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Barber-Colman, Div of Bourn & Koch
Bourn & Koch designs and builds new machines for hobbing, grinding, turning and shaping. We also provide parts and service for legacy machine tool products, including Barber-Colman, Fellows and many others.

Bourn & Koch Inc.
Established in 1974, Bourn & Koch Inc. is a manufacturer of industrial machine tools for a wide variety of industries. Bourn & Koch Inc. expanded in the new machine market by purchasing Barber-Colman Machine Tool Division in 1985, by purchasing Fellows and Roto-Technology in 2002, and by purchasing DeVlieg Bullard in 2004.

Fellows Machine Tools
We long have been known for manufacturing new hobbing horizontal hobbing machines under our Bourn & Koch name. We also build new Fellows Gear Shapers, Motch Vertical Turning machines, Springfield Vertical OD/ID Grinding machines, and Blanchard Rotary Grinding Machines.

Samputensili S.p.A.
SU America is a unit of Samputensili S.p.A. of Bologna, Italy and a part of the multi-national Maccaferri Industrial Group.

Star Cutter Co.
Headquartered in Farmington Hills, MI, StarCut Sales, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Star Cutter Company and is a partner in the Star SU LLC enterprise for marketing, sales, and service. Through Star SU and StarCut Sales, Inc.'s international organization Star Cutter Company markets and services its products in North America, South America, Europe and the Far East.

Star SU LLC
SU America is a unit of Samputensili S.p.A. of Bologna, Italy and a part of the multinational Maccaferri Industrial Group of companies. Samputensili produces machines, tools and services for the gear manufacturing industry. Manufacturing facilities are located in Italy, France, Brazil, Korea, Japan and the United States.

Bohle Machine Tools, Inc.
Drake Manufacturing Services Co. Inc.
Fässler by Daetwyler Industries
German Machine Tools of America
Heller Machine Tools
Knuth Machine Tools USA, Inc.
Westminster Machine Tools Ltd.

Related Power Transmission Companies

Arrow Gear Co.
Since its inception in 1947, Arrow Gear Company has continued to build a solid reputation for quality, service and reliability. From the very beginning, Arrow has provided high precision spur, helical and bevel gears that meet the rapidly changing and the demanding requirements of many industries.

NSK Corporation
NSK is a global manufacture of bearings and other motion & control products. It operates 51 manufacturing facilities worldwide and 12 global technology centers of excellence that draw from world-leading industry knowledge and manufacturing experience. NSK's dedication to engineering innovation results in state-of-the-art products designed to improve performance and extend service life. NSK's unique Asset Improvement Program helps customers improve productivity and efficiency to significantly reduce operating costs. The company’s industry and process-specific expertise and solutions are applied to identify and solve problems that are limiting productivity. This enables customers to achieve improved performance, enhanced competitiveness and increased profitability.

Articles About machine tools


1 EMO Hannover - More than Machine Tools (October 2011)

Some gear-related highlights from the recent EMO show in Hannover, Germany.

2 Industry News (November/December 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

3 Moving Parts (May 2014)

Machine tools boost speed and throughput with automation technology.

4 Computers and Automation Lead IMTS Innovations (November/December 1994)

Robots, computers and other signs of high technology abounded at IMTS 94, supporting the claim by many that this was one of the best shows ever. Many of the machines on display had so many robotic attachments and computer gizmos that they looked more like they belonged in some science fiction movie than on the floor of a machine shop.

5 Industry News (November/December 2012)

The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2012 issue of Gear Technology.

6 New Gear Developments at IMTS (November/December 1996)

The International Manufacturing Technology Show provided one of the biggest ever marketplaces for buying and selling gear-making equipment, with 121601 attenders, making it the largest IMTS ever. The show took place September 4-11 at McCormick Place in Chicago, IL.

7 What to Look For Before You Leap (March/April 1995)

Question: We are interested in purchasing our first gear hobbing machine. What questions should we ask the manufacturer, and what do we need to know in order to correctly specify the CNC hardware and software system requirements?

8 Wanted, Custom-Made Machine Tools (August 2013)

The machine tool industry is as competitive as ever. New machine technologies, materials, coatings and software upgrades are changing the way gears are being manufactured. Companies like Gleason, Liebherr, Kapp/Niles and DMG/Mori Seiki spend plenty of time and resources on R&D to develop the best products for the gear market. More importantly, these companies engage with (and listen to) customer requests.

9 If He Builds It, Will They Come (September/October 1999)

Richard Spens has been rebuilding antique machine tools for nearly a decade. He is drawn to the ornate architecture and fascinated by the open design that allows you to see inside a machine as it operates. "Working with machines has been a lifelong thing with me," said Spens, now a design engineer. "I started building steam engines when I was 10 years old." What he's working on now, however, is bigger than any steam engine or machine tool. In rural Livonia, Michigan, Spens is converting an old dairy barn into an accurate recreation of a turn-of-the-century, belt driven gear shop. It's an outgrowth of his interest in antique machine tools and, he feels, a way to stem the tide that is costing America so many manufacturing and skilled trade jobs.

