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Articles About Heat Treating

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1 ASM Heat Treating Show (October 2011)

Map and listings to the ASM Heat Treating Society Conference and Exposition, which is co-located with this year's Gear Expo.

2 Gear Heat Treating in the 90s: Beyond Black Magic (March/April 1995)

Heat Treating - The evil twin of the gear processing family. Heat treating and post-heat treating corrective processes can run up to 50% or more of the total gear manufacturing cost, so it's easy to see why, in these days when "lean and mean" production is the rage, and every part of the manufacturing process is under intense scrutiny, some of the harshest light falls on heat treating.

3 Heat Treating Equipment Selection (March/April 1995)

For heat treatment of tool and alloy steels, the end-user has a wide range of basic types of heat treating equipment to choose from. This article reviews them and details the criteria that must be considered in selecting equipment for a specific application. In making this choice, the most important criterion must be the quality of the tool or part after processing.

4 Hot Stuff - Heat Treating News (March/April 2005)

The latest heat treating news from March/April 2005

5 Gear Heat Treating by Induction (March/April 2000)

The induction hardening and tempering of gears and critical components is traditionally a hot subject in heat treating. In recent years, gear manufacturers have increased their knowledge in this technology for quality gears.

6 Induction Heat Treating Gains Ground through Advances in Technology (March/April 2011)

In recent years, there has been significant interest in expanding the use of induction hardening in gear manufacturing operations. Over the past several years, many of the limits to induction hardening have shrunk, thanks to recent advances in technology, materials and processing techniques.

7 Green Heat Treating - No Sweat (November/December 2009)

Bob McCulley of Comprehensive Heat Treat Specialists describes how even the most energy intensive industrial processes can be made "green."

8 Heat Treating Buyers Guide 1998 (March/April 1998)

Gear Technology's directory of heat treating suppliers for the gear industry.

9 Manufacturers Guide to Heat Treating Large Gears (March/April 2012)

The large gears found in mining, steel, construction, off-road, marine and energy applications—massive and robust in nature—need to tackle the greatest production demands. This, in turn, means that a special emphasis must be put on the heat treating methods used to increase the wear resistance and strength properties of gears this size.

10 INFAC Reports on Recent Hobbing and Heat Treating Experiments (July/August 1995)

Chicago- Results of recent studies on residual stress in gear hobbing, hobbing without lubricants and heat treating were reported by representatives of INFAC (Instrumented Factory for Gears) at an industry briefing in March of this year.

11 Distortion Control by Innovative Heat Treating Technologies in the Automotive Industry (August 2008)

The proper control of distortion after thermal treatment of powertrain components in the automotive industry is an important measure in ensuring high-quality parts and minimizing subsequent hard machining processes in order to reduce overall production costs.

12 Hot Stuff - Heat Treating News (March/April 2004)

News from around the world about heat treating.

13 Minimizing Gear Distortion During Heat Treating (March/April 1996)

Graded hardening technology has proven over the years to yield very good results when used in the heat treating of carburized gears. It is especially advantageous for smaller companies, subject to higher competitive pressures. Unfortunately, despite the fact that graded hardening is a very well-known method, its use has been limited. We strongly recommend this technology to all of those who need to produce gears with high metallurgical quality.

14 A New Approach to Heat Treating Parts Washing (March/April 1999)

New innovations in the management of hear treating parts washers and yielding powerful, unexpected benefits. Simply, cost effective shop floor practices are being combined in new ways to deliver big quality improvements and significant help to the bottom line. Employing these steps early in the process can dramatically cut waste hauling expenses and greatly reduce environmental liabilities while continuously producing cleaner parts.

15 Heat Treating Challenges for the Future (March/April 1996)

The heat treating of gears presents a difficult challenge to both the heat treater and the gear manufacturer. The number and variety of variables involved in the manufacturing process itself and the subsequent heat treating cycle create a complex matrix of factors which need to be controlled in order to produce a quality product. A heat treater specializing in gears or a gear manufacturer doing his own heat treating must have a clear understanding of these issues in order to deliver a quality product and make a profit at the same time. The situation also presents a number of areas that could benefit greatly from continued research and development.

16 ASM Bringing the Heat to Gear Expo (July 2009)

Gear making and heat treating pair together like a fine cabernet and filet mignon. Now for the first time, the two industries are embracing this symbiotic relationship by co-locating their industry events this fall in Indianapolis. ASM International’s 2009 Heat Treating Society Conference and Exposition and Gear Technology’s favorite trade show, Gear Expo, are teaming up September 14–17 at the Indiana Convention Center in Indianapolis.

17 Wear Resistance of Plasma and Pulse Plasma Nitrided Gears (March/April 2003)

In this study, wear behavior of plasma and pulse plasma nitrided gears, made from 42CrMo4 steel, was evaluated under a lubricated sliding and pitting regime.

