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Articles About lead crown

1 An Investigation of the Influence of Shaft Misalignment on Bending Stresses of Helical Gears with Lead Crown (November/December 2008)

In this study, the combined influence of shaft misalignments and gear lead crown on load distribution and tooth bending stresses is investigated. Upon conclusion, the experimental results are correlated with predictions of a gear load distribution model, and recommendations are provided for optimal lead crown in a given misalignment condition.

2 Leading the Way in Lead Crown Correction and Inspection (August 2013)

Forest City Gear applies advanced gear shaping and inspection technologies to help solve difficult lead crown correction challenges half a world away. But these solutions can also benefit customers much closer to home, the company says. Here's how…

3 How Are You Dealing with the Bias Error in Your Helical Gears (May 2009)

This paper initially defines bias error—the “twisted tooth phenomenon.” Using illustrations, we explain that bias error is a by-product of applying conventional, radial crowning methods to produced crowned leads on helical gears. The methods considered are gears that are finished, shaped, shaved, form and generated ground. The paper explains why bias error occurs in these methods and offers techniques used to limit/eliminate bias error. Sometimes, there may be a possibility to apply two methods to eliminate bias error. In those cases, the pros/cons of these methods will be reviewed.

4 Load Distribution Analysis of Spline Joints (May 2014)

A finite elements-based contact model is developed to predict load distribution along the spline joint interfaces; effects of spline misalignment are investigated along with intentional lead crowning of the contacting surfaces. The effects of manufacturing tooth indexing error on spline load distributions are demonstrated by using the proposed model.

5 Longitudinal Load Distribution Factor for Straddle- and Overhang-Mounted Spur Gears (July/August 1987)

A pair of spur gears generally has an effective lead error which is caused, not only by manufacturing and assembling errors, but also by the deformations of shafts, bearings and housings due to the transmitted load. The longitudinal load distribution on a contact line of the teeth of the gears is not uniform because of the effective lead error.

6 Drive Line Analysis for Tooth Contact Optimization of High-Power Spiral Bevel Gears (June/July 2011)

In the majority of spiral bevel gears, spherical crowning is used. The contact pattern is set to the center of the active tooth flank and the extent of the crowning is determined by experience. Feedback from service, as well as from full-torque bench tests of complete gear drives, has shown that this conventional design practice leads to loaded contact patterns, which are rarely optimal in location and extent. Oversized reliefs lead to small contact area, increased stresses and noise, whereas undersized reliefs result in an overly sensitive tooth contact.

7 Crowning Techniques in Aerospace Actuation Gearing (August 2010)

One of the most effective methods in solving the edge loading problem due to excess misalignment and deflection in aerospace actuation gearing is to localize tooth-bearing contact by crowning the teeth. Irrespective of the applied load, if the misalignment and/or deflection are large enough to cause the contact area to reduce to zero, the stress becomes large enough to cause failure. The edge loading could cause the teeth to break or pit, but too much crowning may also cause the teeth to pit due to concentrated loading. In this paper, a proposed method to localize the contact bearing area and calculate the contact stress with crowning is presented and demonstrated on some real-life examples in aerospace actuation systems.

8 Crowning: A Cheap Fix for Noise Reduction and Misalignment Problems and Applications (March/April 1987)

Noisy gear trains have been a common problem for gear designers for a long time. With the demands for smaller gear boxes transmitting more power at higher rpms and incumbent demands for greater efficiency, gear engineers are always searching for new ways to reduce vibration and limit noise without increasing costs.

9 Cylkro Face Gears (November/December 2010)

Dutch design and Swiss ingenuity cause transmission breakthrough. Updated examples of Cylkro face gears in action.

10 Crowned Spur Gears: Optimal Geometry and Generation (September/October 1988)

Involute spur gears are very sensitive to gear misalignment. Misalignment will cause the shift of the bearing contact toward the edge of the gear tooth surfaces and transmission errors that increase gear noise. Many efforts have been made to improve the bearing contact of misaligned spur gears by crowning the pinion tooth surface. Wildhaber(1) had proposed various methods of crowning that can be achieved in the process of gear generation. Maag engineers have used crowning for making longitudinal corrections (Fig. 1a); modifying involute tooth profile uniformly across the face width (Fig. 1b); combining these two functions in Fig. 1c and performing topological modification (Fig. 1d) that can provide any deviation of the crowned tooth surface from a regular involute surface. (2)

11 Cylkro Gears: An Alternative in Mechanical Power Transmission (May/June 1996)

Bevel gears have been the standard for several decades in situations where power transmission has to occur between shafts mounted at a given angle. Now a new approach has been developed that challenges the bevel gear's de facto monopoly in such applications. The concept is based on the principle of the crown gear; i.e., a cylindrical pinion mates with a face gear. Crown Gear B.V. in Enschede, Holland, is the developer of these specialty gear teeth, which are marketed under the trade name Cylkro.

