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This paper addresses Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) as an emerging Itechnology and defines its challenge by describing the state-of-the-art of incumbent materials. The writing is more philosophical in nature than technical and is presented to establish a perspective.
Austempering heat treatments (austenitizing followed by rapid cooling to the tempering temperature) have been applied to nodular irons on an experimental basis for a number of years, but commercial interest in the process has only recently come to the surface.
Siemens is helping the state of Georgia's STEM initiative by helping develop educational programs for the public schools.
Dear Editor: Your article on the ITC's Report to the President on the condition of the U.S. gear industry (Sept./Oct. issue) was most interesting. I am wondering if the total report neglected to mention that some of our inability to export gears is due to our reluctance to provide metric countries with the metric module-based gears that overseas customers demand.
If someone were to tell you that he had a gear material that was stronger per pound than aluminum, as wear-resistant as steel, easier to machine than free-machining steel and capable of producing gears domestically for 20% less than those now cut from foreign made forgings, would you consider that material to be "high tech"? Probably. Well, throw out all the pre-conceived notions that you may have had about "high tech" materials. The high-performance material they didn't teach you about in school is austempered ductile iron (ADI).
Market needs push in 2013, but will it get one? The construction/off-highway industries have been here before. New equipment, technologies and innovations during an economic standstill that some have been dealing with since 2007.
The complete Industry News section from the January/February 2013 issue of Gear Technology.
CNC technology offers new opportunities for the manufacture of bevel gears. While traditionally the purchase of a specific machine at the same time determined a particular production system, CNC technology permits the processing of bevel gears using a wide variety of methods. The ideological dispute between "tapered tooth or parallel depth tooth" and "single indexing or continuous indexing" no longer leads to an irreversible fundamental decision. The systems have instead become penetrable, and with existing CNC machines, it is possible to select this or that system according to factual considerations at a later date.
There's a reason they call it catastrophic gear failure: For example, if the line goes down at a large aluminum rolling mill because a gear set goes bad, the cost can run up to a whopping $200,000 a week. Even in smaller operations, the numbers alone (not to mention all the other problems) can be a plant manager's worst nightmare.
The design of any gearing system is a difficult, multifaceted process. When the system includes bevel gearing, the process is further complicated by the complex nature of the bevel gears themselves. In most cases, the design is based on an evaluation of the ratio required for the gear set, the overall envelope geometry, and the calculation of bending and contact stresses for the gear set to determine its load capacity. There are, however, a great many other parameters which must be addressed if the resultant gear system is to be truly optimum. A considerable body of data related to the optimal design of bevel gears has been developed by the aerospace gear design community in general and by the helicopter community in particular. This article provides a summary of just a few design guidelines based on these data in an effort to provide some guidance in the design of bevel gearing so that maximum capacity may be obtained. The following factors, which may not normally be considered in the usual design practice, are presented and discussed in outline form: Integrated gear/shaft/bearing systems Effects of rim thickness on gear tooth stresses Resonant response
Gleason's GMS analytical gear inspection systems provide all the right features at Eaton Corp.
Nondestructive examination (NDE) of ferrous and nonferrous materials has long proved an effective maintenance and anomaly characterization tool for many industries. Recent research has expanded its applicability to include the inspection of large, open gear drives. Difficulties inherent in other NDE methods make them time-consuming and labor-intensive. They also present the user with the environmental problem of the disposal of used oil. The eddy current method addresses these problems.
AGMA introduced ANSI/AGMA 2015–2–A06— Accuracy Classification System: Radial System for Cylindrical Gears, in 2006 as the first major rewrite of the double-flank accuracy standard in over 18 years. This document explains concerns related to the use of ANSI/AGMA 2015–2–A06 as an accuracy classification system and recommends a revised system that can be of more service to the gearing industry.
Carburized and hardened gears have optimum load-carrying capability. There are many alternative ways to produce a hard case on the gear surface. Also, selective direct hardening has some advantages in its ability to be used in the production line, and it is claimed that performance results equivalent to a carburized gear can be obtained. This article examines the alternative ways of carburizing, nitriding, and selective direct hardening, considering equipment, comparative costs, and other factors. The objective must be to obtain the desired quality at the lowest cost.
A high-performance, 11-axis CNC system from NUM has enabled machine tool manufacturer Sicmat to create a gear honing machine that sets a new industry standard for post-hardening fine finishing.
By increasing the number of gears and the transmission-ratio spread, the engine will run with better fuel efficiency and without loss of driving dynamics. Transmission efficiency itself can be improved by: using fuelefficient transmission oil; optimizing the lubrication systems and pumps; improving shifting strategies and optimizing gearings; and optimizing bearings and seals/gaskets.
Vibration and noise from wind turbines can be significantly influenced - and therefore reduced - by selecting suitable gearing modifications. New options provided by manufacturers of machine tools and grinding machines, and especially state-of-the-art machines and controls, provide combined gearing modifications - or topological gearing corrections - that can now be reliably machined. Theoretical investigations of topological modifications are discussed here with the actual machining and their possible use.
Plastic gears are being used increasingly in applications, such as printers, cameras, small household appliances, small power tools, instruments, timers, counters and various other products. Because of the many variables involved, an engineer who designs gear trains on an occasional basis may find the design process to be somewhat overwhelming. This article outlines a systematic design approach for developing injection molded plastic spur and helical gears. The use of a computer program for designing plastic gears is introduced as an invaluable design tool for solving complex gearing equations.
Mineral-oil-base lubricants show a significant decrease of kinematic viscosity with rising temperature, as exemplified in Figure 1 by lubricants for vehicle gears. An important attribute of lubricants is their viscosity index (VI), according to DIN/ISO 2909 (Ref. 4). Viscosity index is a calculated coefficient, which characterizes the change of viscosity of lubricants as a function of temperature. A high viscosity index represents a low variation of viscosity due to temperature and vice versa. A low viscosity-temperature-dependence is required for lubricants that are operated at significantly varying temperature conditions, such as vehicle engine and gear lubricants in summer and winter time. This way, the oils remain flowing and pumpable at low temperatures on the one hand; and on the other hand, sufficiently thick lubricant films can be formed at higher temperatures for a safe separation of the surfaces.
