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Some gear-related highlights from the recent EMO show in Hannover, Germany.
Metalworking technology specialists will be front and center for six days at EMO Hannover 2011 (September 19–24). More than 2,000 companies from 38 countries will be on-hand to show off products and services, spotlighting their performance capabilities.
EMO 2007, September 17-22 at the Hannover Fairgrounds in Hannover, Germany.
A reflection by Michael Goldstein, Publisher & Editor-in-Chief.
Dollhouses may be toys for children, but an old-time working miniature machine shop is the ultimate toy for a self-proclaimed hobby machinist like Greg Bierck.
Loyal Gear Technology reader and Interstate Castings vice president Greg Bierck came across “High Gear” at a vintage toy store in Indianapolis, IN.
It is with regret we report that Donald R. McVittie passed away January 20, 2008.
Rolled out at EMO 2007, the Scudding process is a continuous cutting operation that uses a tool design similar to a helical shaper cutter. It can be used for a wide range of gear applications...
The complete Events section from July/August 2005, including coverage of EMO 2005.
I lost a good friend in October—one that many of you might know. Carlo Costi of Sogimex S.A.S. in Caponago (Milano), Italy, came out of the EMO show in Milan on October 28, caught a taxi and called his wife, Mariella, to tell her that he wasn’t feeling well. He died—in the taxi—on the phone—talking to his wife. He was 60 years old.
Advance coverage of EMO Milan 2009, plus our technical calendar.
This article summarizes the development of an improved titanium nitride (TiN) recoating process, which has, when compared to conventional recoat methods, demonstrated tool life increases of up to three times in performance testing of hobs and shaper cutters. This new coating process, called Super TiN, surpasses the performance of standard TiN recoating for machining gear components. Super TiN incorporates stripping, surface preparation, smooth coating techniques and polishing before and after recoating. The combination of these improvements to the recoating process is the key to its performance.
We are all looking for ways to increase production without sacrificing quality. One of the most cost-effective ways is by improving the substrate material of your hob. Solid carbide hobs are widely used in many applications throughout the world. LMT-Fette was the first to demonstrate the use of solid carbide hobs in 1993 on modern high-speed carbide (HSC) hobbing machines. Since then the process of dry hobbing has been continuously improving through research and product testing. Dry hobbing is proving to be successful in the gear cutting industry as sales for dry hobbing machines have steadily been rising along with the dramatic increase in sales of solid carbide hobs.
I sat down to write this editorial about my father, Harold Goldstein, as he approached his 80th birthday in October. I had meant it to be a celebration of his nearly 65 years in the machine tool business. Unfortunately, on August 26, as I was working on it, my father passed away after a long battle with emphysema. This editorial has now become a memorial as well as a celebration.
Rotary gear honing is a crossed-axis, fine, hard finishing process that uses pressure and abrasive honing tools to remove material along the tooth flanks in order to improve the surface finish (.1-.3 um or 4-12u"Ra), to remove nicks and burrs and to change or correct the tooth geometry. Ultimately, the end results are quieter, stronger and longer lasting gears.
Broaching is a process in which a cutting tool passes over or through a part piece to produce a desired form. A broach removes part material with a series of teeth, each one removing a specified amount of stock.
For environmental and economic reasons, the use of coolant in machining processes is increasingly being questioned. Rising coolant prices and disposal costs, as well as strains on workers and the environment, have fueled the debate. The use of coolant has given rise to a highly technical system for handling coolant in the machine (cooling, filtering) and protecting the environment (filter, oil-mist collector). In this area the latest cutting materials - used with or without coolant - have great potential for making the metal-removal process more economical. The natural progression to completely dry machining has decisive advantages for hobbing.
Many people in the gear industry have heard of skiving, a process wherein solid carbide or inserted carbide blade hobs with 15 - 60 degrees of negative rake are used to recut gears to 62 Rc. The topic of this article is the use of neutral (zero) rake solid carbide hobs to remove heat treat distortion, achieving accuracies of AGMA 8 to AGMA 14, DIN 10-5 and improving surface finish on gears from 8 DP - 96 DP (.3 module - .26 m.).