18 Case Depth and Load Capacity of Case-Carburized Gears (March/April 2002)

Compared to non-heat-treated components, case-carburized gears are characterized by a modified strength profile in the case-hardened layer. The design of case-carburized gears is based on defined allowable stress numbers. These allowable stress numbers are valid only for a defined "optimum" case depth. Adequate heat treatment and optimum case depth guarantee maximum strength of tooth flank and tooth root.

19 Carburizing of Big Module and Large Diameter Gears (September/October 2002)

Carburized gears have higher strengths and longer lives compared with induction-hardened or quench-tempered gears. But in big module gears, carburizing heat-treatment becomes time-consuming and expensive and sometimes cannot achieve good hardness due to the big mass-effect. Also, it is not easy to reduce distortion of gears during heat treatment.

20 Predicting the Heat-Treat Response of a Carburized Helical Gear (November/December 2002)

Using the DANTE software, a finite element simulation was developed and executed to study the response of a carburized 5120 steel helical gear to quenching in molten salt. The computer simulation included heat-up, carburization, transfer and immersion in a molten salt bath, quenching, and air cooling. The results of the simulation included carbon distribution of phases, dimensional change, hardness, and residual stress throughout the process. The predicted results were compared against measured results for hardness, dimensions and residual stress. The excellent agreement between predictions and measured values for this carburized 5120 steel gear provides a basis for assessing the various process parameters and their respective importance in the characteristics of not only these heat-treated parts, but of other compositions and shapes.

21 Metallurgical Aspects to be Considered in Gear and Shaft Design (March/April 1999)

In his Handbook of Gear Design (Ref.1), Dudley states (or understates): "The best gear people around the world are now coming to realize that metallurgical quality is just as important as geometric quality." Geometric accuracy without metallurgical integrity in any highly stressed gear or shaft would only result in wasted effort for all concerned - the gear designer, the manufacturer, and the customer - as the component's life cycle would be prematurely cut short. A carburized automotive gear or shaft with the wrong surface hardness, case depth or core hardness may not even complete its basic warranty period before failing totally at considerable expense and loss of prestige for the producer and the customer. The unexpected early failure of a large industrial gear or shaft in a coal mine or mill could result in lost production and income while the machine is down since replacement components may not be readily available. Fortunately, this scenario is not common. Most reputable gear and shaft manufacturers around the world would never neglect the metallurgical quality of their products.

22 Ferritic Nitrocarburizing Gears to Increase Wear Resistance and Reduce Distortion (March/April 2000)

Quality gear manufacturing depends on controlled tolerances and geometry. As a result, ferritic nitrocarburizing has become the heat treat process of choice for many gear manufacturers. The primary reasons for this are: 1. The process is performed at low temperatures, i.e. less than critical. 2. the quench methods increase fatigue strength by up to 125% without distorting. Ferritic nitrocarburizing is used in place of carburizing with conventional and induction hardening. 3. It establishes gradient base hardnesses, i.e. eliminates eggshell on TiN, TiAIN, CrC, etc. In addition, the process can also be applied to hobs, broaches, drills, and other cutting tools.

23 Cutting Hardened Gears (November/December 2002)

The need for improved power transmissions that use gears and gearboxes with smaller overall dimensions and with lower noise generation has left manufacturing engineers searching for different methods of gear processing. This search has led to the requirement of hardened gears.

24 Austempered Gears and Shafts: Tough Solutions (March/April 2001)

Austempered irons and steels offer the design engineer alternatives to conventional material/process combinations. Depending on the material and the application, austempering may provide the producers of gear and shafts with the following benefits: ease of manufacturing, increased bending and/or contact fatigue strength, better wear resistance or enhanced dampening characteristics resulting in lower noise. Austempered materials have been used to improve the performance of gears and shafts in many applications in a wide range of industries.

25 Geoffrey Parrish, Carburizing: Microstructures and Properties, 2nd ed., ASM, 1999, 247 pages. (May/June 2000)

Geoffrey Parrish has updated and expanded his previous book: The Influence of Microstructure on the Properties of Case-Carburized Components. It now contains at least twice the material. References and bibliography include 449 citations.

26 Microsecond Heat Treatment of Gears (March/April 2000)

The performance of metal surfaces can be dramatically enhanced by the thermal process of rapid surface melting and re-solidification (RMRS). When the surface of a metal part (for instance, a gear) is melted and re-solidified in less than one thousandth of a second, the resulting changes in the material can lead to: Increased wear and corrosion resistance, Improved surface finish and appearance, Enhanced surface uniformity and purity, and Sealing of surface cracks and pores.

27 Heat Treat Process and Material Selection for High Performance Gears (March/April 2003)

The selection of the heat treat process and the congruent material required for high performance gears can become very involved.