Aurstempered irons and steels offer the design engineer alternatives to conventional material/process combinations. Depending on the material and the application, austempering may provide the producers of gear and shafts with the following benefits: ease of manufacturing, increased bending and/or contact fatigue strength, better wear resistance or enhanced dampening characteristics resulting in lower noise. Austempered materials have been used to improve the performance of gears and shafts in many applications in a wide range of industries.
More and more gear shops are wrestling with the issue of whether or not solid modeling is right for their gear design work. The Q & A Page of The Gear Industry Home Page has had numerous questions asking how to model gears in solid modeling applications such as AutoCAD, Solidworks and Pr/Engineer. Given the problems people have been having, we are presenting the step-by-step process for modeling gears in Pr/Engineer, but first we thought it would be a good idea to explore the question of whether or not you should even try to design gears using Pro/Engineer or any other 3D solid modeling program.
No one (not even you and I) consistently makes parts with perfect form and dimensions, so we must be able to efficiently check size and shape at many stages in the manufacturing and assembly process to eliminate scrap and rework and improve processes and profits. Automated inspection systems, which are widely used in all kinds of manufacturing operations, provide great efficiencies in checking individual features, but may not be as effective when asked to evaluate an entire part. You need to know why this is true and what you can do to improve your part yields.
An experimental effort has been conducted on an aerospace-quality helical gear train to investigate the thermal behavior of the gear system. Test results from the parametric studies and the superfinishing process are presented.
Before retiring from St. Louis Gear in 2000, Roy Harmon liked to tinker. Since the customer base at the time was seasonal, Harmon was looking for a project to keep himself busy. The engineer decided to challenge himself by designing a “South Pointing Chariot,” a device he had read about in the book The Evolution of the Gear Art by Darle Dudley.
The gear designer needs to know how to determine an appropriate case depth for a gear application in order to guarantee the required load capacity.
The GS:TE-LM thread grinder from Drake Manufacturing is fitted with a robot load/unload system that provides maximum throughput for high-volume production of ground threads.
Gear flank breakage can be observed on edge zone-hardened gears. It occurs, for example, on bevel gears for water turbines, on spur gears for wind energy converters and on single- and double-helical gears for other industrial applications.
Gear engineers have long recognized the importance of considering system factors when analyzing a single pair of gears in mesh. These factors include important considerations such as load sharing in multi-mesh geartrains and bearing clearances, in addition to the effects of flexible components such as housings, gear blanks, shafts and carriers for planetary geartrains. However, in recent years, transmission systems have become increasingly complex—with higher numbers of gears and components—while the quality requirements and expectations in terms of durability, gear whine, rattle and efficiency have increased accordingly.
"General Explanations on Theoretical Bevel Gear Analysis" is part 1 of an eight-part series from Gleason's Dr. Hermann Stadtfeld.
Turnkey Design Services is manufacturing a planetary gear system to increase power density.
Compass Automation unveiled its Robotic Deburring System at Gear Expo 2009.
In this article, the authors calculated the numerical coordinates on the tooth surfaces of spiral bevel gears and then modeled the tooth profiles using a 3-D CAD system. They then manufactured the large-sized spiral bevel gears based on a CAM process using multi-axis control and multi-tasking machine tooling. The real tooth surfaces were measured using a coordinate measuring machine and the tooth flank form errors were detected using the measured coordinates. Moreover, the gears were meshed with each other and the tooth contact patterns were investigated. As a result, the validity of this manufacturing method was confirmed.
This article is part five of an eight-part series on the tribology aspects of angular gear drives. Each article will be presented first and exclusively by Gear Technology, but the entire series will be included in Dr. Stadtfeld’s upcoming book on the subject, which is scheduled for release in 2011.
Hypoid gears are the paragon of gearing. To establish line contact between the pitches in hypoid gears, the kinematically correct pitch surfaces have to be determined based on the axoids. In cylindrical and bevel gears, the axoids are identical to the pitch surfaces and their diameter or cone angle can be calculated simply by using the knowledge about number of teeth and module or ratio and shaft angle. In hypoid gears, a rather complex approach is required to find the location of the teeth—even before any information about flank form can be considered. This article is part seven of an eight-part series on the tribology aspects of angular gear drives.
This article is part four of an eight-part series on the tribology aspects of angular gear drives. Each article will be presented first and exclusively by Gear Technology, but the entire series will be included in Dr. Stadtfeld’s upcoming book on the subject, which is scheduled for release in 2011.
Zerol bevel gears are the special case of spiral bevel gears with a spiral angle of 0°. They are manufactured in a single-indexing face milling process with large cutter diameters, an extra deep tooth profile and tapered tooth depth.
For years, politicians, educators and business leaders have generated various ideas to revitalize U.S. manufacturing and engineering. These include manufacturing initiatives, internal training programs and an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in the classroom. The declining expertise in these fields, however, continues to be a growing problem in every facet of manufacturing and engineering.
For environmental and economic reasons, the use of coolant in machining processes is increasingly being questioned. Rising coolant prices and disposal costs, as well as strains on workers and the environment, have fueled the debate. The use of coolant has given rise to a highly technical system for handling coolant in the machine (cooling, filtering) and protecting the environment (filter, oil-mist collector). In this area the latest cutting materials - used with or without coolant - have great potential for making the metal-removal process more economical. The natural progression to completely dry machining has decisive advantages for hobbing.
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ration under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque and power. Significant parameters in the design are the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near-optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
It used to be that a shop with hustle and plenty of big, fast machines could thrive using a manual system. But no more. Today's economic environment requires more and more in the way of topnotch service and quick turnaround - which frequently means a completely integrated shop floor control system.
Surface measurement of any metal gear tooth contact surface will indicate some degree of peaks and valleys. When gears are placed in mesh, irregular contact surfaces are brought together in the typical combination of rolling and sliding motion. The surface peaks, or asperities, of one tooth randomly contact the asperities of the mating tooth. Under the right conditions, the asperities form momentary welds that are broken off as the gear tooth action continues. Increased friction and higher temperatures, plus wear debris introduced into the system are the result of this action.
Arrow Gear Company of Downers Grove, IL, has implemented a computer system that fully integrates exchange between all of its computer applications. The ELIMS (Electronic Linkage of Information Management Systems) project has increased manufacturing productivity and reduced lead times.
