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Randall Publications LLC
Publishers of Gear Technology and Power Transmission Engineering magazines, as well as the websites www.powertransmission.com and www.geartechnology.com.

Articles About Power Transmission Engineering


1 Industry News (October 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the October 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

2 Going to Gear Expo (September 2013)

Like many of you in the gear industry, we’ve been working extremely hard over the past few months getting ready for Gear Expo 2013, which takes place September 17-19 in Indianapolis.

3 One Small Step Towards Mars (July 2014)

In the June issue of our sister publication -- Power Transmission Engineering -- the Power Play feature (Destination Mars! -- pg. 64) was devoted to NASA’s Mars-oriented LDSD (Low Density Supersonic Decelerator) project...

4 Moving Into High Gear (March/April 2007)

In February (2007), we launched a new magazine, Power Transmission Engineering (PTE). While most of you have probably already seen it...

5 Internet Adventures, Part II powertransmission.com (January/February 1997)

In July of 1996 we introduced the gear community to the Internet in these pages through the Gear Industry Home Page (GIHP). This electronic buyers guide for gear machine tools, tooling, accessories and services has proven to be more popular than we could have envisioned. In our first month, we had over 3,000 hits, and in our third month, we have over 4,500. By our fourth month, we topped the 7,000 mark, and we are on our way to 11,000 hits in November. As our advertisers develop their own home sites in order to offer layers of information about their companies, their products and services, we expect this activity will increase even more.

6 Reaching Out (March/April 2011)

Publisher Michael Goldstein describes the success of Gear Technology's new e-mail newsletter programs.

7 Optimism in Wind Abounds (January/February 2009)

Big gears and wind turbines go together like bees and honey, peas and carrots, bread and butter and—well, you get the idea. Wind isn’t just big right now, it’s huge. The wind industry means tremendous things for the energy dependent world we live in and especially big things for gear manufacturers and other beleaguered American industries.

8 What the Internet Means To Your Gear Business (July/August 1998)

Let's face it. The Internet is still, to many of us, exciting, confusing, terrifying and frustrating by turns. The buzzwords change so fast that even the most high tech companies have a hard time keeping up. Cyberspace. Firewall, Java. E-commerce. The list goes on.

9 High Power Transmission with Case-hardened Gears and Internal Power Branching (January/February 1985)

In the field of large power transmission gear units for heavy machine industry, the following two development trends have been highly influential: use of case hardened gears and a branching of the power flow through two or more ways.

10 Dynamic Loads in Parallel Shaft Transmissions - Part 2 (May/June 1990)

Solutions to the governing equations of a spur gear transmission model, developed in a previous article are presented. Factors affecting the dynamic load are identified. It is found that the dynamic load increases with operating speed up to a system natural frequency. At operating speeds beyond the natural frequency the dynamic load decreases dramatically. Also, it is found that the transmitted load and shaft inertia have little effect upon the total dynamic load. Damping and friction decrease the dynamic load. Finally, tooth stiffness has a significant effect upon dynamic loadings the higher the stiffness, the lower the dynamic loading. Also, the higher the stiffness, the higher the rotating speed required for peak dynamic response.

11 Designing Hardened & Ground Spur Gears to Operate With Minimum Noise (May/June 1994)

When designing hardened and ground spur gears to operate with minimum noise, what are the parameters to be considered? should tip and/or root relief be applied to both wheel and pinion or only to one member? When pinions are enlarged and he wheel reduced, should tip relief be applied? What are the effects on strength, wear and noise? For given ratios with enlarged pinions and reduced wheels, how can the gear set sized be checked or adjusted to ensure that the best combination has been achieved?

12 Effect of Extended Tooth Contact on the Modeling of Spur Gear Transmissions (July/August 1994)

In some gear dynamic models, the effect of tooth flexibility is ignored when the model determines which pairs of teeth are in contact. Deflection of loaded teeth is not introduced until the equations of motion are solved. This means the zone of tooth contact and average tooth meshing stiffness are underestimated, and the individual tooth load is overstated, especially for heavily loaded gears. This article compares the static transmission error and dynamic load of heavily loaded, low-contact-ratio spur gears when the effect of tooth flexibility has been considered and when it has been ignored. Neglecting the effect yields an underestimate of resonance speeds and an overestimate of the dynamic load.

13 Transmission Errors and Bearing Contact of Spur, Helical, and Spiral Bevel Gears (July/August 1990)

An investigation of transmission errors and bearing contact of spur, helical, and spiral bevel gears was performed. Modified tooth surfaces for these gears have been proposed in order to absorb linear transmission errors caused by gear misalignment and to localize the bearing contact. Numerical examples for spur, helical, and spiral bevel gears are presented to illustrate the behavior of the modified gear surfaces with respect to misalignment and errors of assembly. The numerical results indicate that the modified surfaces will perform with a low level of transmission error in non-ideal operating environments.