10 If You Rebuild It, They Will Buy It (May 2013)

It’s been said that the best ideas are often someone else's. But with rebuilt, retrofitted, re-controlled or remanufactured machine tools, buyer beware and hold onto your wallet. Sourcing re-work vendors and their services can require just as much homework, if not necessarily dollars, as with just-off-the-showroom-floor machines.

11 Why do Customers Want to Reinvent OUR Wheel (June 2007)

Over many years of being in the machine tool business, it has been interesting to observe the way we suppliers are forced to quote and sell machine tools to many large companies.

12 Economics of CNC Gear Hobbing (March/April 1987)

NC and CNC metal cutting machines are among the most popular machine tools in the business today, There is also a strong trend toward using flexible machining centers and flexible manufacturing systems. The same trend is apparent in gear cutting. Currently the trend toward CNC tools has increased, and sophisticated controls and peripheral equipment for gear cutting machines are now available; however, the investment in a CNC gear machine has to be justified on the basis of economic facts as well as technical advantages.

13 Describing Nonstandard Gears - An Alternative to the Rack Shift Coefficient (January/February 1988)

The use of dimensionless factors to describe gear tooth geometry seems to have a strong appeal to gear engineers. The stress factors I and J, for instance, are well established in AGMA literature. The use of the rack shift coefficient "x" to describe nonstandard gear proportions is common in Europe, but is not as commonly used in the United States. When it is encountered in the European literature or in the operating manuals for imported machine tools, it can be a source of confusion to the American engineer.

14 A Computer Solution for the Dynamic Load, Lubricant Film Thickness, and Surface Temperatures in Spiral-Bevel Gears (March/April 1986)

Spiral-bevel gears, found in many machine tools, automobile rear-axle drives, and helicopter transmissions, are important elements for transmitting power.

15 Machine Tool Evolution: Innovation andIngenuity Key to Long-Term Success (July 2008)

How machine tools R&D helps drive gear manufacturing productivity.

16 Buy Now (July 2008)

If you're thinking about investing in machine tools, now is the right time...

17 Coarse Pitch Gears (May/June 1993)

This article discusses briefly some common manufacturing problems relating to coarse pitch gears and their suggested solutions. Most of the discussion will be limited to a low-quality production environment using universal machine tools.

18 What's the Big Attraction - IMTS 2010 (September/October 2010)

The great thing about a trade show the size of IMTS is the amount of options available to attendees. If you’re into cars, fighter jets, machine tools, fighting robots, manufacturing relics or simply the latest technology advancements in a particular industry, you’ll find it at IMTS 2010.

19 Zoller and Ingersoll Partner for Measuring Hob Cutters (March/April 2011)

With growing markets in aerospace and energy technologies, measuring hob cutters used in gear cutting is becoming an essential requirement for workpieces and machine tools. Zoller, a provider of solutions for tool pre-setters, measuring and inspection machines and tool management software, has developed a new partnership with Ingersoll/Germany for shop floor checking of hob cutters by a combined hardware and software approach.

20 Don't Panic (July/August 2000)

I'm a big believer in the value of IMTS as a marketplace where gear manufacturers can go and look at the latest machine tools and processes; compare hobbing machines, gear grinders and inspection equipment; see turning, milling or grinding machines in action; and ask questions of the various vendors all in one place. This year's IMTS promised to be the biggest ever, and I have no doubt that it will be a valuable experience to those who go there looking for ways to improve the way they manufacture products.

21 Arrow Gear: Spiral Bevel Specialist (July/August 2003)

James J. Cervinka and Frank E. Pielsticker must've known the future when they named their new business Arrow Gear Co. in 1947. They started out to manufacture gears for hand tools and machine tools, but their business has taken off since then.

22 The European Rack Shift Coefficient 'X' for Americans (July/August 1993)

The use of dimensionless factors to describe gear tooth geometry seems to have a strong appeal to gear engineers. The stress factors I and J, for instance, are well established in AGMA literature. The use of the rack shift coefficient "x" to describe nonstandard gear proportions is common in Europe, but is not as commonly used in the United States. When it is encountered in the European literature or in the operating manuals for imported machine tools, it can be a source of confusion to the American engineer.

23 No Excuse is Good Enough (July 2014)

Might some of you may be tempted to skip IMTS this year? Business is just so-so. You can’t afford to be away from the shop. It will be a waste of time because you don’t have the budget for new machine tools or new technology anyway. You’ve cut back on travel expenses. It’s your wife’s birthday...