12 Our Experts Discuss Hobbing Ridges, Crooked Gear Teeth, and Crown Shaving (March/April 1992)

Question: When cutting worm gears with multiple lead stock hobs we find the surface is "ridged". What can be done to eliminate this appearance or is to unavoidable?

13 Effects of Profile Corrections on Peak-to-Peak Transmission Error (July 2010)

Profile corrections on gears are a commonly used method to reduce transmission error, contact shock, and scoring risk. There are different types of profile corrections. It is a known fact that the type of profile correction used will have a strong influence on the resulting transmission error. The degree of this influence may be determined by calculating tooth loading during mesh. The current method for this calculation is very complicated and time consuming; however, a new approach has been developed that could reduce the calculation time.

14 Tooth Root Stresses of Spiral Bevel Gears (May/June 1988)

Service performance and load carrying capacity of bevel gears strongly depend on the size and position of the contact pattern. To provide an optimal contact pattern even under load, the gear design has to consider the relative displacements caused by deflections or thermal expansions expected under service conditions. That means that more or less lengthwise and heightwise crowning has to be applied on the bevel gear teeth.

15 The Basics of Gear Metrology and Terminology Part II (November/December 1998)

In the last section, we discussed gear inspection; the types of errors found by single and double flank composite and analytical tests; involute geometry; the involute cam and the causes and symptoms of profile errors. In this section, we go into tooth alignment and line of contact issues including lead, helix angles, pitch, pitchline runout, testing and errors in pitch and alignment.

16 Producing Profile and Lead Modifications in Threaded Wheel and Profile Grinding (January/February 2010)

Modern gearboxes are characterized by high torque load demands, low running noise and compact design. In order to fulfill these demands, profile and lead modifications are being applied more often than in the past. This paper will focus on how to produce profile and lead modifications by using the two most common grinding processes—threaded wheel and profile grinding. In addition, more difficult modifications—such as defined flank twist or topological flank corrections—will also be described in this paper.

17 Optimum Gear Tooth Microtopographies (July 2008)

A graphical procedure for selecting optimum combinations of profile and lead modifications.

18 Extending the Benefits of Elemental Gear Inspection (July 2009)

It may not be widely recognized that most of the inspection data supplied by inspection equipment, following the practices of AGMA Standard 2015 and similar standards, are not of elemental accuracy deviations but of some form of composite deviations. This paper demonstrates the validity of this “composite” label by first defining the nature of a true elemental deviation and then, by referring to earlier literature, demonstrating how the common inspection practices for involute, lead (on helical gears), pitch, and, in some cases, total accumulated pitch, constitute composite measurements.

19 Gear Inspection and Chart Interpretation (May/June 1985)

Much information has been written on gear inspection, analytical. functional. semiautomatic and automatic. In most cases, the charts, (if you are lucky enough to have recording equipment) have been explained.

20 Controlling Tooth Loads In Helical Gears (March/April 1986)

Helical gears can drive either nonparallel or parallel shafts. When these gears are used with nonparallel shafts, the contact is a point, and the design and manufacturing requirements are less critical than for gears driving parallel shafts.

21 Runout, Helix Accuracy and Shaper Cutters (June/July 2012)

Our experts discuss runout and helix accuracy, as well as the maximum number of teeth in a shaper cutter.

22 Leading by Example - Remember When (September/October 2014)

In January of this year we at Gear Technology got hip to the fact-in un-hip, belated fashion - that we needed a Blog Site and someone to do the blogging. Lucky for us, we already had that someone right here - in plain sight. That someone was Charles D. Schultz, P.E.

23 Programmable Separation of Runout From Profile and Lead Inspection Data for Gear Teeth With Arbitrary Modifications (March/April 1998)

A programmable algorithm is developed to separate out the effect of eccentricity (radial runout) from elemental gear inspection date, namely, profile and lead data. This algorithm can be coded in gear inspection software to detect the existence, the magnitude and the orientation of the eccentricity without making a separate runout check. A real example shows this algorithm produces good results.

24 Gear Inspection Chart Evaluation; Specifying Unusual Worm Gear Sets (November/December 1991)

Question: When evaluating charts from a gear inspection machine, it is sometimes found that the full length of the profile traces vary, and that sometimes they are less than the length of active profile (above start of active profile-SAP) by up to 20%. This condition could be caused by a concentricity error between tooth grinding and shaping, or by unequal stock removal when grinding. (See Fig. 1.) Is it possible that some of the variation is coming from the inspection machine? How can variation from the inspection machine be reduced?

25 Crowning: A Cheap Fix for Noise and Misalignment Problems (March/April 2010)

Fred Young, CEO of Forest City Gear, talks about sophisticated gear manufacturing methods and how they can help solve common gear-related problems.