28 Fahrenheit 451: Gear Up For Induction Hardening (March/April 1998)

So, you've been assigned the task to buy an induction heating system for heat treating: It's an intimidating, but by no means impossible, assignment. With the help of the information in this article, you could be able to develop common ground with your supplier and have the tools to work with him or her to get the right machine for your jobs.

29 The Submerged Induction Hardening of Gears (March/April 2001)

The tooth-by-tooth, submerged induction hardening process for gear tooth surface hardening has been successfully performed at David Brown for more than 30 years. That experience - backed up by in-depth research and development - has given David Brown engineers a much greater understanding of, and confidence in, the results obtainable from the process. Also, field experience and refinement of gear design and manufacturing procedures to accommodate the induction hardening process now ensure that gears so treated are of guaranteed quality.

30 The Calculation of Optimum Surface Carbon Content for Carburized Case Hardened Gears (March/April 2001)

For high-quality carburized, case hardened gears, close case carbon control is essential. While tight carbon control is possible, vies on what optimum carbon level to target can be wider than the tolerance.

31 Atmospheric vs. Vacuum Carburizing (March/April 2002)

In recent years, improvements in the reliability of the vacuum carburizing process have allowed its benefits to be realized in high-volume, critical component manufacturing operations. The result: parts with enhanced hardness and mechanical properties.

32 Heat Treat 2013 (March/April 2013)

An overview of the latest technology and trends in heat treating.

33 GT Extras (March/April 2015)

This issue, GT Extras brings you "Heat Treat and Induction Hardening of Industrial Gears," a treasure trove of heat treating related technical articles and a call for help in preparation for AGMA's 100th anniversary.

34 Innovative Induction Hardening Process with Pre-heating for Improved Fatigue Performance of Gear Component (July 2014)

Contact fatigue and bending fatigue are two main failure modes of steel gears, while surface pitting and spalling are two common contact fatigue failures -- caused by alternating subsurface shear stresses from the contact load between two gear mates. And when a gear is in service under cyclic load, concentrated bending stresses exist at the root fillet -- the main driver of bending fatigue failures. Induction hardening is becoming an increasingly popular response to these problems, due to its process consistency, reduced energy consumption, clean environment and improved product quality -- but not without issues of its own (irregular residual stresses and bending fatigue). Thus a new approach is proposed here that flexibly controls the magnitude of residual stress in the regions of root fillet and tooth flank by pre-heating prior to induction hardening. Using an external spur gear made of AISI 4340 as an example, this new concept/process is demonstrated using finite element modeling and DANTE commercial software.

35 Gear Industry Heat Treat Resource Guide (July 2014)

Heat treating is one of the most critical operations in the manufacture of quality gears. Everything can be done to perfection, but if the heat treating isn’t right, all of your hard work and efforts are wasted. We know how important it is for gear manufacturers to find the right heat treating service provider. That’s why we’ve compiled this Heat Treat Resource Guide -- the only directory of heat treat service providers that’s specific to the gear industry. The companies listed here are all interested in working with gear manufacturers, and many of them have specialties and capabilities that are uniquely suited to the types of products you manufacture.

36 Press Quenching and Effects of Prior Thermal History on Distortion during Heat Treatment (March/April 2014)

Precision components (industrial bearing races and automotive gears) can distort during heat treatment due to effects of free or unconstrained oil quenching. However, press quenching can be used to minimize these effects. This quenching method achieves the relatively stringent geometrical requirements stipulated by industrial manufacturing specifications. As performed on a wide variety of steel alloys, this specialized quenching technique is presented here, along with a case study showing the effects of prior thermal history on the distortion that is generated during press quenching.

37 Things Are Heating Up in 2015 (March/April 2015)

In this special section, our editors have gathered recent news and information related to the heat treatment of gears. Here you’ll find a comprehensive assortment of news and upcoming events that will help you understand the various heat treatment processes available for gears and choose the best option for your projects, whether you heat treat in-house or send your gears to a commercial heat treating provider.

38 Dont Get Burned (July 2015)

Questions to Ask Your Heat Treater Provided by Justin Lefevre (Joyworks LLC, Ann Arbor, MI), Kathy Hayrynen (Applied Process, Inc., Livonia, MI) and Vasko Popovski (Applied Process, Inc.)

39 Checking Up on Your Heat Treater (July 2016)

What quality and performance characteristics should you look for?

40 Practical Approach to Determining Effective Case Depth of Gas Carburizing (March/April 2016)

Effective case depth is an important factor and goal in gas carburizing, involving complicated procedures in the furnace and requiring precise control of many thermal parameters. Based upon diffusion theory and years of carburizing experience, this paper calculates the effective case depth governed by carburizing temperature, time, carbon content of steel, and carbon potential of atmosphere. In light of this analysis, carburizing factors at various temperatures and carbon potentials for steels with different carbon content were calculated to determine the necessary carburizing cycle time. This methodology provides simple (without computer simulation) and practical guidance of optimized gas carburizing and has been applied to plant production. It shows that measured, effective case depth of gear parts covering most of the industrial application range (0.020 inch to over 0.250 inch) was in good agreement with the calculation.