24 Worm Gear Measurement (September/October 1997)

Several articles have appeared in this publication in recent years dealing with the principles and ways in which the inspection of gears can be carried out, but these have dealt chiefly with spur, helical and bevel gearing, whereas worm gearing, while sharing certain common features, also requires an emphasis in certain areas that cause it to stand apart. For example, while worm gears transmit motion between nonparallel shafts, as do bevel and hypoid gears, they usually incorporate much higher ratios and are used in applications for which bevel would not be considered, including drives for rotary and indexing tables in machine tools, where close tolerance of positioning and backlash elimination are critical, and in situations where accuracy of pitch and profile are necessary for uniform transmission at speed, such as elevators, turbine governor drives and speed increasers, where worm gears can operate at up to 24,000 rpm.

25 Topological Gearing Modifications: Optimization of Complex Systems Capable of Oscillation (May 2014)

Vibration and noise from wind turbines can be significantly influenced - and therefore reduced - by selecting suitable gearing modifications. New options provided by manufacturers of machine tools and grinding machines, and especially state-of-the-art machines and controls, provide combined gearing modifications - or topological gearing corrections - that can now be reliably machined. Theoretical investigations of topological modifications are discussed here with the actual machining and their possible use.

26 Internet Adventures, Part II powertransmission.com (January/February 1997)

In July of 1996 we introduced the gear community to the Internet in these pages through the Gear Industry Home Page (GIHP). This electronic buyers guide for gear machine tools, tooling, accessories and services has proven to be more popular than we could have envisioned. In our first month, we had over 3,000 hits, and in our third month, we have over 4,500. By our fourth month, we topped the 7,000 mark, and we are on our way to 11,000 hits in November. As our advertisers develop their own home sites in order to offer layers of information about their companies, their products and services, we expect this activity will increase even more.

27 Marketplace by the Lake (November/December 1994)

McCormick Place, Chicago. A manufacturer's dream. Acres and acres of machine tools up and running - cutting chips, filling molds, moving material, bending, shaping, smoothing, measuring. Computers, robots and lasers everywhere - George Lucas goes to engineering school. Sounds, light and, most important, over 100,000 people, moving around, taking notes, asking questions and, above all, buying. This was IMTS '94. A heady, if tiring, experience.

28 IMTS 2012 Product Preview (September 2012)

Previews of manufacturing technology related to gears that will be on display at IMTS 2012.

29 A Basic Guide to Deburring and Chamfering Gears (July/August 1995)

In today's industrial marketplace, deburring and chamfering are no longer just a matter of cosmetics. The faster speeds at which transmissions run today demand that gear teeth mesh as smoothly and accurately as possible to prevent premature failure. The demand for quieter gears also requires tighter tolerances. New heat treating practices and other secondary gear operations have placed their own set of demands on manufacturers. Companies that can deburr or chamfer to these newer, more stringent specifications - and still keep costs in line - find themselves with a leg up on their competition.

30 IMTS 2012 Product Preview (August 2012)

Booth previews from exhibitors showing products and services for the gear industry.

31 Basic Honing & Advanced Free-Form Honing (July/August 1997)

Rotary gear honing is a crossed-axis, fine, hard finishing process that uses pressure and abrasive honing tools to remove material along the tooth flanks in order to improve the surface finish (.1-.3 um or 4-12u"Ra), to remove nicks and burrs and to change or correct the tooth geometry. Ultimately, the end results are quieter, stronger and longer lasting gears.

32 The Broaching of Gears (March/April 1997)

Broaching is a process in which a cutting tool passes over or through a part piece to produce a desired form. A broach removes part material with a series of teeth, each one removing a specified amount of stock.

33 State-of-the-Art Broaching (August 2011)

There are a number of companies working to change the way broaching is perceived, and over the past 10 years, they’ve incorporated significant technological changes to make the process more flexible, productive and accurate.

34 Chamfering and Deburring External Parallel Axis Gears (November/December 1996)

The chamfering and deburring operations on gear teeth have become more important as the automation of gear manufacturing lines in the automotive industry have steadily increased. Quieter gears require more accurate chamfers. This operation also translates into significant coast savings by avoiding costly rework operations. This article discusses the different types of chamfers on gear teeth and outlines manufacturing methods and guidelines to determine chamfer sizes and angles for the product and process engineer.

35 All-in-One Broaching Capability (January/February 2010)

Faster, more efficient manufacturing offered with table-top design from American Broach & Machine.

36 Big Gears Better and Faster (January/February 2011)

Indexable carbide insert cutting tools for gears are nothing new. But big gears have recently become a very big business. The result is that there's been a renewed interest in carbide insert cutting tools.

37 Advantages of Titanium Nitride Coated Gear Tools (May/June 1984)

A brief introduction to the subject of Thin Film Coatings and their application to gear hobs and shaper cutters is followed by a detailed description of the Chemical Vapor Deposition Process and the Physical Vapor Deposition Process. Advantages and disadvantages of each of these processes is discussed. Emphasis is placed upon: application engineering of coated gear tools based on laboratory and field test results. Recommendations are suggested for tool design improvements and optimization of gear cutting operations using coated tools. Productivity improvements potentially available by properly utilizing coated tools are considered in terms of both tool cost and machining cost.