Question: When we purchase our first CNC gear hobbing machine, what questions should we ask about the software? What do we need to know to correctly specify the system requirements?
The popular perception today is that technological advancement is an engine running almost out of control. New products and processes are developing faster than we can keep up with them, as anyone who has had a new computer system crash into obsolescence practically before it's out of the box can tell you. But that's not the case everywhere. Transmission technology, for example.
Question: We are interested in purchasing our first gear hobbing machine. What questions should we ask the manufacturer, and what do we need to know in order to correctly specify the CNC hardware and software system requirements?
Many CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems have been developed and implemented to produce a superior quality design and to increase the design productivity in the gear industry. In general, it is true that a major portion of design tasks can be performed by CAD systems currently available. However, they can only address the computational aspects of gear design that typically require decision-making as well. In most industrial gear design practices, the initial design is the critical task that significantly effects the final results. However, the decisions about estimating or changing gear size parameters must be made by a gear design expert.
Question: We are contemplating purchasing a hobbing machine with dry hobbing capabilities. What do we need to know about the special system requirements for this technology?
Solutions to the governing equations of a spur gear transmission model, developed in a previous article are presented. Factors affecting the dynamic load are identified. It is found that the dynamic load increases with operating speed up to a system natural frequency. At operating speeds beyond the natural frequency the dynamic load decreases dramatically. Also, it is found that the transmitted load and shaft inertia have little effect upon the total dynamic load. Damping and friction decrease the dynamic load. Finally, tooth stiffness has a significant effect upon dynamic loadings the higher the stiffness, the lower the dynamic loading. Also, the higher the stiffness, the higher the rotating speed required for peak dynamic response.
The paper describes a procedure for the design of internal gear pairs, which is a generalized form of the long and short addendum system. The procedure includes checks for interference, tip interference, undercutting, tip interference during cutting, and rubbing during cutting.
Recently, there has been increased interest in the dynamic effects in gear systems. This interest is stimulated by demands for stronger, higher speed, improved performance, and longer-lived systems. This in turn had stimulated numerous research efforts directed toward understanding gear dynamic phenomena. However, many aspects of gear dynamics are still not satisfactorily understood.
This article discusses an application driven approach to the computer-aided sizing of spur gear teeth. The methodology is bases on the index of tooth loading and environment of application of the gear. It employs handbook knowledge and empirical information to facilitate the design process for a novice. Results show that the approach is in agreement with the textbook data. However, this technique requires less expert knowledge to arrive at the conclusion. The methodology has been successfully implemented as a gear tooth sizing module of a parallel axis gear drive expert system.
Question: We just received permission to purchase our first CNC gear inspection system. With capital approvals so hard to come by, especially for inspection equipment, I want to be sure to purchase a system I can count of for years to come. My past experience with purchasing CNC equipment has shown me that serviceability of the computer and the CNC controller portion of the system can be a problem in just a few years because of the obsolescence factor. What information do I need to look for when selecting a supplier to reduce the risk of obsolescence, as well as to reduce the long-term servicing costs in the computer and controls portion of the system?
Cubic boron nitride (CBN) finishing of carburized gearing has been shown to have certain economic and geometric advantages and, as a result, it has been applied to a wide variety of precision gears in many different applications. In critical applications such as aerospace drive systems, however, any new process must be carefully evaluated before it is used in a production application. Because of the advantages associated with this process, a test program was instituted to evaluate the load capacity of aerospace-quality gears finished by the CBN process as compared to geometrically identical gears finished by conventional grinding processes. This article presents a brief description of the CBN process, its advantages in an aerospace application, and the results of an extensive test program conducted by Boeing Helicopters (BH) aimed at an evaluation of the effects of this process on the scoring, surface durability, and bending fatigue properties of spur gears. In addition, the results of an x-ray diffraction study to determine the surface and subsurface residual stress distributions of both shot-peened and nonshot-peened CBN-ground gears as compared to similar conventionally ground gears are also presented.
This article presents an efficient and direct method for the synthesis of compound planetary differential gear trains for the generation of specified multiple speed ratios. It is a train-value method that utilizes the train values of the integrated train components of the systems to form design equations which are solved for the tooth numbers of the gears, the number of mating gear sets and the number of external contacts in the system. Application examples, including vehicle differential transmission units, rear-end differentials with unit and fractional speed ratios, multi-input functions generators and robot wrist joints are given.
In the 1960's and early 1970's, considerable work was done to identify the various modes of damage that ended the lives of rolling element bearings. A simple summary of all the damage modes that could lead to failure is given in Table 1. In bearing applications that have insufficient or improper lubricant, or have contaminants (water, solid particles) or poor sealing, failure, such as excessive wear or vibration or corrosion, may occur, rather than contact fatigue. Usually other components in the overall system besides bearings also suffer. Over the years, builders of transmissions, axles, and gear boxes that comprise such systems have understood the need to improve the operating environment within such units, so that some system life improvements have taken place.
The availability of technical software has grown rapidly in the last few years because of the proliferation of personal computers. It is rare to find an organization doing technical work that does not have some type of computer. For gear designers and manufacturers, proper use of the computer can mean the difference between meeting the competition or falling behind in today's business world. The right answers the first time are essential if cost-effective design and fabrication are to be realized. The computer is capable of optimizing a design by methods that are too laborious to undertake using hard calculations. As speeds continue to climb and more power per pound is required from gear systems, it no longer is possible to design "on the safe side" by using larger service factors. At high rotational speeds a larger gear set may well have less capacity because of dynamic effects. The gear engineer of today must consider the entire gear box or even the entire rotating system as his or her domain.
This method of testing large gearboxes or, indeed, any power transmission element, had numerous advantages and offers the possibility of large savings in time, energy, and plant, if the overall situation is conducive to its use. This usually requires that several such units need to be tested, and that they can be conveniently connected to each to each other in such a way as to form a closed-loop drive train. No power sink is required, and the drive input system has only to make up power losses. The level of circulating power is controlled by the torque, which is applied statically during rotation, and the drive speed. Principles, advantage, and limitations are described, together with recent experiences in the only known large-scale usage of this technique in Australia.