Gear noise associated with tooth surface topography is a fundamental problem in many applications. Operations such as shaving, gear grinding and gear honing are usually used to finish the gear surface. Often, gears have to be treated by a combination of these operations, e.g. grinding and honing. This is because gear honing operations do not remove enough stock although they do create a surface lay favorable for quiet operation. See Fig. 1 for typical honing process characteristics. Gear grinding processes, on the other hand, do remove stock efficiently but create a noisy surface lay.
Precise heat treatment plays an essential role in the production of quality carburized gears. Seemingly minor changes in the heat treating process can have significant effects on the quality, expense and production time of a gear, as we will demonstrate using a case study from one of our customer's gears.
New Faces, Corporate Doin's, In Memoriam
The cutting tool is basic to gear manufacturing. Whether it's a hob, broach, shaper cutter or EDM wire, not much gets done without it. And the mission of the tool remains the same as always; removing material as quickly, accurately and cost-effectively as possible. Progress in the field tends to be evolutionary, coming gradually over time, but recently, a confluence of emerging technologies and new customer demands has caused significant changes in the machines, the materials and the coatings that make cutting tools.
The configuration of flank corrections on bevel gears is subject to relatively narrow restrictions. As far as the gear set is concerned, the requirement is for the greatest possible contact zone to minimize flank compression. However, sufficient reserves in tooth depth and longitudinal direction for tooth contact displacement should be present. From the machine - and particularly from the tool - point of view, there are restrictions as to the type and magnitude of crowning that can be realized. Crowning is a circular correction. Different kinds of crowning are distinguished by their direction. Length crowning, for example, is a circular (or 2nd order) material removal, starting at a reference point and extending in tooth length or face width.
Carbon steels have primarily been used to manufacture aerospace gears due to the steels' mechanical characteristics. An alloyed low carbon steel is easily case-hardened to obtain a hard wear surface while maintaining the ductile core characteristics. The microstructure achieved will accept the heavy loading, shocks, and elevated temperatures that gears typically experience in applications. The carbon steel machinability allows for general machining practices to be employed when producing aerospace gears versus the more advanced metal removal processes required by stainless and nickel-based alloys.
Traditionally, high-quality gears are cut to shape from forged blanks. Great accuracy can be obtained through shaving and grinding of tooth forms, enhancing the power capacity, life and quietness of geared power transmissions. In the 1950s, a process was developed for forging gears with teeth that requires little or no metal to be removed to achieve final geometry. The initial process development was undertaken in Germany for the manufacture of bevel gears for automobile differentials and was stimulated by the lack of available gear cutting equipment at that time. Later attention has turned to the forging of spur and helical gears, which are more difficult to form due to the radial disposition of their teeth compared with bevel gears. The main driver of these developments, in common with most component manufacturing, is cost. Forming gears rather than cutting them results in increased yield from raw material and also can increase productivity. Forging gears is therefore of greater advantage for large batch quantities, such as required by the automotive industry.
In order to increase the load carrying capacity of hardened gears, the distortion of gear teeth caused by quenching must be removed by precision cutting (skiving) and/or grinding. In the case of large gears with large modules, skiving by a carbide hob is more economical than grinding when the highest accuracy is not required.
In the past, the blades of universal face hobbing cutters had to be resharpened on three faces. Those three faces formed the active part of the blade. In face hobbing, the effective cutting direction changes dramatically with respect to the shank of the blade. Depending on the individual ratio, it was found that optimal conditions for the chip removal action (side rake, side relief and hook angle) could just be established by adjusting all major parameters independently. This, in turn, results automatically in the need for the grinding or resharpening of the front face and the two relief surfaces in order to control side rake, hook angle and the relief and the relief angles of the cutting and clearance side.
Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process also improves tooth surface finish and eliminates by means of crowned tooth forms the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service.
Does anyone know where we can find a gear-shaped fruitcake? It's the holiday season again, and the Addendum staff has many friends. We'd like to get each of them the perfect holiday gift, something the demonstrates thought, caring and good will. Of course, we're looking for gifts with meaning, and for us, that can only mean gears.
The Shaping Process - A Quick Review of the Working Principle. In the shaping process, cutter and workpiece represent a drive with parallel axes rotating in mesh (generating motion) according to the number of teeth in both cutter and workpiece (Fig. 1), while the cutter reciprocates for the metal removal action (cutting motion).
Normandy overwhelmed me when I first went there several years ago. I was sobered by the sea of white crosses in the cemeteries, I was inspired by the memorials and their tales of courageous soldiers battling impossible odds, and I was horrified by the visions of carnage that came to me as I stood on the scarred beaches of one of the most significant conflicts in human history.