38 The New Freedoms: Bevel Blades (September/October 2007)

Today, because of reduced cost of coatings and quicker turnaround times, the idea of all-around coating on three-face-sharpened blades is again economically viable, allowing manufacturers greater freedoms in cutting blade parameters, including three-face-sharpened and even four-face-sharpened blades.

39 Tool Life and Productivity Improvement Through Cutting Parameter Setting and Tool Design in Dry High-Speed Bevel Gear Tooth Cutting (May/June 2006)

This article presents some of the findings of cutting investigations at WZL in which the correlation of cutting parameters, cutting materials, tool geometry and tool life have been determined.

40 Tooth Forms for Hobs (March/April 1985)

The gear hobbing process is a generating type of production operation. For this reason, the form of the hob tooth is always different from the form of the tooth that it produces.

41 Hob Tool Life Technology Update (March/April 2009)

The method of cutting teeth on a cylindrical gear by the hobbing process has been in existence since the late 1800s. Advances have been made over the years in both the machines and the cutting tools used in the process. This paper will examine hob tool life and the many variables that affect it. The paper will cover the state-of-the-art cutting tool materials and coatings, hob tool design characteristics, process speeds and feeds, hob shifting strategies, wear characteristics, etc. The paper will also discuss the use of a common denominator method for evaluating hob tool life in terms of meters (or inches) per hob tooth as an alternative to tool life expressed in parts per sharpening.

42 New Potentials in Carbide Hobbing (January/February 2004)

To meet the future goals of higher productivity and lower production costs, the cutting speeds and feeds in modern gear hobbing applications have to increase further. In several cases, coated carbide tools have replaced the commonly used high speed steel (HSS) tools.

43 General Equations for Gear Cutting Tool Calculations (November/December 1985)

The proper design or selection of gear cutting tools requires thorough and detailed attention from the tool designer. In addition to experience, intuition and practical knowledge, a good understanding of profile calculations is very important.

44 Hob Length Effects (September/October 1985)

Hobbing is probably the most popular gear manufacturing process. Its inherent accuracy and productivity makes it a logical choice for a wide range of sizes.

45 High Speed Steel: Different Grades for Different Requirements (September/October 2004)

Hobs, broaches, shaper cutters, shaver cutters, milling cutters, and bevel cutters used in the manufacture of gears are commonly made of high speed steel. These specialized gear cutting tools often require properties, such as toughness or manufacturability, that are difficult to achieve with carbide, despite the developments in carbide cutting tools for end mills, milling cutters, and tool inserts.

46 Full Speed Ahead (May 2012)

Indexable carbide insert (ICI) cutting tools continue to play a pivotal role in gear manufacturing. By offering higher cutting speeds, reduced cycle times, enhanced coatings, custom configurations and a diverse range of sizes and capabilities, ICI tools have proven invaluable for finishing and pre-grind applications. They continue to expand their unique capabilities and worth in the cutting tool market.

47 Hard Gear Processing with Skiving Hobs (March/April 1985)

As we approach the problem of hard gear processing, it is well to take a look at the reason for discussing it at this time. In our present economic atmosphere throughout the world, more and more emphasis is being placed upon efficiency which is dictated by higher energy costs.

48 Reinventing Cutting Tool Production at Gleason (May 2013)

Investment in advanced new manufacturing technologies is helping to reinvent production processes for bevel gear cutters and coarse-pitch hobs at Gleason - delivering significant benefits downstream to customers seeking shorter deliveries, longer tool life and better results.

49 Machine Marks on Gear Flanks (May 2014)

What causes shaving cutter marks on gear flanks and can they be prevented?

50 Heavy-Duty Demands - Modern Coating Technology Examined (May 2013)

The hob is a perfect example of how a little manufacturing ingenuity can make a reliable, highly productive cutting tool. It's an engineering specimen that creates higher cutting speeds, better wear resistance and increases rigidity. The cutting tool alone, however, can't take all the credit for its resourcefulness. Advanced coating technology from companies like Sulzer, Oerlikon Balzers, Ionbond, Seco Tools and Cemecon helps improve cutting tools by reducing overall costs, increasing tool life and maintaining the highest levels of productivity. The following is a quick recap of new technologies and the latest information in the coating market.

51 Progress in Gear Milling (January/February 2013)

Sandvik presents the latest in gear milling technologies.

52 EMO 2013 - Intelligence in Production (August 2013)

Preview of some of the exhibits relevant to gear manufacturing at the upcoming EMO 2013.