There are different types of spiral bevel gears, based on the methods of generation of gear-tooth surfaces. A few notable ones are the Gleason's gearing, the Klingelnberg's Palloid System, and the Klingelnberg's and Oerlikon's Cyclo Palliod System. The design of each type of spiral bevel gear depends on the method of generation used. It is based on specified and detailed directions which have been worked out by the mentioned companies. However, there are some general aspects, such as the concepts of pitch cones, generating gear, and conditions of force transmissions that are common for all types of spiral bevel gears.
Durability is the most important criterion used to define the quality of a gear. The freezing of metals has been acknowledged for almost thirty years as an effective method for increasing durability, or "wear life," and decreasing residual stress in tool steels. The recent field of deep cryogenics (below -300 degrees F) has brought us high temperature superconductors, the superconducting super collider, cryo-biology, and magnotehydrodynamic drive systems. It has also brought many additional durability benefits to metals.
Bodine Electric Co. of Chicago, IL., has a 97-year history of fine-and medium-pitch gear manufacturing. Like anywhere else, traditions, old systems, and structures can be beneficial, but they can also become paradigms and obstacles to further improvements. We were producing a high quality product, but our goal was to become more cost effective. Carbide hobbing is seen as a technological innovation capable of enabling a dramatic, rather than an incremental, enhancement to productivity and cost savings.
Crown gearings are not a new type of gear system. On the contrary, they have been in use since very early times for various tasks. Their earliest form is that of the driving sprocket, found in ancient Roman watermills or Dutch windmills. The first principles of gear geometry and simple methods of production (shaper cutting) were developed in the 1940s. In the 1950s, however, crown gears' importance declined. Their tasks were, for example, taken over by bevel gears, which were easier to manufacture and could transmit greater power. Current subject literature accordingly contains very little information on crown gears, directed mainly to pointing out their limitations (Ref. 1).
Face-milled hypoid pinions produced by the three-cut, Fixed Setting system - where roughing is done on one machine and finishing for the concave-OB and convex-IB tooth flanks is done on separate machines with different setups - are still in widespread use today.
In one of my many visits to northern New York state, which included the St. Lawrence River (Thousand Islands Region) and the Adirondack Mountains, I visited Croghan, a village on the Beaver River, which is fed by the Stillwater Resevoir in the Adirondack Mountains. At the base of a dam within the village, I found the remnants of a water turbine and a bevel gear drive system. Having worked for The Gleason Works for many years, I was intrigued by the remains of the bevel gears, which appeared to have had wooden teeth at one time.
Designers are constantly searching for ways to reduce rotocraft drive system weight. Reduced weight can increase the payload, performance, or power density of current and future systems. One example of helicopter transmission weight reduction was initiated as part of the United States Army Advanced Rotocraft Transmission program. This example used a split-torque, face-gear configuration concept (Ref. 1). compared to a conventional design with spiral-bevel gears, the split-torque, face-gear design showed substantial weight savings benefits. Also, the use of face gears allows a wide-range of possible configurations with technical and economic benefits (Ref. 2).
March 19-22, 1989. first International Applied Mechanical Systems Design Conference. Convention Center, Nashville, TN. March 28-30, 1989. Gear Design Seminar, University of Northern Iowa
Universal tractor transmission oil (UTTO) is multifunctional tractor oil formulated for use in transmissions, final drives, differentials, wet brakes, and hydraulic systems of farm tractors employing a common oil reservoir. In the present work, the gear protection properties of two formulated vegetable-based UTTO oils, one synthetic ester-based UTTO oil, one synthetic ester gear oil, and one mineral based UTTO oil are investigated.
Dressable vitrified bond CBN grinding tools combine the advantages of other common tool systems in generating gear grinding. Yet despite those technological advantages, there is only a small market distribution of these grinding tools due to high tool costs. Furthermore, scant literature exists regarding generating gear grinding with dressable CBN. This is especially true regarding the influence of the grinding tool system on manufacturing-related component properties. The research objective of this report is to determine the advantages of dressable CBN tools in generating gear grinding.
With all the advantages of building float into a planetary gear system, what advantages are there to using a carrier in the first place, rather than simply having your planets float in the system?
Composite spur gears were designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center. The composite web was bonded only to the inner and outer hexagonal features that were machined from an initially all-metallic aerospace quality spur gear. The hybrid gear was tested against an all-steel gear and against a mating hybrid gear. Initial results indicate that this type of hybrid design may have a dramatic effect on drive system weight without sacrificing strength.
It is widely recognized that the reduction of CO2 requires consistent light-weight design of the entire vehicle. Likewise, the trend towards electric cars requires light-weight design to compensate for the additional weight of battery systems. The need for weight reduction is also present regarding vehicle transmissions. Besides the design of the gearbox housing, rotating masses such as gear wheels and shafts have a significant impact on fuel consumption. The current technology shows little potential of gear weight reduction due to the trade-off between mass optimization and the manufacturing process. Gears are usually forged followed or not by teeth cutting operation.
This article offers an overview of the practical design of a naval gear for combined diesel or gas turbine propulsion (CODOG type). The vibration performance of the gear is tested in a back-to-back test. The gear presented is a low noise design for the Royal Dutch Navy's LCF Frigate. The design aspects for low noise operation were incorporated into the overall gear system design. Therefore, special attention was paid to all the parameters that could influence the noise and vibration performance of the gearbox. These design aspects, such as tooth corrections, tooth loading, gear layout, balance, lubrication and resilient mounting, will be discussed.
Powder metal. To gear makers today, the phrase conjures images of low power applications in non-critical systems. As powder metal technology advances, as the materials increase in density and strength, such opinions are changing. It is an ongoing, evolutionary process and one that will continue for some time. According to Donald G. White, the executive director of the Metal Powder Industries Federation, in his State-of-the-P/M Industry - 1999 report. "The P/M world is changing rapidly and P/M needs to be recognized as a world-class process - national, continental and even human barriers and prejudices must be eliminated - we must join forces as a world process - unified in approach and goals."
This book is written for those among us, with or without a technical background, who have an occasional need to use, purchase or specify gears. The author assumes an audience that is not made up of experienced gear designers, but of people who do need to have a basic understanding of the criteria used by the designer. The subjects covered include not only the gears themselves, but their manufacturing methods, the systems that contain them and the terms used to describe them.