For eight days every other year, the sponsor of the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS), the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT), strives to turn Chicago's McCormick Place into a "productivity marketplace," the largest and most completer display and demonstration of manufacturing technology ever seen in the Americas. If the growth of the show is any indicator, that effort has been very successful indeed. With over 1.4 million square feet of exhibit space taking up all five levels and all three exhibit halls of McCormick Place, each level would rank as one of the nation's 200 largest trade shows. That wasn't always the size or scope of the show. Its inception, while impressive for the time, was humble by today's standards.
This report presents some interim results from an ongoing project being performed by INFAC, the Instrumented Factory for Gears. The purposes of this initial phase of the project were to demonstrate the feasibility of robotic automated deburring of aerospace gears, and to develop a research agenda for future work in that area.
Rodgers and Hammerstein produced some of America's most memorable and lasting songs in musical theater. Lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II once said of composer Richard Rodgers, "I hand him a lyric and get out of his way," Hammerstein knew what Rodgers was good at, and vice versa, and each trusted his partner. Their partnership was so successful that you can scarcely think of one man without the other.
It's nice to have claim to fame. "We're probably the world's foremost authority on making gears out of ice," says Jeff Root of Virtual Engineering, Plymouth, MI.
The merits of CBN physical characteristics over conventional aluminum oxide abrasives in grinding performance are reviewed. Improved surface integrity and consistency in drive train products can be achieved by the high removal rate of the CBN grinding process. The influence of CBN wheel surface conditioning procedure on grinding performance is also discussed.
One of the most effective methods in solving the edge loading problem due to excess misalignment and deflection in aerospace actuation gearing is to localize tooth-bearing contact by crowning the teeth. Irrespective of the applied load, if the misalignment and/or deflection are large enough to cause the contact area to reduce to zero, the stress becomes large enough to cause failure. The edge loading could cause the teeth to break or pit, but too much crowning may also cause the teeth to pit due to concentrated loading. In this paper, a proposed method to localize the contact bearing area and calculate the contact stress with crowning is presented and demonstrated on some real-life examples in aerospace actuation systems.
Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process can also improve tooth surface finish and eliminate, by crowned tooth forms, the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service. Shaving provides for form modifications that reduce gear noise. These modifications can also increase the gear's load carrying capacity, its factor of safety and its service life.
Gear shaving is a free cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.
This article describes some of the most important tests for prototypes conducted at Winergy AG during the product development process. It will demonstrate that the measurement results on the test rig for load distribution are in accordance with the turbine measurements.
Getting rid of personal mementos is an arduous housekeeping ritual for some of us; every last gear has a memory. One man’s trash is another man’s gold, after all, or in some cases, one failed business is a forgotten piece of personal and mechanical genealogy. Such is the case of the Hill-Climber chainless bicycle, the remains of which were pulled from a family junk pile after nearly half a century.
This paper will demonstrate that, unlike commonly used low-contact-ratio spur gears, high-contact-ratio spur gears can provide higher power-to-weight ratio, and can also achieve smoother running with lower transmission error (TE) variations.
This paper will present data from both laboratory and field testing demonstrating that superfinished components exhibit lower friction, operating temperature, wear and/ or higher horsepower, all of which translate directly into increased fuel economy.
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that transmission gears of rotary-wing aircraft, which are typically scrapped due to minor foreign object damage (FOD) and grey staining, can be repaired and re-used with signifi cant cost avoidance. The isotropic superfinishing (ISF) process is used to repair the gear by removing surface damage. It has been demonstrated in this project that this surface damage can be removed while maintaining OEM specifications on gear size, geometry and metallurgy. Further, scrap CH-46 mix box spur pinions, repaired by the ISF process, were subjected to gear tooth strength and durability testing, and their performance compared with or exceeded that of new spur pinions procured from an approved Navy vendor. This clearly demonstrates the feasibility of the repair and re-use of precision transmission gears.
This article describes a new technique for the size determination of external Involute splines by using a span measuring method. It provides application performance information demonstrating how this method and its measurements correlate with the traditional spline ring gage sizing method.