53 Industry News (September 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the September 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

54 The Influence of Tool Tolerances on the Gear Quality of a Gear Manufactured by an Indexable Insert Hob (July 2014)

Recently, a new type of hob with carbide inserts has been introduced, providing higher cutting speeds, longer tool life and higher feed rates when compared to re-grindable, high-speed steel hobs. But with this kind of hob, new challenges occur due to positional errors of the cutting edges when mounted on the tool. These errors lead to manufacturing errors on the gear teeth which must be controlled. In this paper, the tooth quality of a gear manufactured by hobs with different quality classes is analyzed using a simulation model in combination with Monte Carlo methods.

55 Product News (July 2014)

The complete Product News section from the July 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

56 Hobs & Form Relived Cutters: Common Sharpening Problems (May/June 1998)

Fig. 1 shows the effects of positive and negative rake on finished gear teeth. Incorrect positive rake (A) increase the depth and decreases the pressure angle on the hob tooth. The resulting gear tooth is thick at the top and thin at the bottom. Incorrect negative rake (B) decreases the depth and increases the pressure angle. This results in a cutting drag and makes the gear tooth thin at the top and thick at the bottom.

57 Improved Ion Bond Recoating for the Gear Manufacturing Industry (January/February 1997)

This article summarizes the development of an improved titanium nitride (TiN) recoating process, which has, when compared to conventional recoat methods, demonstrated tool life increases of up to three times in performance testing of hobs and shaper cutters. This new coating process, called Super TiN, surpasses the performance of standard TiN recoating for machining gear components. Super TiN incorporates stripping, surface preparation, smooth coating techniques and polishing before and after recoating. The combination of these improvements to the recoating process is the key to its performance.

58 Our Experts Discuss... (March/April 1991)

Question: I have just become involved with the inspection of gears in a production operation and wonder why the procedure specifies that four involute checks must be made on each side of the tooth of the gear being produced, where one tooth is checked and charted in each quadrant of the gear. Why is this done? These particular gears are checked in the pre-shaved, finish-shaved, and the after-heat-treat condition, so a lot of profile checking must be done.

59 Shaper Cutters - Design & Application - Part 2 (May/June 1990)

Cutter Sharpening Cutter sharpening is very important both during manufacturing and subsequently in resharpening after dulling. Not only does this process affect cutter "over cutting edge" quality and the quality of the part cut, but it can also affect the manner in which chip flow takes place on the cutter face if the surface finished is too rough or rippled.

60 Shaper Cutters-Design & Applications Part 1 (March/April 1990)

Gear shaping is one of the most popular production choices in gear manufacturing. While the gear shaping process is really the most versatile of all the gear manufacturing methods and can cut a wide variety of gears, certain types of gears can only be cut by this process. These are gears closely adjacent to shoulders; gears adjacent to other gears, such as on countershafts; internal gears, either open or blind ended; crown or face gears; herringbone gears of the solid configuration of with a small center groove; rack; parts with filled-in spaces or teeth, such as are used in some clutches.

61 High Technology Hobs (January/February 1993)

Today's high technology hobs are visible different from their predecessors. Gear hobs have taken on a different appearance and function with present day technology and tool and material development. This article shows the newer products being offered today and the reasons for investigating their potential for use in today's modern gear hobbers, where cost reduction and higher productivity are wanted.

62 Cutting Tools Now (May/June 1996)

The cutting tool is basic to gear manufacturing. Whether it's a hob, broach, shaper cutter or EDM wire, not much gets done without it. And the mission of the tool remains the same as always; removing material as quickly, accurately and cost-effectively as possible. Progress in the field tends to be evolutionary, coming gradually over time, but recently, a confluence of emerging technologies and new customer demands has caused significant changes in the machines, the materials and the coatings that make cutting tools.

63 Hard Coatings on Contaminated Surfaces - A Case Study (January/February 1997)

Physical Vapor Deposited (PVD) coatings such as TiN (Titanium nitride) have been a boon for cutting tool manufacturers. They reduce wear and, therefore, extend tool life, which in turn reduces production costs. But PVD coatings are expensive, and when they fail, they cost both time and money, and they causes of the failure are not always readily apparent.

64 Design Implications for Shaper Cutters (July/August 1996)

A gear shaper cutter is actually a gear with relieved cutting edges and increased addendum for providing clearance in the root of the gear being cut. The maximum outside diameter of such a cutter is limited to the diameter at which the teeth become pointed. The minimum diameter occurs when the outside diameter of the cutter and the base circle are the same. Those theoretical extremes, coupled with the side clearance, which is normally 2 degrees for coarse pitch cutters an d1.5 degrees for cutters approximately 24-pitch and finer, will determine the theoretical face width of a cutter.

65 Gear Generating Using Rack Cutters (October/November 1984)

Universal machines capable of cutting both spur and helical gears were developed in 1910, followed later by machines capable of cutting double helical gears with continuous teeth. Following the initial success, the machines were further developed both in England and France under the name Sunderland, and later in Switzerland under the name Maag.