Many potential problems are not apparent when using new induction heat treating systems. The operator has been trained properly, and setup parameters are already developed. Everything is fresh in one's mind. But as the equipment ages, personnel changes or new parts are required to be processed on the old equipment ages, personnel changes or new parts are required to b processed on the old equipment, important information can get lost in the shuffle.
The type of lubricant and the method of applying it to the tooth flanks of large open gears is very important from the point of view of lubrication technology and maintenance. When selecting the type of lubricant and the application method, it is important to check whether it is possible to feed the required lubricant quantity to the load-carrying tooth flanks, This is necessary to avoid deficient lubrication, damage to the gear and operational malfunctions. It is important to determine the type of lubricant, which may be fluid or grease-like. The consistency of the lubricant will have a direct impact on the ability of the lubrication system to feed adequately the lubricant to the gear. The interactions between the common types of lubricant and the lubrication application methods for open gear drives are shown in Fig. 1.
Today motion control systems are migrating from analog to digital technology at an ever increasing rate because digital technology at an ever-increasing rate because digital drives provide performance equal to or exceeding that of analog drives, plus information to run your machine more effectively and manage your quality program and your business. Most of this data is simply not available from analog drives.
In 1993, M & M Precision Systems was awarded a three-year, partial grant from the Advanced Technology Program of the Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Working with Pennsylvania State University, M&M embarked on a technology development project to advance gear measurement capabilities to levels of accuracy never before achieved.
The trend toward moving coordinate measuring machines to the shop floor to become an integral part of the manufacturing operations brings real time process control within the reach of many companies. Putting measuring machines on the shop floor, however, subjects them to harsh environmental conditions. Like any measuring system, CMMs are sensitive to any ambient condition that deviates from the "perfect" conditions of the metrology lab.
Richard Spens has been rebuilding antique machine tools for nearly a decade. He is drawn to the ornate architecture and fascinated by the open design that allows you to see inside a machine as it operates. "Working with machines has been a lifelong thing with me," said Spens, now a design engineer. "I started building steam engines when I was 10 years old." What he's working on now, however, is bigger than any steam engine or machine tool. In rural Livonia, Michigan, Spens is converting an old dairy barn into an accurate recreation of a turn-of-the-century, belt driven gear shop. It's an outgrowth of his interest in antique machine tools and, he feels, a way to stem the tide that is costing America so many manufacturing and skilled trade jobs.
One of the best ways to learn the ISO 6336 gear rating system is to recalculate the capacity of a few existing designs and to compare the ISO 6336 calculated capacity to your experience with those designs and to other rating methods. For these articles, I'll assume that you have a copy of ISO 6336, you have chosen a design for which you have manufacturing drawings and an existing gear capacity calculation according to AGMA 2001 or another method. I'll also assume that you have converted dimensions, loads, etc. into the SI system of measurement.
This textbook, written for college level engineering students, gives a basic grounding in the complexities of product liability law. It also provides useful information to those of us involved in the manufacturing of gears and gear systems in that the fundamental concepts apply to all types of manufacturers.
So, you've been assigned the task to buy an induction heating system for heat treating: It's an intimidating, but by no means impossible, assignment. With the help of the information in this article, you could be able to develop common ground with your supplier and have the tools to work with him or her to get the right machine for your jobs.
Indianapolis is a nice city. No. It's a great city for a convention. The facilities and the city are modern, clean and bright. The Convention Center is easy to get to by either car or plane, and its central location in the heart of town and the enclosed skyway system between it and major hotels put visitors close to amenities like restaurants, shopping and entertainment. The people are friendly and go out of their way to make visitors feel welcome.
October 5-8, 1986 AGMA Fall technical Conference & Gearing Exhibit September 17-19, 1986 Ohio State University Gear Noise Seminar November 11-13, 1986 SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic November 19-21, 1986 Seminar: Gear System Design for Minimum Noise
Long before oil, climate change and energy demand were making headlines in Washington, Minnesota State Auditor Rebecca Otto and her husband installed a wind energy system on their property in Minnesota.
Dontyne Systems, a U.K. company founded by Michael Fish and David Palmer, recently unveiled a new software program for its Gear Production Suite.
Above all, a gear is not just a mechanical transmission, but is developed to a system fulfilling multiple demands, such as clutch integration, selectable output speeds, and controls of highest electronic standards. This paper shows the basics for high-speed gear design and a selection of numerous applications in detailed design and operational needs.
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is adapted, validated and applied to spinning gear systems with emphasis on predicting windage losses. Several spur gears and a disc are studied. The CFD simulations return good agreement with measured windage power loss.
In addition to the face milling system, the face hobbing process has been developed and widely employed by the gear industry. However, the mechanism of the face hobbing process is not well known.
Bevel gear systems are particularly sensitive to improper assembly. Slight errors in gear positioning can turn a well-designed, quality manufactured gear set into a noisy, prone-to-failure weak link in your application.
One of the most effective methods in solving the edge loading problem due to excess misalignment and deflection in aerospace actuation gearing is to localize tooth-bearing contact by crowning the teeth. Irrespective of the applied load, if the misalignment and/or deflection are large enough to cause the contact area to reduce to zero, the stress becomes large enough to cause failure. The edge loading could cause the teeth to break or pit, but too much crowning may also cause the teeth to pit due to concentrated loading. In this paper, a proposed method to localize the contact bearing area and calculate the contact stress with crowning is presented and demonstrated on some real-life examples in aerospace actuation systems.
Micropitting has become a major concern in certain classes of industrial gear applications, especially wind power and other relatively highly loaded, somewhat slow-speed applications, where carburized gears are used to facilitate maximum load capacity in a compact package. While by itself the appearance of micropitting does not generally cause much perturbation in the overall operation of a gear system, the ultimate consequences of a micropitting failure can, and frequently are, much more catastrophic.
Bore finishing system from Sunnen helps Cloyes Gear and Products achieve high accuracy, productivity and process capability.
This article presents a new spur gear 20-degree design that works interchangeably with the standard 20-degree system and achieves increased tooth bending strength and hence load carrying capacity.
If a gear system is run continuously for long periods of time—or if the starting loads are very low and within the normal operating spectrum—the effect of the start-up conditions may often be insignificant in the determination of the life of the gear system. Conversely, if the starting load is significantly higher than any of the normal operating conditions, and the gear system is started and stopped frequently, the start-up load may, depending on its magnitude and frequency, actually be the overriding, limiting design condition.