It may not be widely recognized that most of the inspection data supplied by inspection equipment, following the practices of AGMA Standard 2015 and similar standards, are not of elemental accuracy deviations but of some form of composite deviations. This paper demonstrates the validity of this “composite” label by first defining the nature of a true elemental deviation and then, by referring to earlier literature, demonstrating how the common inspection practices for involute, lead (on helical gears), pitch, and, in some cases, total accumulated pitch, constitute composite measurements.
I came back from Gear Expo in a pretty good mood, and judging by the smiles on the faces of exhibitors I saw, I'm not alone. In fact, the mood at Gear Expo 2011 was the best I've seen in recent memory.
A recent U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command project, conducted by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories. successfully developed the methodology of CAD/CAM procedures for manufacturing dies (via EDM) for forging spiral bevel gears. Further, it demonstrated that precision forging of spiral bevel gears is a practical production technique. Although no detailed economic evaluation was made in this study, it is expected that precision forging offers an attractive alternative to the costly gear cutting operations for producing spiral bevel gears.
Pride. Awe. Relief. Admiration. These were some of the emotions with which I, like most Americans, greeted the end of the Persian Gulf War. I was proud of our country for saying it would do a job and then doing it with a minimum of loss and a maximum of effectiveness; I was awed by the terrifying efficiency of our weapons and relieved that our casualties were so light; and I was filled with admiration at the skill with which one of the most complex logistical military operations of the century was carried out.
Question: When evaluating charts from a gear inspection machine, it is sometimes found that the full length of the profile traces vary, and that sometimes they are less than the length of active profile (above start of active profile-SAP) by up to 20%. This condition could be caused by a concentricity error between tooth grinding and shaping, or by unequal stock removal when grinding. (See Fig. 1.) Is it possible that some of the variation is coming from the inspection machine? How can variation from the inspection machine be reduced?
The term "blanking" refers to the initial metal cutting operations in the process planning sequence which produce the contour of a part starting from rough material. The scope of blanking is: To remove the excess material To machine the part to print specifications, except for those surfaces with subsequent finishing operations. To leave adequate machining stock for finishing operations. To prepare good quality surfaces for location and clamping of the part throughout the process.
"Opportunity is the start of great enterprises." said the Greet statesman Demosthenes, and what was true 2300 years ago is no less true now. Plenty of opportunities which can grow into great - and successful - enterprises are waiting for us right now if we only have the foresight to take advantage of them.
Hard Gear Finishing (HGF), a relatively new technology, represents an advance in gear process engineering. The use of Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) equipment ensures a high precision synchronous relationship between the tool spindle and the work spindle as well as other motions, thereby eliminating the need for gear trains. A hard gear finishing machine eliminates problems encountered in two conventional methods - gear shaving, which cannot completely correct gear errors in gear teeth, and gear rolling, which lacks the ability to remove stock and also drives the workpiece without a geared relationship to the master rolling gear. Such a machine provides greater accuracy, reducing the need for conventional gear crowning, which results in gears of greater face width than necessary.
Rotary gear honing is a hard gear finishing process that was developed to improve the sound characteristics of hardened gears by: Removing nicks and burrs; improving surface finish; and making minor corrections in tooth irregularities caused by heat-treat distortion.
Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.
It has previously been demonstrated that one gear of an interchangeable series will rotate with another gear of the same series with proper tooth action. It is, therefore, evident that a tooth curve driven in unison with a mating blank, will "generate" in the latter the proper tooth curve to mesh with itself.
Now that the new tax bill has been passed, the time has come to begin evaluating how it will affect investment strategies in the machine tool business. Your first reaction may be to think that any motivation to invest in capital improvements in your company is gone, because both the investment tax credit and the accelerated depreciation on capital investment have been removed from the tax law. After all, if Uncle Sam is not going to help us out through some short term tax gains, why should we bother? Can we afford to bother?
The forming of gear teeth has traditionally been a time-consuming heavy stock removal operation in which close tooth size, shape, runout and spacing accuracy are required. This is true whether the teeth are finished by a second forming operation or a shaving operation.
It always strikes me as something of an irony that the brightest holidays of the year fall in the deepest part of the darkest season. They come when the days are the shortest, the clouds the thickest, the weather (at least in Chicago), the worst. And yet it is at precisely this time when we celebrate the happier human emotions of family, love, and charity and somewhat arbitrarily declare a "new" year.