14 The Relationship of Measured Gear Noise to Measured Gear Transmission Errors (January/February 1988)

Vehicle gear noise testing is a complex and often misunderstood subject. Gear noise is really a system problem.(1) most gearing used for power transmission is enclosed in a housing and, therefore, little or no audible sound is actually heard from the gear pair.(2) The vibrations created by the gears are amplified by resonances of structural elements. This amplification occurs when the speed of the gear set is such that the meshing frequency or a multiply of it is equal to a natural frequency of the system in which the gears are mounted.

15 Gear Noise and the Sideband Phenomenon (January/February 1987)

Gear noise can be a source of intense annoyance. It is often the primary source of annoyance even when it is not the loudest noise component. This is because of the way it is perceived. Gear noise is a collection of pure tones which the human ear can detect even when they are 10dB lower than the overall noise level. Another reason for our sensitivity to transmission noise is that we associate it with impending mechanical failure.

16 Identification of Gear Noise with Single Flank Composite Measurement (May/June 1986)

Anyone involved in the design, manufacture and use of gears is concerned with three general characteristics relative to their application: noise, accuracy, and strength or surface durability. In the article, we will be dealing with probably the most aggravating of the group, gear noise.

17 Viewpoint (May/June 1987)

Joe Arvin comments on his recent trip to Scandinavia and how U.S. defense dollars are being spent overseas. J.D. Smith responds to an article on gear noise from the previous issue.

18 Noise Reduction in Plastic & Powder Metal Gear Sets (July/August 1996)

The data discussed in this article was taken from an upright vacuum cleaner. This was a prototype cleaner that was self-propelled by a geared transmission. It was the first time that the manufacturer had used a geared transmission in this application.

19 The Uses and Limitations of Transmission Error (July/August 1988)

The concept of "transmission error" is relatively new and stems from research work in the late 1950s by Gregory, Harris and Munro,(1) together with the need to check the accuracy of gear cutting machines. The corresponding commercial "single flank" testing equipment became available in the 1960s, but it was not until about ten years ago that it became generally used, and only recently has it been possible to test reliably at full load and full speed.

20 Dynamic Loads in Parallel Shaft Transmissions Part 1 (March/April 1990)

Recently, there has been increased interest in the dynamic effects in gear systems. This interest is stimulated by demands for stronger, higher speed, improved performance, and longer-lived systems. This in turn had stimulated numerous research efforts directed toward understanding gear dynamic phenomena. However, many aspects of gear dynamics are still not satisfactorily understood.

21 High-Tech Risks and Rewards (June 2009)

Aerospace/Defense contracts offer unique challenges for gear manufacturers.

22 Viewpoint (November/December 1991)

Dear Editor: In Mr. Yefim Kotlyar's article "Reverse Engineering" in the July/August issue, I found an error in the formula used to calculate the ACL = Actual lead from the ASL = Assumed lead.

23 Gear Fundamentals Reverse Engineering (July/August 1991)

Whether gear engineers have to replace an old gear which is worn out, find out what a gear's geometry is after heat treatment distortion, or just find out parameters of gears made by a competitor, sometimes they are challenged with a need to determine the geometry of unknown gears. Depending on the degree of accuracy required, a variety of techniques are available for determining the accuracy of an unknown gear. If a high degree of precision is important, a gear inspection device has to be used to verify the results. Frequently, several trial-and-error attempts are made before the results reach the degree of precision required.

24 Refurbishing a Ball Mill ; Bevel Gear Backlash (September 2012)

Our experts comment on reverse engineering herringbone gears and contact pattern optimization.

25 My Gear Is Bigger than Your Gear (March/April 2013)

Industry battles it out for World's Largest Gear title.

26 Super-Sized Quality Control (January/February 2014)

It's not easy being big. Maybe that's not exactly how the phrase goes, but it's applicable, particularly when discussing the quality requirements of large gears. The size alone promises unique engineering challenges. BONUS Online Exclusive: Big or Small - Inspection is Key to Success.

27 Engineering Constants (July/August 1986)

Below are listed a variety of commonly used constants arranged numerically to permit ease of reference. Wherever an asterisk (*) is shown, the constant is exact as given, it being generally a mathematical constant or one fixed by definition. In cases where the first constant listed is followed by another in parenthesis, the first is the round number generally used, while the second is the more exact value.

28 ...And from the Industry (October/November 1984)

Industry News from October/November 1984 Gear Technology.