66 Industry News (October 2012)

The complete Industry News section from the October 2012 issue of Gear Technology.

67 Sicmat Releases Raso 200 Dynamic Shaving Machine (November/December 2011)

The Raso 200 Dynamic has been developed to offer all the characteristics of a gear shaving machine with a competitive price.

68 Liebherr's LDF350 Offers Complete Machining in New Dimension (November/December 2011)

The objective, according to Dr.- Ing. Hansjörg Geiser, head of development and design for gear machines at Liebherr, was to develop and design a combined turning and hobbing machine in which turning, drilling and hobbing work could be carried out in the same clamping arrangement as the hobbing of the gearings and the subsequent chamfering and deburring processes.

69 Reliable and Efficient Skiving (September 2011)

Klingelnberg's new tool and machine concept allow for precise production.

70 Gear Hobbing Technology Update (June/July 2011)

Q&A with Liebherr's Dr. Alois Mundt.

71 ...And from the Industry (October/November 1984)

Industry News from October/November 1984 Gear Technology.

72 SPC Acceptance of Hobbing & Shaping Machines (September/October 1991)

Today, as part of filling a typical gear hobbing or shaping machine order, engineers are required to perform an SPC acceptance test. This SPC test, while it is contractually necessary for machine acceptance, is not a machine acceptance test. It is a process capability test. It is an acceptance of the machine, cutting tool, workholding fixture, and workpiece as integrated on the cutting machine, using a gear measuring machine, with its work arbor and evaluation software, to measure the acceptance elements of the workpiece.

73 Grinding Bevel Gears on Cylindrical Gear Grinding Machines (January/February 1994)

Power train designs which employ gears with cone angles of approximately 2 degrees to 5 degrees have become quite common. It is difficult, if not impossible, to grind these gears on conventional bevel gear grinding machines. Cylindrical gear grinding machines are better suited for this task. This article will provide an overview of this option and briefly introduce four grinding variation possibilities.

74 CNC Bevel Gear Generators and Flared Cup Gear Grinding (July/August 1993)

New freedom of motion available with CNC generators make possible improving tooth contact on bevel and hypoid gears. Mechanical machines by their nature are inflexible and require a special mechanism for every desired motion. These mechanisms are generally exotic and expensive. As a result, it was not until the introduction of CNC generators that engineers started exploring motion possibilities and their effect on tooth contact.

75 CNC Technology and the System-Independent Manufacture of Spiral Bevel Gears (September/October 1992)

CNC technology offers new opportunities for the manufacture of bevel gears. While traditionally the purchase of a specific machine at the same time determined a particular production system, CNC technology permits the processing of bevel gears using a wide variety of methods. The ideological dispute between "tapered tooth or parallel depth tooth" and "single indexing or continuous indexing" no longer leads to an irreversible fundamental decision. The systems have instead become penetrable, and with existing CNC machines, it is possible to select this or that system according to factual considerations at a later date.

76 Grinding of Spur and Helical Gears (July/August 1992)

Grinding is a technique of finish-machining, utilizing an abrasive wheel. The rotating abrasive wheel, which id generally of special shape or form, when made to bear against a cylindrical shaped workpiece, under a set of specific geometrical relationships, will produce a precision spur or helical gear. In most instances the workpiece will already have gear teeth cut on it by a primary process, such as hobbing or shaping. There are essentially two techniques for grinding gears: form and generation. The basic principles of these techniques, with their advantages and disadvantages, are presented in this section.

77 Grinding, Finishing and Software Upgrades Abound (March/April 2011)

Machine tool companies are expanding capabilities to better accommodate the changing face of manufacturing. Customers want smaller-sized equipment to take up less valuable floor space, multifunctional machines that can handle a variety of operations and easy set-up changes that offer simplified operation and maintenance.

78 Gear Shaving Basics, Part II (January/February 1998)

In our last issue, we covered the basic principles of gear shaving and preparation of parts for shaving. In this issue, we will cover shaving methods, design principles and cutter mounting techniques.

79 Reinvesting in New Equipment Pays Dividends (November/December 2007)

Recently, I was approached by a colleague who is a manufacturer outside the gear industry...

80 Application of Statistical Stability and Capability for Gear Cutting Machine Acceptance Criteria (November/December 2003)

Machine tool manufacturers supplying machines to the gearing world have been in existence for many years. The machines have changed, and so has the acceptance criteria for the machines.

81 Crossroads and Transitions - Part II (July 2009)

The auction has been held. The warehouse is bare. The computers and furniture are being packed, and Cadillac Machinery, the company started by my father in 1950, and of which I was president for more than 25 years, is close to being no more.

82 Product News (May 2009)

The complete Product News section from the May 2009 issue of Gear Technology.

83 HMC Lassos World's Largest Gear Grinder (June 2008)

Hofler Rapid 6000 Makes North American Debut at Highway Machine Company.