Gear metrology is a revolving door of software packages and system upgrades. It has to be in order to keep up with the productivity and development processes of the machines on the manufacturing floor. Temperature compensation, faster inspection times and improved software packages are just a few of the advancements currently in play as companies prepare for new opportunities in areas like alternative energy, automotive and aerospace/defense.
As is well known in involute gearing, “perfect” involute gears never work perfectly in the real world. Flank modifications are often made to overcome the influences of errors coming from manufacturing and assembly processes as well as deflections of the system. The same discipline applies to hypoid gears.
Google “lean manufacturing” and you will find a virtually endless font of information regarding formal lean implementation. You’ll see definitions for Japanese words such as kaizen, gemba, muda, mura, kanban, and so on. You will also find other variations or iterations of lean, e.g.: Six Sigma, Lean Sigma, TPS (Toyota Production System), TOC (Theory of Constraints), JIT (Just in Time), and others.
In most transmission systems, one of the main power loss sources is the loaded gear mesh. In this article, the influences of gear geometry parameters on gear efficiency, load capacity, and excitation are shown.
An experimental effort has been conducted on an aerospace-quality helical gear train to investigate the thermal behavior of the gear system as many important operational conditions were varied.
Excess lubricant supply in gearing contributes to power loss due to churning as well as the requirements of the lubrication system itself. Normally, a much larger amount of oil than required is used for cooling because so much of it is thrown away by centrifugal force. To lower the amount of lubricant required and reduce those losses, it is necessary to discover the ideal location of the supplying nozzle.
The Pentac Plus is the latest generation of Gleason’s Pentac bevel gear cutting system. It is designed to allow much higher tool life and improved productivity, especially for cutters using multiple face blade geometry.
Industrial gear standards have been used to support reliability through the specification of requirements for design, manufacturing and verification. The consensus development of an international wind turbine gearbox standard is an example where gear products can be used in reliable mechanical systems today. This has been achieved through progressive changes in gear technology, gear design methods and the continual development and refinement of gearbox standards.
Calculation of gear tooth flexibility is of interest for at least two reasons: (a) It controls, at least in part, the vibratory properties of a transmission system hence, fatigue resistance and noise: (b) it controls load sharing in multiple tooth contact.
One of the current research activities here at California State University at Fullerton is systematization of existing knowledge of design of planetary gear trains.
Tribology Aspects in Angular Transmission Systems, Part 2
Beveloids are helical gears with nonparallel shafts, with shaft angles generally between 5 degrees and 15 degrees. This is part VI in the Tribology Aspects in Angular Transmission Systems Series
The NASA Lewis Research Center investigated the effect of tooth profile on the acoustic behavior of spur gears through experimental techniques. The tests were conducted by Cleveland State University (CSU) in NASA Lewis' spur gear testing apparatus. Acoustic intensity (AI) measurements of the apparatus were obtained using a Robotic Acoustic Intensity Measurement System (RAIMS). This system was developed by CSU for NASA to evaluate the usefulness of a highly automated acoustic intensity measurement tool in the reverberant environment of gear transmission test cells.
Vehicle gear noise testing is a complex and often misunderstood subject. Gear noise is really a system problem.(1) most gearing used for power transmission is enclosed in a housing and, therefore, little or no audible sound is actually heard from the gear pair.(2) The vibrations created by the gears are amplified by resonances of structural elements. This amplification occurs when the speed of the gear set is such that the meshing frequency or a multiply of it is equal to a natural frequency of the system in which the gears are mounted.
Almost all machines or mechanical systems contain precision contact elements such as bearings, cams, rears, shafts, splines and rollers. These components have two important common requirements: first, they must possess sufficient mechanical properties, such as, high hardness, fatigue strength and wear resistance to maximize their performance and life; second, they must be finished to close dimensional tolerances to minimize noise, vibration and fatigue loading.
Throughout the history of civilization attempts have been made to limit the number of the measuring systems in use with the result that today only two systems, English and metric, are practiced in the industrial nations. Globally, the metric system has been gaining ground, and the English system has been losing it. As of 1986, only the United States, Burma and Brunei remain uncommitted to metric conversion in the sense that no government controlled deadlines for the conversion have been established.
Among the various types of gearing systems available to the gear application engineer is the versatile and unique worm and worm gear set. In the simpler form of a cylindrical worm meshing at 90 degree axis angle with an enveloping worm gear, it is widely used and has become a traditional form of gearing. (See Fig. 1) This is evidenced by the large number of gear shops specializing in or supplying such gear sets in unassembled form or as complete gear boxes. Special designs as well as standardized ratio sets covering wide ratio ranges and center distanced are available with many as stock catalog products.
"We have met the enemy and he is us," says Pogo, the cartoon character. The enemy is the crisis in our educational system, and "crisis" is the only term that accurately describes the situation. It is every bit as serious, if not more so, than the crisis that followed the Soviet launching of Sputnik in 1957 - and for many of the same reasons. Our failing public education system threatens our position int he global political and business arenas; and this time, it's not just the Soviets or the Japanese who need to be taken seriously as competitors. Every country int he world that graduates better prepared students than we do - and there are a great many of them - has us at a competitive disadvantage.
Worm gear speed reducers give the design engineer considerable options, but these gear systems present a challenge to the lubrication engineer. Heat energy generated by the high rate of sliding and friction in the contact zone causes worm gears to be relatively inefficient compared to other gear types. Because worm gears operate under a boundary or near-boundary lubrication regime, a satisfactory lubricant should contain a friction modifier to alleviate these conditions.
The south-pointing chariot exhibited at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., (circa 2600 BC)is shown in Fig. 1. Although the mechanism is ancient, it is by no means either primitive or simplistic. The pin-tooth gears drive a complex system, wherein the monk on the top of the chariot continues to point in a preset direction, no matter what direction the vehicle in moved, without a slip of the wheels.(1)
Modern manufacturing processes have become an ally of the product designer in producing higher quality, higher performing components in the transportation industry. This is particularly true in grinding systems where the physical properties of CBN abrasives have been applied to improving cycle times, dimensional consistency, surface integrity and overall costs. Of these four factors, surface integrity offers the greatest potential for influencing the actual design of highly stressed, hardened steel components.