41 Defying the Oil Ripple (March/April 2016)

The oil industry is (pardon the pun) tanking. That may conjure up horrific images of other industries following suit in a domino effect of collective collapse into the overabundant oil slick the industry is currently drowning in, but not everyone is getting knocked down alongside the oil sector.

42 New ECM Furnace Improves Manufacture Efficiency of PM Components (March/April 2014)

The heat treatment processing of powder metal (PM) materials like Astaloy requires four steps -- de-waxing, HT sintering, carburizing and surface hardening -- which are usually achieved in dedicated, atmospheric furnaces for sintering and heat treat, respectively, leading to intermediate handling operations and repeated heating and cooling cycles. This paper presents the concept of the multi-purpose batch vacuum furnace, one that is able to realize all of these steps in one unique cycle. The multiple benefits brought by this technology are summarized here, the main goal being to use this technology to manufacture high-load transmission gears in PM materials.

43 Hardening Technology Focuses on Dimensional Accuracy (March/April 2014)

New technology from Eldec/EMAG helps control the induction hardening process.

44 How to Conduct a Heat Treat Audit (March/April 2013)

Audits of the heat treating department are a vital part of any good quality program - either as part of a self-assessment or ISO program for a captive shop or - of equal importance - as part of an evaluation of the capabilities of a commercial heat treat supplier. In either case, the audit process needs to be formal in nature and follow specific guidelines.

45 Recent Inventions and Innovations in Induction Hardening of Gears and Gear-Like Components (March/April 2013)

This paper examines the expanding capabilities of induction hardening of gears through methods like spin hardening or tooth-by-tooth techniques.

46 Choosing the Right Heat Treater (March/April 1998)

Heat treating is a critical operation in gear manufacturing. It can make or break the quality of your final product. Yet it is one that frequently gear manufacturers outsource to someone else. Then the crucial question becomes, how do you know you're getting the right heat treater? How can you guarantee your end product when you have turned over this important process to someone else?

47 Performance of Skiving Hobs in Finishing Induction Hardened and Carburized Gears (May/June 2003)

In order to increase the load carrying capacity of hardened gears, the distortion of gear teeth caused by quenching must be removed by precision cutting (skiving) and/or grinding. In the case of large gears with large modules, skiving by a carbide hob is more economical than grinding when the highest accuracy is not required.

48 Heat Treat Suppliers Focused on Gears (August 2013)

Heat treat suppliers look to the gear industry and the upcoming combined Gear Expo/Heat Treat 2013 for new business.

49 New-Formula Acetylene Cool for Heat Treatment (September 2013)

Acetylene with DMF solvent enables benefits of low-pressure vacuum carburizing.

50 PPD Wear Protection Treatment for Large Parts Opens New Horizons (March/April 2014)

Environmentally friendly, highly efficient and lasting a product's lifetime. With characteristics like this, Pulsed-Plasma Diffusion (PPD) technology from Oerlikon Balzers has established itself as an industry standard for the treatment of large automotive press tooling. Now the technology specialists are targeting new applications with this advanced process, offering an alternative to traditional hard-chrome processes.

51 High Temperature Gear Materials (November/December 2013)

What gear material is suitable for high-temperature (350 – 550 degree C), high-vacuum, clean-environment use?

52 Industry News (October 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the October 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

53 Characterizaton of Retained Austenite in Case Carburized Gears and Its Influence on Fatigue Performance (May/June 2003)

Carburized helical gears with high retained austenite were tested for surface contact fatigue. The retained austenite before test was 60% and was associated with low hardness near the case's surface. However, the tested gears showed good pitting resistance, with fatigue strength greater than 1,380 MPa.

54 Induction Heat Trating: Things Remembered, Things Forgotten (March/April 1997)

Many potential problems are not apparent when using new induction heat treating systems. The operator has been trained properly, and setup parameters are already developed. Everything is fresh in one's mind. But as the equipment ages, personnel changes or new parts are required to be processed on the old equipment ages, personnel changes or new parts are required to b processed on the old equipment, important information can get lost in the shuffle.

55 The Staying Power of Low-Pressure Carburizing (September/October 2008)

Open any heat treating journal today and you’re certain to find multiple references (articles, technical papers and/or advertisements) promoting low-pressure carburizing (LPC). The uninformed might breeze by these references thinking it’s the next flash-in-the-pan, but unlike in the past, this time the process has legs.

56 The Business of Going Green (August 2008)

Heat treatment industry reinforces environmental/energy conservation.

57 Vacuum Carburizing Takes Center Stage (July 2008)

ALD-Holcroft Vacuum Technologies Co. will host a two-day technical symposium at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan September 23– 24, 2008.