84 Producing Profile and Lead Modifications in Threaded Wheel and Profile Grinding (January/February 2010)

Modern gearboxes are characterized by high torque load demands, low running noise and compact design. In order to fulfill these demands, profile and lead modifications are being applied more often than in the past. This paper will focus on how to produce profile and lead modifications by using the two most common grinding processes—threaded wheel and profile grinding. In addition, more difficult modifications—such as defined flank twist or topological flank corrections—will also be described in this paper.

85 Gear Finishing by Shaving, Rolling and Honing, Part II (May/June 1992)

Part I of this series focused on gear shaving, while Part II focuses on gear finishing by rolling and honing.

86 Gear Finishing by Shaving, Rolling and Honing, Part I (March/April 1992)

There are several methods available for improving the quality of spur and helical gears following the standard roughing operations of hobbing or shaping. Rotary gear shaving and roll-finishing are done in the green or soft state prior to heat treating.

87 The Road Leads Straight to Hypoflex (March/April 2010)

A new method for cutting straight bevel gears.

88 New Developments in Gear Hobbing (March/April 2010)

Several innovations have been introduced to the gear manufacturing industry in recent years. In the case of gear hobbing—the dry cutting technology and the ability to do it with powder-metallurgical HSS—might be two of the most impressive ones. And the technology is still moving forward. The aim of this article is to present recent developments in the field of gear hobbing in conjunction with the latest improvements regarding tool materials, process technology and process integration.

89 The Gear Hobbing Process (January/February 1994)

Gear hobbing is a generating process. The term generating refers to the fact that the gear tooth form cut is not the conjugate form of the cutting tool, the hob. During hobbing both the hob and the workpiece rotate in a continuous rotational relationship. During this rotation, the hob is typically fed axially with all the teeth being gradually formed as the tool traverses the work face (see Fig. 1a).

90 Innovative CNC Gear Shaping (January/February 1994)

The Shaping Process - A Quick Review of the Working Principle. In the shaping process, cutter and workpiece represent a drive with parallel axes rotating in mesh (generating motion) according to the number of teeth in both cutter and workpiece (Fig. 1), while the cutter reciprocates for the metal removal action (cutting motion).

91 Back in the Good Old Days (September/October 1998)

Come with us now to those thrilling days of yesteryear...Ok, this is not the Cisco Kid, but we do have a little game for you. Guess the year the following advertisements and excerpt were printed - they all appeared in a dingle issue of Machinery Magazine.

92 Dry Cutting of Bevel and Hypoid Gears (May/June 1998)

High-speed machining using carbide has been used for some decades for milling and turning operations. The intermittent character of the gear cutting process has delayed the use of carbide tools in gear manufacturing. Carbide was found at first to be too brittle for interrupted cutting actions. In the meantime, however, a number of different carbide grades were developed. The first successful studies in carbide hobbing of cylindrical gears were completed during the mid-80s, but still did not lead to a breakthrough in the use of carbide cutting tools for gear production. Since the carbide was quite expensive and the tool life was too short, a TiN-coated, high-speed steel hob was more economical than an uncoated carbide hob.

93 New Guideless CNC Shaper for Helical Gears (March/April 1998)

Product announcements so often trumpet minor, incremental advances with works like "revolutionary" and "unique" that even the best thesaurus can fail to offer a fresh alternative to alert the reader when something really innovative and important is introduced. In the case of Mitsubishi's new CNC gear shaper, the ST25CNC, both terms apply.

94 Special Machine Manufacturer Brings Gear Making In-House (September/October 1997)

When you have a multi-million-dollar transfer line sitting on the shop floor waiting for gears that might take up to two months to get, you have a costly bottleneck.

95 Gear Shaving Basics - Part I (November/December 1997)

Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process also improves tooth surface finish and eliminates by means of crowned tooth forms the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service.

96 Balancing: Smoke and Mirrors No Longer (January/February 2013)

By virtue of collected anecdotal accounts, equations and problem solving, balancing is discussed as more math and common sense, and less smoke and mirrors.

97 GT Extras (January/February 2014)

Video from C&B Machinery; Introducing the Gear Technology Blog, featuring technical editor Charles D. Schultz; plus an online-exclusive article on big gear inspection.

98 The Art of Versatility - Grinding at Gear Expo and EMO (October 2013)

Whether you spent time at Gear Expo in Indianapolis or EMO in Hannover, there was certainly new technology attracting attention. Machine tools are faster, more efficient and can integrate numerous functions in a single setup. Grinding technology is turning science upside down and inside out with high-speed removal rates and increased throughput.

