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This presentation introduces a new procedure that - derived from exact calculations - aids in determining the parameters of the validation testing of spiral bevel and hypoid gears in single-reduction axles.
As is well known in involute gearing, “perfect” involute gears never work perfectly in the real world. Flank modifications are often made to overcome the influences of errors coming from manufacturing and assembly processes as well as deflections of the system. The same discipline applies to hypoid gears.
The development of a new gear strength computer program based upon the finite element method, provides a better way to calculate stresses in bevel and hypoid gear teeth. The program incorporates tooth surface geometry and axle deflection data to establish a direct relationship between fillet bending stress, subsurface shear stress, and applied gear torque. Using existing software links to other gear analysis programs allows the gear engineer to evaluate the strength performance of existing and new gear designs as a function of tooth contact pattern shape, position and axle deflection characteristics. This approach provides a better understanding of how gears react under load to subtle changes in the appearance of the no load tooth contact pattern.
By increasing the number of gears and the transmission-ratio spread, the engine will run with better fuel efficiency and without loss of driving dynamics. Transmission efficiency itself can be improved by: using fuelefficient transmission oil; optimizing the lubrication systems and pumps; improving shifting strategies and optimizing gearings; and optimizing bearings and seals/gaskets.
Gear engineers have long recognized the importance of considering system factors when analyzing a single pair of gears in mesh. These factors include important considerations such as load sharing in multi-mesh geartrains and bearing clearances, in addition to the effects of flexible components such as housings, gear blanks, shafts and carriers for planetary geartrains. However, in recent years, transmission systems have become increasingly complex—with higher numbers of gears and components—while the quality requirements and expectations in terms of durability, gear whine, rattle and efficiency have increased accordingly.
This paper presents the geometric design of hypoid gears with involute gear teeth. An overview of face cutting techniques prevalent in hypoid gear fabrication is presented. Next, the specification of a planar involute rack is reviewed. This rack is used to define a variable diameter cutter based upon a system of cylindroidal coordinates; thus, a cursory presentation of cylindroidal coordinates is included. A mapping transforms the planar involute rack into a variable diameter cutter using the cylindroidal coordinates. Hypoid gears are based on the envelope of this cutter. A hypoid gear set is presented based on an automotive rear axle.
Spiral-bevel gears, found in many machine tools, automobile rear-axle drives, and helicopter transmissions, are important elements for transmitting power.
In the 1960's and early 1970's, considerable work was done to identify the various modes of damage that ended the lives of rolling element bearings. A simple summary of all the damage modes that could lead to failure is given in Table 1. In bearing applications that have insufficient or improper lubricant, or have contaminants (water, solid particles) or poor sealing, failure, such as excessive wear or vibration or corrosion, may occur, rather than contact fatigue. Usually other components in the overall system besides bearings also suffer. Over the years, builders of transmissions, axles, and gear boxes that comprise such systems have understood the need to improve the operating environment within such units, so that some system life improvements have taken place.
News Items About axle
1 LiuGong and ZF Celebrate First JV Axle (July 17, 2013)
On June 9th, LiuGong and ZF held a celebration for the completion of the first prototype JV axle (AP3000), which was produced by their ne... Read News
2 New Axle Shaft Hardening Capability from Inductoheat (January 4, 2005)
The VSM-95 vertical scanning machine from Inductoheat is tooled up to process axle shafts. According to the companys press rele... Read News
3 Promotions at American Axle and Manufacturing (April 17, 2004)
American Axle has made numerous appointments at their executive level. Yogendra N.Rahangdale was named chairman of the operating comm... Read News
4 American Axle Announces Executive Appointments (April 14, 2006)
American Axle announced several executive appointments. John J. Bellanti was appointed vice president of manufacturing planning, capit... Read News
5 American Axle Adds to Aftermarket Product Portfolio (April 2, 2006)
American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings announced the expansion of its aftermarket product portfolio at the 2006 Automotive Aftermarket Pr... Read News
6 MAG Industrial Automation Systems Receives American Axle Supplier Award (April 17, 2006)
The Powertrain Technologies Group of MAG Industrial Automation Systems of Sterling Heights, Michigan, has received a Supplier Recogniti... Read News
7 American Axle & Manufacturing Hires New Manager (April 18, 2006)
Daniel Carleton was hired as manager of global gear program for American Axle & Manufacturing. Carleton has been involved with the ge... Read News
8 American Axle Announces Agreement with FormTech (February 4, 2009)
American Axle & Manufacturing (AAM) recently announced a purchase agreement with FormTech Industries LLC. The agreement has American ... Read News
9 AxleTech Expands Systems Capability with Acquisition of U.S. Gear (November 24, 2008)
AxleTech International recently announced the acquisition of Chicago-based U.S. Gear, a designer and manufacturer of specialized differ... Read News
10 American Axle Forms Joint Venture with Sono Koyo (November 9, 2007)
American Axle and Manufacturing Holdings Inc. recently announced the formation of a joint venture with Sona Koyo Steering Systems Limited... Read News
11 1,473 American Axle Employees Participated in Special Attrition Program (February 12, 2007)
American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings, Inc. announced that 1,473 UAW-represented employees agreed to participate in AAM's special at... Read News