The concept of "transmission error" is relatively new and stems from research work in the late 1950s by Gregory, Harris and Munro,(1) together with the need to check the accuracy of gear cutting machines. The corresponding commercial "single flank" testing equipment became available in the 1960s, but it was not until about ten years ago that it became generally used, and only recently has it been possible to test reliably at full load and full speed.
The last decade has been a period of far-reaching change for the metal working industry. The effect of higher lubricant costs, technical advances in machine design and increasing competition are making it essential that manufacturers of gears pay more attention to testing, selecting and controlling cutting fluid systems. Lubricant costs are not a large percentage of the process cost relative to items such as raw materials, equipment and labor, and this small relative cost has tended to reduce the economic incentive to evaluate and to change cutting fluids.
NC and CNC metal cutting machines are among the most popular machine tools in the business today, There is also a strong trend toward using flexible machining centers and flexible manufacturing systems. The same trend is apparent in gear cutting. Currently the trend toward CNC tools has increased, and sophisticated controls and peripheral equipment for gear cutting machines are now available; however, the investment in a CNC gear machine has to be justified on the basis of economic facts as well as technical advantages.
September 3-11 the 1986 International Machine Tool Show, "The World of Manufacturing Technology", will be held at the McCormick Place Exposition Center in Chicago. More that 1000 exhibits from over thirty countries are planned. These exhibits will present a complete range of machine-tool products from 2-story high presses to complete manufacturing systems, lathes, lasers, CAD/CAM systems and robotics.
The manufacturing process to produce a gear essentially consist of: material selection, blank preshaping, tooth shaping, heat treatment, and final shaping. Only by carefully integrating of the various operations into a complete manufacturing system can an optimum gear be obtained. The final application of the gear will determine what strength characteristics will be required which subsequently determine the material and heat treatments.
As a result of extensive research into the vibration characteristics of gear drives, a systematic approach has evolved, by which damaging resonances can be eliminated. The method combines finite element techniques with experimental signature and modal analyses. Implementation of the bulk of the method can be carried out early in the design stage. A step-by-step description of the approach, as it was applied to an existing accessory drive, is given in the text. It is shown how premature bearing failures were eliminated by detuning the torsional oscillations of a gearshaft. A dramatic reduction in vibration levels was achieved as a result of detuning the problem gear. The proposed approach can be extended to other types of rotating machines.
Super-reduction hypoid gears (SRH) are bevel worm gears with certain differences regarding hypoid gears. If two axes are positioned in space and the task is to transmit motion and torque between them using some kind of gears with a ratio above 5 and even higher than 50, the following cases are commonly known. Tribology Aspects in Angular Transmission Systems, Part VIII.
In the design of any new gear drive, the performance of previous similar designs is very carefully considered. In the course of evaluating one such new design, the authors were faced with the task of comparing it with two similar existing systems, both of which were operating quite successfully. A problem arose, however, when it was realized that the bending stress levels of the two baselines differed substantially. In order to investigate these differences and realistically compare them to the proposed new design, a three-dimensional finite-element method (FEM) approach was applied to all three gears.
Curvic Couplings were first introduced in 1942 to meet the need for permanent couplings and releasing couplings (clutches), requiring extreme accuracy and maximum load carrying capacity, together with a fast rate of production. The development of the Curvic Coupling stems directly from the manufacture of Zerol and spiral bevel gears since it is made on basically similar machines and also uses similar production methods. The Curvic Coupling can therefore lay claim to the same production advantages and high precision associated with bevel gears.
The load capacity rating of gears had its beginning in the 18th century at Leiden University when Prof. Pieter van Musschenbroek systematically tested the wooden teeth of windmill gears, applying the bending strength formula published by Galilei one century earlier. In the next centuries several scientists improved or extended the formula, and recently a Draft International Standard could be presented.
Gear manufacturing schedules that provide both quality and economy are dependent on efficient quality control techniques with reliable measuring equipment. Given the multitude of possible gear deviations, which can be found only by systematic and detailed measuring of the gear teeth, adequate quality control systems are needed. This is especially true for large gears, on which remachining or rejected workpieces create very high costs. First, observation of the gears allows adjustment of the settings on the equipment right at the beginning of the process and helps to avoid unproductive working cycles. Second, the knowledge of deviations produced on the workpiece helps disclose chance inadequacies on the production side: e.g., faults in the machines and tools used, and provides an opportunity to remedy them.
These are changing times for industry. Trauma and uncertainty are always a part of change, and change is not always for the better. Change is usually forced, most frequently by competition. Our competitive free enterprise system should be able to respond to competition because that's its basis. These are critical years. If we do not respond effectively to change and competition, it could be disasterous.