29 Predicted Scuffing Risk to Spur and Helical Gears in Commercial Vehicle Transmissions (November/December 2012)

AGMA925–A03 scuffing risk predictions for a series of spur and helical gear sets of transmissions used in commercial vehicles ranging from SAE Class 3 through Class 8.

30 No Compromising on Quality at Allison Transmission (July 2014)

Gleason 350GMS helps put higher quality, more reliable gears into its next-generation TC10 automatic transmission.

31 Evaluation of Methods for Calculating Effects of Tip Relief on Transmission Error, Noise and Stress in Loaded Spur Gears (January/February 2012)

The connection between transmission error, noise and vibration during operation has long been established. Calculation methods have been developed to describe the influence so that it is possible to evaluate the relative effect of applying a specific modification at the design stage. These calculations enable the designer to minimize the excitation from the gear pair engagement at a specific load. This paper explains the theory behind transmission error and the reasoning behind the method of applying the modifications through mapping surface profiles and determining load sharing.

32 What's the Right Tolerance (March/April 2006)

Charles Schultz of Brad Foote Gear Works discusses some of the finer points of engineering tolerances--and muscle cars.

33 How to Minimize Power Losses in Transmissions, Axles and Steering Systems (September 2012)

By increasing the number of gears and the transmission-ratio spread, the engine will run with better fuel efficiency and without loss of driving dynamics. Transmission efficiency itself can be improved by: using fuelefficient transmission oil; optimizing the lubrication systems and pumps; improving shifting strategies and optimizing gearings; and optimizing bearings and seals/gaskets.

34 Cotta Transmission Installs CMM with Gear Checking Module (July 2010)

Xspect Solutions Provides Wenzel Bridge-Type CMM Equipped with OpenDMIS Software for Basic Gear Measuring Capability with CMM Flexibility.

35 Single Flank Measuring; Estimating Horsepower Capacity (September/October 1991)

Question: What is functional measurement and what is the best method for getting truthful answers?

36 Rattle: Addressing Gear Noise in a Power Take-off (January/February 2012)

At Muncie Power, the objective of noise and vibration testing is to develop effective ways to eliminate power take-off (PTO) gear rattle, with specific emphasis on PTO products. The type of sound of largest concern in this industry is tonal.

37 Light-Weight Design for Planetary Gear Transmissions (September 2013)

There is a great need for future powertrains in automotive and industrial applications to improve upon their efficiency and power density while reducing their dynamic vibration and noise initiation. It is accepted that planetary gear transmissions have several advantages in comparison to conventional transmissions, such as a high power density due to the power division using several planet gears. This paper presents planetary gear transmissions, optimized in terms of efficiency, weight and volume.

38 Power Skiving of Cylindrical Gears on Different Machine Platforms (January/February 2014)

It has long been known that the skiving process for machining internal gears is multiple times faster than shaping, and more flexible than broaching, due to skiving's continuous chip removal capability. However, skiving has always presented a challenge to machines and tools. With the relatively low dynamic stiffness in the gear trains of mechanical machines, as well as the fast wear of uncoated cutters, skiving of cylindrical gears never achieved acceptance in shaping or hobbing, until recently.

39 Wind Turbine Market Leads Hansen Transmissions to India (June 2007)

When Belgium-based Hansen Transmissions was under the ownership of Invensys plc in the late 1990s, the parent company was dropping not-so-subtle hints that the industrial gearbox manufacturer was not part of its long-term plans. Yet Hansen’s CEO Ivan Brems never dreamed that, less than a decade later, he would be working for an Indian company.

40 Drive Line Analysis for Tooth Contact Optimization of High-Power Spiral Bevel Gears (June/July 2011)

In the majority of spiral bevel gears, spherical crowning is used. The contact pattern is set to the center of the active tooth flank and the extent of the crowning is determined by experience. Feedback from service, as well as from full-torque bench tests of complete gear drives, has shown that this conventional design practice leads to loaded contact patterns, which are rarely optimal in location and extent. Oversized reliefs lead to small contact area, increased stresses and noise, whereas undersized reliefs result in an overly sensitive tooth contact.

41 Flank Load Carrying Capacity and Power Loss Reduction by Minimized Lubrication (May 2011)

The objective of this study was to investigate the limits concerning possible reduction of lubricant quantity in gears that could be tolerated without detrimental effects on their load carrying capacity.

42 Windpower 2009 Relocates in Light of Record Growth (January/February 2009)

It’s not too often a trade show so far surpasses organizers’ expectations for size that it must be relocated. This was just the dilemma the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) faced with the Windpower 2009 Conference and Exhibition, which was originally scheduled to take place in Minneapolis, but will now be held at McCormick Place, Chicago.