99 Industry News (June/July 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the June/July 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

100 Liebherr LFG Grinding Machine (May 2013)

This machine concept facilitates highly productive profile grinding for large workpieces. The range for external and internal gears comprises models for manufacturing workpieces up to 2,000 millimeters – for industrial gear units, wind power, and marine propulsion applications

101 Thermal Effects on CMMs (September/October 1997)

The trend toward moving coordinate measuring machines to the shop floor to become an integral part of the manufacturing operations brings real time process control within the reach of many companies. Putting measuring machines on the shop floor, however, subjects them to harsh environmental conditions. Like any measuring system, CMMs are sensitive to any ambient condition that deviates from the "perfect" conditions of the metrology lab.

102 Avoiding Interference In Shaper-Cut Gears (January/February 1996)

In the process of developing gear trains, it occasionally occurs that the tip of one gear will drag in the fillet of the mating gear. The first reaction may be to assume that the outside diameter of the gear is too large. This article is intended to show that although the gear dimensions follow AGMA guidelines, if the gear is cut with a shaper, the cutting process may not provide sufficient relief in the fillet area and be the cause of the interference.

103 The Second Edition... (March/April 1995)

Gearing for Munchkins Gene Kasten, president of Repair Parts, Inc., of Rockford, IL, is the proud owner of a miniature Barber-Colman hobber, the only one of its kind in the world. The machine, a replica of the old B-C "A" machine, was built between 1933 and 1941 by W. W. Dickover, who devoted 2, 640 hours of his spare time to the project.

104 CNC Basics (January/February 1995)

NC and CNC machines are at the heart of manufacturing today. They are the state-of-the-art equipment everybody has (or is soon going to get) that promise to lower costs, increase production and turn manufacturers into competitive powerhouses. Like many other high tech devices (such as microwaves and VCRs), lots of people have and use them - even successfully - without really knowing much about how they operate. But upgrading to CNC costs a lot of money, so it's crucial to separate the hype from the reality.

105 CNC Gear Manufacturing - Where Are We Now (January/February 1995)

These days it's hard to get through breakfast without reading or hearing another story about how the computer is changing the way we live, sleep, eat, breathe, make things and do business. The message is that everything is computerized now, or, if it isn't, it will be by next Tuesday at the latest, Well, maybe.

106 Gear Hobbing Without Coolant (November/December 1994)

For environmental and economic reasons, the use of coolant in machining processes is increasingly being questioned. Rising coolant prices and disposal costs, as well as strains on workers and the environment, have fueled the debate. The use of coolant has given rise to a highly technical system for handling coolant in the machine (cooling, filtering) and protecting the environment (filter, oil-mist collector). In this area the latest cutting materials - used with or without coolant - have great potential for making the metal-removal process more economical. The natural progression to completely dry machining has decisive advantages for hobbing.

107 Addendum III - The Return (May/June 1995)

Gear Technology's bimonthly aberration - gear trivia, humor, weirdness and oddments for the edification and amusement of our readers. Contributions are welcome.

108 CNC Software Savvy (May/June 1995)

Question: When we purchase our first CNC gear hobbing machine, what questions should we ask about the software? What do we need to know to correctly specify the system requirements?

109 Gear Grinding 1995 (July/August 1995)

Gear grinding is one of the most expensive and least understood aspects of gear manufacturing. But with pressures for reduced noise, higher quality and greater efficiency, gear grinding appears to be on the rise.

110 Dry Gear Hobbing (July/August 1995)

Question: We are contemplating purchasing a hobbing machine with dry hobbing capabilities. What do we need to know about the special system requirements for this technology?

111 New Concepts in CNC Gear Shaping (July/August 1995)

In today's economy, when purchasing a new state-of-the-art gear shaper means a significant capital investment, common sense alone dictates that you develop strategies to get the most for your money. One of the best ways to do this is to take advantage of the sophistication of the machine to make it more than just a single-purpose tool.

112 In Search of a Competitive Advantage (March/April 2014)

The grinding/abrasives market is rapidly changing, thanks to new technology, more flexibility and an attempt to lower customer costs. Productivity is at an all-time high in this market, and it’s only going to improve with further R&D. By the time IMTS 2014 rolls around this September, the gear market will have lots of new toys and gadgets to offer potential customers. If you haven’t upgraded any grinding/abrasives equipment in the last five years, now might be a good time to consider the investment.

113 Gear Grinding Comes of Age (July/August 1995)

In the quest for ever more exacting and compact commercial gears, precision abrasives are playing a key production role - a role that can shorten cycle time, reduce machining costs and meet growing market demand for such requirements as light weights, high loads, high speed and quiet operation. Used in conjunction with high-quality grinding machines, abrasives can deliver a level of accuracy unmatched by other manufacturing techniques, cost-effectively meeting AGMA gear quality levels in the 12 to 15 range. Thanks to advances in grinding and abrasive technology, machining has become one of the most viable means to grind fast, strong and quiet gears.

114 Goodbye, David (May 2014)

I've lost a long-time and dear friend. Sadly, David Iveson of Westminster Machine Tools Ltd. in the U.K. passed away on April 9.

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