58 Low Pressure Carburizing of Large Transmission Parts (September/October 2009)

Often, the required hardness qualities of parts manufactured from steel can only be obtained through suitable heat treatment. In transmission manufacturing, the case hardening process is commonly used to produce parts with a hard and wear-resistant surface and an adequate toughness in the core. A tremendous potential for rationalization, which is only partially used, becomes available if the treatment time of the case hardening process is reduced. Low pressure carburizing (LPC) offers a reduction of treatment time in comparison to conventional gas carburizing because of the high carbon mass flow inherent to the process (Ref. 1).

59 Why Vacuum Carburizing (March/April 2010)

Heat treat alternative offers advantages over conventional methods.

60 Low-Distortion Heat Treatment of Transmission Components (October 2011)

This paper presents how low pressure carburizing and high pressure gas quenching processes are successfully applied on internal ring gears for a six-speed automatic transmission. The specific challenge in the heat treat process was to reduce distortion in such a way that subsequent machining operations are entirely eliminated.

61 ASM Booth Previews (October 2011)

Here are some of the new products and technologies available to attendees at Heat Treat 2011.

62 Heat Treat Society (September 2011)

Co-located ASM and AGMA shows are a hot ticket.

63 The Heat Goes On - Gear Up for Induction Hardening (March/April 2005)

This article covers preventive maintenance and modification to machinery to induction harden different types of gear.

64 Advances in Quenching - A Discussion of Present and Future Technologies (March/April 2005)

Heat treating and quenching are arguably the most critical operations in the manufacture of gears. This article examines causes of distortion in heat treating and quenching.

65 Austempered Nodular Cast Irons (March/April 1985)

Austempering heat treatments (austenitizing followed by rapid cooling to the tempering temperature) have been applied to nodular irons on an experimental basis for a number of years, but commercial interest in the process has only recently come to the surface.

66 Gear Heat Treatment: The Influence of Materials and Geometry (March/April 2004)

Gear designs are evolving at an ever accelerating rate, and gear manufacturers need to better understand how the choice of materials and heat treating methods can optimize mechanical properties, balance overall cost and extend service life.

67 Induction Hardening of Gears and Critical Components - Part II (November/December 2008)

Part I, which was published in the September/October 2008 issue, covered gear materials, desired microstructure, coil design and tooth-by-tooth induction hardening. Part II covers spin hardening and various heating concepts used with it.

68 Low Pressure Carburizing with High Pressure Gas Quenching (March/April 2004)

High demands for cost-effectiveness and improved product quality can be achieved via a new low pressure carburizing process with high pressure gas quenching. Up to 50% of the heat treatment time can be saved. Furthermore, the distortion of the gear parts could be reduced because of gas quenching, and grinding costs could be saved. This article gives an overview of the principles of the process technology and the required furnace technology. Also, some examples of practical applications are presented.

69 New Vacuum Processes (August 2007)

This paper introduces new process developments in low-pressure carburizing and carbonitriding using either high-pressure gas quenching or interrupted gas quenching.

70 The Effects of Pre-Rough Machine Processing on Dimensional Distortion During Carburizing (September/October 2006)

A study was conducted to isolate the influence of pre-rough machine processing on final dimensional distortion.

71 Shorter Cycle Times for Carburizing (March/April 2006)

Dana Corp. is developing a process that carburizes a straight bevel gear to a carbon content of 0.8% in 60 fewer minutes than atmosphere carburizing did with an identical straight bevel.

72 Captive vs. Commercial Heat Treaters? A Split Decision (August 2007)

Heat treating is a vital step in the gear making process—that’s a given. But how that step is taken can happen in a number of ways.

73 Vacuum Oil Quenching (November/December 2011)

The October 2011 issue of Gear Technology featured the article “Low-Distortion Heat Treatment of Transmission Components,” which covered the combination of low-pressure carburizing and high pressure gas quenching in an automotive environment. Here, heat treating expert Dan Herring explains why oil quenching is an appropriate choice for many applications.

74 Induction Hardening of Gears and Critical Components - Part I (September/October 2008)

Induction hardening is a heat treating technique that can be used to selectively harden portions of a gear, such as the flanks, roots and tips of teeth, providing improved hardness, wear resistance, and contact fatigue strength without affecting the metallurgy of the core and other parts of the component that don’t require change. This article provides an overview of the process and special considerations for heat treating gears. Part I covers gear materials, desired microsctructure, coil design and tooth-by-tooth induction hardening.

75 How to Carburize a Finished Gear (March/April 1995)

Precise heat treatment plays an essential role in the production of quality carburized gears. Seemingly minor changes in the heat treating process can have significant effects on the quality, expense and production time of a gear, as we will demonstrate using a case study from one of our customer's gears.

76 Investigation of Surface Layer and Wear Behavior of Nitrided Gear Drives (March/April 1994)

In this article we will characterize the nitride layers that are generated by different nitriding processes and compare their respective wear characteristics.