March 19-22, 1989. First International Applied Mechanical Systems Design Conference. Convention Center, Nashville, TN. April 25-27, 1989. ASME 5th Annual Power Transmission & Gearing Conference, Chicago, IL
News Items About STEM
1 Honing System Allows Robotic Part Loading of Landing Gear Components (July 24, 2008)
The SVC-310 vertical CNC honing system from Sunnen sizes small and medium gas/diesel engine blocks, large gears, air compressors, aerosp... Read News
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19 Veeco to Display Surface Metrology System at IMTS (September 8, 2010)
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21 Gleason Introduces Gleason Metrology Systems (September 10, 2010)
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38 American Stress Technologies Introduces New Inspection System (February 15, 2005)
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39 New Gear Inspection System from M&M Precision (January 4, 2005)
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40 New CMM System from Mitutoyo (December 16, 2003)
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52 Schott Systeme Streamlines Gear Design Software (April 15, 2006)
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58 Gleason Offers Upgrade Package for Inspection Systems (October 18, 2010)
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60 Vomat Offers Advanced Filtration System (September 4, 2013)
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61 Gear Expo Preview: Dontyne Systems Booth #1052 (August 14, 2013)
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71 Oelheld Offers Vomat Filtration System (May 23, 2013)
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72 Chinese Company Orders Nitrex Nitriding System (May 28, 2013)
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73 Forkardt Offers OmniGrip Collet System (November 19, 2013)
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74 Gleason Offers Retrofit Package for Inspection Systems (November 25, 2013)
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87 PTG Offers Profile Management System (March 28, 2014)
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Hardinge Inc. announces the release of the 80 mm FlexC vulcanized collet system. The collet chucks mount directly to the machine spindle.... Read News
89 ALD-Holcroft Installs ModulTherm System (March 8, 2013)
ALD-Holcroft, Wixom, MI, has successfully installed and commissioned a Four (4) chamber ModulTherm system; the first of three (3) systems... Read News
90 BIG Kaiser Introduces Twin Cutter Boring System (June 8, 2011)
BIG Kaiser's 319 SW series is an exceptionally rigid, new style, twin cutter rough boring system. These corrosion-resistant boring he... Read News
91 Duo Plus Boasts Efficient Grip System (April 26, 2011)
One of the most important keys to success in modern workpiece production is efficiency. Machines are supposed to perform more than just o... Read News
92 Non-Coplanar Connecting Rod System Does the Work of Three Machines (July 21, 2011)
C & B Machinery of Livonia, Michigan has improved productivity and flexibility of their double disc non-coplanar connecting rod grind... Read News
93 IPTEX 2012 Booth Preview: Dontyne Systems Booth A25 (January 17, 2012)
Dontyne software and consultancy services are aimed at the efficient design and manufacture of geared systems and their use in the transm... Read News
94 Mag Megaflex System Scales Up High Volume Machining (March 27, 2012)
Astraeus Wind Energy's Mag Megaflex machining system has passed its initial supplier qualification by completing "Operation 20&q... Read News
95 Abtex Introduces Machine Compatible Deburring System (March 19, 2012)
Abtex Corporation has expanded its Tri-Ten series of deburring systems to include a model that is designed to accept precision ground par... Read News
96 Honing System Offers Increased Part Capacity (April 19, 2011)
The new all-electric HTA hone from Sunnen brings increased part capacity and stroker torque to applications such as bore resurfacing of h... Read News
97 China Spends 2.5 Million on CNC Helical Profile Milling System (April 14, 2011)
A major Chinese compressor manufacturer recently ordered a machine from Holroyd Precision of Milnrow, Lancashire to be used for the rough... Read News
98 Big Kaiser Releases ER Collet Chuck System (November 17, 2010)
Big Kaiser has recently introduced the Mega ER Grip, a new premium ER collet chuck system featuring a runout accuracy of .00012" (th... Read News
99 Gleason Introduces 350GMS Inspection System (November 2, 2010)
Complete inspection of gears as large as 350 mm in diameter now can be performed up to 40 percent faster (gear design dependant... Read News
100 Inductoheat Ships Induction Hardening and Tempering System (December 6, 2010)
Inductoheat, Inc., a leading induction heating equipment manufacturer, recently shipped an induction hardening and tempering system to a ... Read News
101 Vertical Honing System Covers Wide Range of Work (February 4, 2011)
Sunnen's SV-1005 series vertical CNC honing system with integrated air gaging system provides closed-loop control of tool size, along... Read News
102 Big Kaiser 318 Series–A Complete Tooling System (February 11, 2011)
Big Kaiser has introduced the new, large diameter Kaiser 318 Series-a complete tooling system supporting a variety of aluminum and steel ... Read News
103 Ontario Drive and Gear Signs Memorandum with Textron Systems (March 27, 2012)
Textron Systems Canada Inc. recently announced that the company has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Ontario Drive an... Read News
104 Mahr Federal Displays Metrology Systems at Mfg 4 (April 5, 2012)
Mahr Federal will be featuring the addition of an economical and powerful new skidless surface evaluation system to its MarSurf line of m... Read News
105 Waterjet Service Inc. Changes Name to WSI Waterjet Systems International (November 1, 2012)
WSI Waterjet Systems International (formerly named Waterjet Service Inc.) , the globally established, recommended and trusted designer, m... Read News
106 Mitutoyo Measuring System Inspects Large and Small Workpieces (October 11, 2012)
Mitutoyo America Corporation announces availability of the innovative, new Ko-ga-me measurement head - designed to bring full capability ... Read News
107 AFC Ships Single Row Pusher Furnace System (November 9, 2012)
A manufacturer located in the South Central region of the United States is the recipient of a new AFC-Holcroft Single Row Pusher Furnace... Read News
108 Dontyne Systems Establishes North American Support Facility (January 31, 2013)
Dontyne Systems, supplier of gear design software and systems, has recently established a North American support facility. Dr. Mich... Read News
109 Linamar Purchases AFC-Holcroft Furnace System (February 25, 2013)
Linamar, a multi-national supplier of automotive components, assemblies and castings, has purchased a new Batch Integral Quench System fr... Read News
110 Marposs Introduces Touch Probe System (October 10, 2012)
Marposs Corp. announces the new Mida T25P ultra-compact, high accuracy touch probe for machine tools with piezoelectric technology. Altho... Read News
111 Mahr Federal Adds Wireless System to Indicators (August 29, 2012)
Mahr Federal has added a new MarConnect Integrated Wireless data transmission system to its family of MarCator Digital Indicators at pric... Read News
112 Renishaw Introduces Additive Manufacturing Systems (May 16, 2012)
Renishaw's new laser melting additive-metal manufacturing process is capable of producing fully dense metal parts direct from 3-D CAD... Read News
113 Jenoptik Wavemore System Offers High-Accuracy Measurement (May 1, 2012)
The new Jenoptik Wavemove automated surface roughness and contour measuring system includes up to seven CNC axes for complete high-accura... Read News
114 IMTS Preview: MC Machinery Systems, Inc. (June 8, 2012)
MC Machinery Systems, Inc., will display several new technologies and product lines at IMTS 2012 (booth N-6825), including the new wire E... Read News
115 Ingersoll Introduces T-Micro System (June 11, 2012)
Ingersoll Cutting Tools introduces the T-Micro system specifically designed for the machining of very small internal diameters. The T-Mic... Read News
116 IMTS Preview: Dontyne Systems (August 17, 2012)
Dontyne Systems has developed a Gearbox Model to simulate deflection of a fully coupled system of gear, shaft and bearing components incl... Read News
117 Vomat Introduces Flexible Filtration System (July 8, 2014)
In tool grinding all individual processing steps are part of a coherent value chain. Therefore it is important that the filtration proces... Read News