43 Low Loss Gears (June 2007)

In most transmission systems, one of the main power loss sources is the loaded gear mesh. In this article, the influences of gear geometry parameters on gear efficiency, load capacity, and excitation are shown.

44 A Model of the Pumping Action Between the Teeth of High-Speed Spur and Helical Gears (May/June 2004)

For a high-speed gearbox, an important part of power losses is due to the mesh. A global estimation is not possible and an analytical approach is necessary with evaluations of three different origins of power losses: friction in mesh contact, gear windage and pumping effect between teeth.

45 Determining Power Losses in the Helical Gear Mesh (September/October 2005)

This article reviews mathematical models for individual components associated with power losses, such as windage, churning, sliding and rolling friction losses.

46 Gear Applications All the Rage at Windpower 2010 (June 2010)

Capitalizing on a burgeoning new technology where gears are of great import, the gear community gathered en masse at the American Wind Energy Association’s Windpower Expo 2010.

47 Grinding Gears for Racing Transmissions (September/October 2009)

When you push 850 horsepower and 9,000 rpm through a racing transmission, you better hope it stands up. Transmission cases and gears strewn all over the racetrack do nothing to enhance your standing, nor that of your transmission supplier.

48 A Further Study on High-Contact-Ratio Spur Gears in Mesh with Double-Scope Tooth Profile Modification (November/December 2008)

This paper will demonstrate that, unlike commonly used low-contact-ratio spur gears, high-contact-ratio spur gears can provide higher power-to-weight ratio, and can also achieve smoother running with lower transmission error (TE) variations.

49 Effects of Profile Corrections on Peak-to-Peak Transmission Error (July 2010)

Profile corrections on gears are a commonly used method to reduce transmission error, contact shock, and scoring risk. There are different types of profile corrections. It is a known fact that the type of profile correction used will have a strong influence on the resulting transmission error. The degree of this influence may be determined by calculating tooth loading during mesh. The current method for this calculation is very complicated and time consuming; however, a new approach has been developed that could reduce the calculation time.

50 Hybrid Economy, NASCAR Performance (March/April 2010)

VMT Technologies designs positively engaged, infinitely variable transmission.

51 Optimizing Gear Geometry for Minimum Transmission Error, Mesh Friction Losses and Scuffing Risk Through Computer- Aided Engineering (August 2010)

Minimizing gear losses caused by churning, windage and mesh friction is important if plant operating costs and environmental impact are to be minimized. This paper concentrates on mesh friction losses and associated scuffing risk. It describes the preliminary results from using a validated, 3-D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program to optimize cylindrical gears for low friction losses without compromising transmission error (TE), noise and power density. Some case studies and generic procedures for minimizing losses are presented. Future development and further validation work is discussed.

52 The Efficiency Experts (September/October 2010)

Bradley University and Winzeler Gear collaborate on the design and development of an urban light vehicle.

53 Standards Development: Enclosed Drives (March/April 2011)

Chairman Todd Praneis of Cotta Transmission describes the activities of AGMA's Enclosed Drives technical committee.

54 Development of Conical Involute Gears (Beveloids) for Vehicle Transmissions (November/December 2005)

Conical involute gears (beveloids) are used in transmissions with intersecting or skewed axes and for backlash-free transmissions with parallel axes.

55 Tooth Flank Corrections of Wide Face Width Helical Gears that Account for Shaft Deflections (January/February 2005)

This paper discusses the influence of tip relief, root relief, load modification, end relief and their combinations on gear stresses and transmission errors due to shaft deflections.

56 Transmission Error and Noise Emission of Spur Gears (March/April 2007)

Transmission error (TE) is recognized as one of the most important causes of gear acoustic emissions...

57 New Transmissions Drive Automotive Gear Industry (July/August 2006)

News from the major automakers and transmission suppliers.

58 Trends in Automobile Transmissions (July/August 2006)

With all the work in transmission development these days, the demand for automobile transmission gears should remain strong for several years, but suppliers will have to be as flexible as possible to keep up with the changes.

59 How to Achieve a Successful Molded Gear Transmission (July/August 2006)

Molded plastic gears have very little in common with machined gears other than the fact that both use the involute for conjugate action.

60 Gear Transmission Density Maximization (November/December 2011)

This paper presents an approach that provides optimization of both gearbox kinematic arrangement and gear tooth geometry to achieve a high-density gear transmission. It introduces dimensionless gearbox volume functions that can be minimized by the internal gear ratio optimization. Different gearbox arrangements are analyzed to define a minimum of the volume functions. Application of asymmetric gear tooth profiles for power density maximization is also considered.