77 The Fundamentals of Gear Press Quenching (March/April 1994)

Most steel gear applications require appreciable loads to be applied that will result in high bending and compressive stresses. For the material (steel) to meet these performance criteria, the gear must be heat treated. Associated with this thermal processing is distortion. To control the distortion and achieve repeatable dimensional tolerances, the gear will be constrained during the quenching cycle of the heat treatment process. This type of fixture quenching is the function of gear quench pressing equipment.

78 Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Ausrolled Surfaces in Gear Steels (March/April 1995)

Ausforming, the plastic deformation of heat treatment steels in their metastable, austentic condition, was shown several decades ago to lead to quenched and tempered steels that were harder, tougher and more durable under fatigue-type loading than conventionally heat-treated steels. To circumvent the large forces required to ausform entire components such as gears, cams and bearings, the ausforming process imparts added mechanical strength and durability only to those contact surfaces that are critically loaded. The ausrolling process, as utilized for finishing the loaded surfaces of machine elements, imparts high quality surface texture and geometry control. The near-net-shape geometry and surface topography of the machine elements must be controlled to be compatible with the network dimensional finish and the rolling die design requirements (Ref. 1).

79 Controlling Gear Distortion and Residual Stresses During Induction Hardening (March/April 2012)

Induction hardening is widely used in both the automotive and aerospace gear industries to minimize heat treat distortion and obtain favorable compressive residual stresses for improved fatigue performance. The heating process during induction hardening has a significant effect on the quality of the heat-treated parts. However, the quenching process often receives less attention even though it is equally important.

80 Inreasing Hardness Through Cryogenics (March/April 1997)

The Instrumented Factory for Gears (INFAC) conducted a metallurgical experiment that examined the effects of carburizing process variables and types of cryogenic treatments in modifying the microstructure of the material. The initial experiment was designed so that, following the carburizing cycles, the same test coupons could be used in future experiment.

81 New Approaches to Nitriding (March/April 1997)

The process of nitriding has been used to case harden gears for years, but the science and technology of the process have not remained stagnant. New approaches have been developed which are definitely of interest to the gear designer. These include both new materials and new processing techniques.

82 The Advantages of Ion Nitriding Gears (November/December 1996)

When it comes to setting the standard for gear making, the auto industry often sets the pace. Thus when automakers went to grinding after hardening to assure precision, so did the machine shops that specialize in gearing. But in custom manufacturing of gears in small piece counts, post-heat treat grinding can grind away profits too.

83 Dual Frequency Induction Gear Hardening (March/April 1993)

In the typical gear production facility, machining of gear teeth is followed by hear treatment to harden them. The hardening process often distorts the gear teeth, resulting in reduced and generally variable quality. Heat treating gears can involve many different types of operations, which all have the common purpose of producing a microstructure with certain optimum properties. Dual frequency induction hardening grew from the need to reduce cost while improving the accuracy (minimizing the distortion) of two selective hardening processes: single tooth induction and selective carburizing.

84 The Effect of Metallurgy on the Performance of Carburized Gears (March/April 1996)

Gears are designed to be manufactured, processed and used without failure throughout the design life of the gear. One of INFAC's objectives (*see p.24) is to help manufacture of gears to optimize performance and life. One way to achieve this is to identify failure mechanisms and then devise strategies to overcome them by modifying the manufacturing parameters.

85 Factors Influencing Fracture Toughness of High-Carbon Martensitic Steels (January/February 1989)

Plane strain fracture toughness of twelve high-carbon steels has been evaluated to study the influence of alloying elements, carbon content and retained austenite. The steels were especially designed to simulate the carburized case microstructure of commonly used automotive type gear steels. Results show that a small variation in carbon can influence the K IC significantly. The beneficial effect of retained austenite depends both on its amount and distribution. The alloy effect, particularly nickel, becomes significant only after the alloy content exceeds a minimum amount. Small amounts of boron also appear beneficial.

86 Selection of Material and Compatible Heat Treatments for Gearing (May/June 1986)

The manufacturing process to produce a gear essentially consist of: material selection, blank preshaping, tooth shaping, heat treatment, and final shaping. Only by carefully integrating of the various operations into a complete manufacturing system can an optimum gear be obtained. The final application of the gear will determine what strength characteristics will be required which subsequently determine the material and heat treatments.

87 Little Things Mean A Lot (March/April 1993)

"God is in the details," says the philosopher. What he meant was that on the scale of the universe, it's not just the galaxies, the planets, the mountain ranges, or the major rivers that are important. So are the subatomic particles and the genes. It's the little things that make all the difference.

88 Achievable Carburizing Specifications (January/February 1990)

A widespread weakness of gear drawings is the requirements called out for carburize heat treating operations. The use of heat treating specifications is a recommended solution to this problem. First of all, these specifications guide the designer to a proper callout. Secondly, they insure that certain metallurgical characteristics, and even to some extent processing, will be obtained to provide the required qualities in the hardened gear. A suggested structure of carburizing specifications is give.

