained through statistical analysis of the results are presented and compared to data available from literature.

189 Mechanical Efficiency of Diffential Gearing (July/August 1986)

Mechanical efficiency is an important index of gearing, especially for epicyclic gearing. Because of its compact size, light weight, the capability of a high speed ratio, and the ability to provide differential action, epicyclic gearing is very versatile, and its use is increasing. However, attention should be paid to efficiency not only to save energy, but sometimes also to make the transmission run smoothly or to avoid a self-locking condition.

190 Editorial (September/October 1986)

"It's show time!" Ready or not, on Sept 3, the biennial International Machine Tool Show opens at McCormick Place, Chicago. Planning a show that encompasses displays from over 1000 companies from 29 nations and an associated technical conference presenting more than 200 papers on 50 topics has not been without its problems.

191 Hiring & Firing the Older Employee (January/February 1993)

Given the current economic and legal climate, matters of hiring and firing are cause for considerable concern among managers. In addition to all the other factors to be considered, employers must be wary of exactly how these procedures should be carried out, so that the company is not left open to lawsuits based on charges of discrimination of one kind or another. The reasons given for a particular employment decision may be as crucial to determining liability as the decision itself.

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