News Items About EMO
1 Machine Tools Matter at EMO (May 10, 2013)
From September 16 to September 21, 2013, this year’s EMO Hannover will be opening its doors. At the wor... Read News
2 LMT Presents New Technologies at Emo Hannover (August 22, 2011)
The LMT Group will be presenting a large number of technological innovations at this year's EMO fair. SpeedCore is a new generation h... Read News
3 Seco to Demonstrate Tooling Solutions at AeroDef (March 16, 2011)
Seco Tools will be demonstrating a comprehensive range of tooling solutions for aerospace and defense applications at AeroDef Manufacturi... Read News
4 EMAG to Highlight New Technology at EMO Hannover (August 8, 2011)
The EMAG Group is spreading its products over three booths, demonstrating their whole range of multifunctional, future-orientated machini... Read News
5 Romi to Demonstrate Vertical Machining Center at IMTS (August 20, 2010)
Romi Machine Tools Ltd., a manufacturer of CNC Lathes, Production Turning Centers and Machining Centers, will have a D800AP Vertical Mach... Read News
6 Sunnen Plans Match Honing Demonstrations at IMTS (July 8, 2010)
Sunnen's new match honing process produces bore specifications to match the measured size of individual pins, plungers or pistons tha... Read News
7 ECM Commemorates 10 Years in United States (December 19, 2007)
ECM, a manufacturer of vacuum carburizing furnaces, recently announced its ten-year anniversary in the United States. The U.S. headquarte... Read News
8 Addition of Robot Blasting Cell Enables Shot Peening Demonstration (April 23, 2009)
Guyson Corporation expanded its engineering test laboratory with the purchase of a robotic blast system to sustain application developmen... Read News
9 Brevini Holds Topping Off Ceremony (December 3, 2009)
Local Indiana state and federal officials along with Brevini Group president Renato Brevini and others gathered for a topping off ceremon... Read News
10 GF AgieCharmilles Demonstrates New Technologies at EMO Hannover (August 25, 2011)
GF AgieCharmilles’ machines, automation solutions and services will be showcased in a brand new booth designed specifically to a... Read News
11 Sunnen to Demonstrate HTA Hone at Westec (January 11, 2012)
At Westec, Sunnen Products will demonstrate its new all-electric HTA hone, bringing increased part capacity and stroker torque for bore r... Read News
12 EMO Hannover to Showcase Tool Innovations (February 21, 2013)
At the 10th Tool Conference in Schmalkalden, the manufacturers and users of metal-cutting tools were not indifferent to the controversial... Read News
13 ANCA to Demonstrate CNC Tool and Cutter Grinder (March 25, 2013)
The new, affordable ANCA MX5 CNC tool and cutter grinder will be demonstrated at EASTEC Booth 1152. Designed with the volume end-mill pro... Read News
14 Gleason Demonstrates Gear Measurement Technology at Control 2013 (May 10, 2013)
Gleason Metrology Systems will demonstrate their latest advances in gear measurement technology at Control 2013, May 14-17 in Stuttgart, ... Read News
15 Hardinge Demonstrates Super-Precision Turning with Automation (December 17, 2012)
Hardinge Inc. an international provider of advanced metal-cutting solutions, demonstrates automated production of hydraulic spool valve h... Read News
16 In Memoriam: Richard E. Breidenstein (May 10, 2012)
Dennis Richmond, vice president at Reishauer, recently commented on the passing of Richard E. Breidenstein: "The gear manufacturing ... Read News
17 Ontario Drive and Gear Signs Memorandum with Textron Systems (March 27, 2012)
Textron Systems Canada Inc. recently announced that the company has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Ontario Drive an... Read News
18 MAG's T-Rex Spindle Produces Extreme Metal Removal Rates (April 27, 2012)
MAG's new high-torque T-Rex spindle, available on four-axis HMC 1250/1600 machines, can deliver up to 2,600 Nm (1,918 lb-ft) torque i... Read News
19 Jenoptik Wavemore System Offers High-Accuracy Measurement (May 1, 2012)
The new Jenoptik Wavemove automated surface roughness and contour measuring system includes up to seven CNC axes for complete high-accura... Read News
20 ZF Services Honors Employees in Special Ceremony (December 13, 2011)
26 ZF Services employees at the Schweinfurt location as well as two employees from Bremen can look back on a total of 530 years of comp... Read News