89 Production Testing of a Chromium-Free Carburizing Grade Gear Steel (May/June 1989)

For many years chromium has been a popular alloy for heat treatable steels because of its contribution to hardenability more than offsets its costs. As a consequence, it is specified in such high-tonnage steel grades as the 5100, 4100, and 8600 series; and, as a result, about 15% of the annual U.S. consumption of chromium is used in constructional alloy steels.

90 The Effects of Surface Hardening on the Total Gear Manufacturing System (January/February 1991)

Carburized and hardened gears have optimum load-carrying capability. There are many alternative ways to produce a hard case on the gear surface. Also, selective direct hardening has some advantages in its ability to be used in the production line, and it is claimed that performance results equivalent to a carburized gear can be obtained. This article examines the alternative ways of carburizing, nitriding, and selective direct hardening, considering equipment, comparative costs, and other factors. The objective must be to obtain the desired quality at the lowest cost.

91 Frozen Gears (March/April 1993)

Durability is the most important criterion used to define the quality of a gear. The freezing of metals has been acknowledged for almost thirty years as an effective method for increasing durability, or "wear life," and decreasing residual stress in tool steels. The recent field of deep cryogenics (below -300 degrees F) has brought us high temperature superconductors, the superconducting super collider, cryo-biology, and magnotehydrodynamic drive systems. It has also brought many additional durability benefits to metals.

92 Gear Hardness Technology (March/April 1992)

In a very general sense, increasing the hardness of a steel gear increases the strength of the gear. However, for each process there is a limit to its effectiveness. This article contains background information on each of the processes covered. In each section what is desired and what is achievable is discussed. Typical processes are presented along with comments on variables which affect the result. By reviewing the capabilities and processes, it is possible to determine the limits to each process.

93 Controlling Carburizing for Top Quality Gears (March/April 1993)

A carburized alloy steel gear has the greatest load-carrying capacity, but only if it is heat treated properly. For high quality carburizing, the case depth, case microstructure, and case hardness must be controlled carefully.

94 Contour Hardening: Heat Treating Company, Indy Car Sponsor (September/October 2003)

Major sponsorship of an Indy car was working out well for racing fans Mike Chaplin and John Storm. On May 25, a warm, clear day, the co-founders of Contour Hardening watched from their racetrack suite as their car, a bullet on wheels, tore into sixth place at the Indy 500.

95 Technical Calendar (September/October 1988)

September 27-29. American Society for Metals 11th Annual Heat Treating Conference October 10-12. AGMA Fall Technical Meeting. Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, LA November 1-3. SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic, Sheraton Meridian, Indianapolis, IN

96 ASM Heat Treat 2015 (September/October 2015)

ASM booths 2015

97 Industry News (March/April 2016)

News from around the Gear Industry

98 Industry News (November/December 2014)

The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2014 issue.

99 Large Scores and Radial Cracks on Case-Hardened Worms (May/June 2003)

In the last couple of years, many research projects dealt with the determination of load limits of cylindrical worm gears. These projects primarily focused on the load capacity of the worm wheel, whereas the worm was neglected. This contribution presents investigations regarding damages such as large scores and cracks on the flanks of case-hardened worms.

100 Heat Treat 2013 Map and Listings (September 2013)

Your guide to the booths at ASM's Heat Treat 2013 show.

101 Material Selection and Heat Treatment (July/August 1985)

Before the optimum mechanical properties can be selected, the working stress must be determined, based on recommended allowable stresses.

102 Showstoppers (September 2013)

Our special advertising section featuring exhibitors from Gear Expo and ASM Heat Treat 2013

103 New Technology Roll Call (September 2013)

Interviews with exhibitors at ASM's Heat Treat 2013 exposition, which is co-located with Gear Expo.

104 A Basic Guide to Deburring and Chamfering Gears (July/August 1995)

In today's industrial marketplace, deburring and chamfering are no longer just a matter of cosmetics. The faster speeds at which transmissions run today demand that gear teeth mesh as smoothly and accurately as possible to prevent premature failure. The demand for quieter gears also requires tighter tolerances. New heat treating practices and other secondary gear operations have placed their own set of demands on manufacturers. Companies that can deburr or chamfer to these newer, more stringent specifications - and still keep costs in line - find themselves with a leg up on their competition.

105 Gear Finishing by Shaving, Rolling and Honing, Part I (March/April 1992)

There are several methods available for improving the quality of spur and helical gears following the standard roughing operations of hobbing or shaping. Rotary gear shaving and roll-finishing are done in the green or soft state prior to heat treating.

106 Improved Gear Life Through Controlled Shot Peening (September/October 1986)

The search for greater gear life involves improvement in cost, weight and increased power output. There are many events that affect gear life, and this paper addresses those relating to fatigue, gear tooth pitting, fatigue strength losses due to the heat treating processes and shot peening technique. The capability of shot peening to increase fatigue strength and surface fatigue life eliminate machine marks which cause stress risers, and to aid in lubrication when properly controlled, suggests increased use and acceptance of the process.

News Items About Heat Treating

1 Solar and ASM Offer Vacuum Heat Treating Course (February 5, 2014)
Solar Atmospheres and ASM International at Materials Park in Ohio have partnered to offer a new Vacuum Heat Treating Course.This new cour... Read News

2 Solar Atmospheres of California Awarded Nadcap 24-Month Merit Status for Heat Treating (August 4, 2016)
Solar Atmospheres of California announced that it has been awarded Nadcap 24-month Merit status for Heat Treating. Achieving 24-month mer... Read News

3 Roger Jones Named President of ASM Heat Treating Society (September 30, 2013)
Roger A. Jones, corporate president of Solar Atmospheres, has been named president of the ASM Heat Treating Society (HTS) for the 2013-20... Read News

4 Complete Heat Treating Acquires Wisconsin Steel Industries (September 11, 2013)
Complete Heat Treating, LLC announced the completion of its acquisition of all assets and equipment of the former Wisconsin Steel Industr... Read News

5 Nevada Heat Treating Invests in New Equipment (April 4, 2011)
Nevada Heat Treating has recently placed orders for two new advanced heat treating furnaces. This represents a capital investment of appr... Read News

6 FPM Heat Treating Receives Nadcap Accreditation (April 20, 2015)
FPM Heat Treating in Elk Grove Village, IL announced that it has received an additional Nadcap Scope of Accreditation for carburizing, c... Read News

7 Alfe Heat Treating Celebrates 25th Anniversary (January 31, 2005)
Alfe Heat Treating of Fort Wayne, IN, recently celebrated its 25th anniversary. The company currently has nine facilities throughout t... Read News

8 Matlab Increases Heat Treating Capaciy for Gears (January 4, 2005)
Metlab has completed the upgrade of one of its large pit carburizing furnaces, which doubles its capabilities for carburizng, nitriding, ... Read News

9 Alfe Heat Treating Hires General Manager (March 2, 2005)
Alfe Heat Treat Corp. hired Jerry Brasiola as general manager of their Defiance, OH, division. Most recently, Brasiola was plant manag... Read News

10 Inductoheat’s Heat Treating System Compatible with Numerous Power Supplies (January 16, 2007)
The InductoScan modular heat treat system from Inductoheat is designed to increase versatility, reduce maintenance and installation cost... Read News

11 Madeira Appointed VP of Heat Treating (January 28, 2011)
Inductoheat, Inc., located in Madison Heights, Michigan, has recently appointed Robert Madeira as the vice president of Heat Treatin... Read News

12 Applied Process Commissions Heat Treating Facility in China (February 19, 2007)
Applied Process CEO John Keough recently commissioned AP Suzhou as the newest member of the Applied Process family of companies. The... Read News

13 Solar Receives Nadcap Merit Status for Vacuum Heat Treating (January 29, 2014)
Solar Atmospheres of Western PA (SAWPA) announces that it has been awarded Nadcap Merit status for vacuum heat treating and brazing of me... Read News

14 Grieve 1200ºF Walk-in Oven Offers On-Site Heat Treating (July 7, 2015)
No. 901 is a 1200ºF (649ºC) electrically-heated walk-in oven from Grieve, currently used for heat treating at the customer&rsqu... Read News

15 Contour Hardening Mexico Heat Treating Facility Completes ISO/TS Certification (September 18, 2015)
Contour Hardening, Inc. recently announced the ISO/TS certification of its heat treating service facility in Silao, Guanajuato, Mexico. T... Read News

16 Roger Jones Receives 2015 HTS George H. Bodeen Heat Treating Achievement Award (June 29, 2015)
Roger Jones, corporate president of Solar Atmospheres, Inc., Souderton, PA, was recently named the recipient of the 2015 George H. Bodeen... Read News

17 ALD-Holcroft to Provide SyncroTherm Heat Treating System to Woodward (May 15, 2015)
ALD-Holcroft (Wixom, MI) recently entered into an agreement with Woodward, Inc. (Fort Collins, CO) to provide a fully-integrated SyncroTh... Read News

18 AFC-Holcroft Ships Heat Treating Furnace to Stamping Manufacturer (January 21, 2015)
A large stamping manufacturer has ordered a mesh belt austempering furnace system from AFC-Holcroft, a manufacturer of heat treating furn... Read News

19 Solar Installs Furnace for Mid-Size Vacuum Heat Treating and Brazing (April 2, 2014)
Vacuum heat treat services expert, Solar Atmospheres of Western PA, recently announced the installation of a new high-temperature, high-purity, production-scale, 2-bar vacuum furnace... Read News