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Gear Manufacturing Services

Related Companies

AFC-Holcroft
When it comes to thermal processing equipment, AFC-Holcroft has one of the most diversified product lines in the heat treat equipment industry. We are fully equipped to design, manufacture, ship, install, and service all types of custom and standard heat treat systems. We've been making high quality thermal processing equpiment since 1916. Find out why some of the best-known names in manufacturing trust AFC-Holcroft equipment for their production. ISO 9001:2008 certified.

All Metals & Forge Group, LLC
All Metals & Forge produces rings, flanges, gear blanks, single and double hubs, trunnions, bevel gear blanks, couplings, seamless rolled rings, rims, center hubs, sleeves, gear blanks, discs (pancake forgings), pinion shafts, step-downs, spindles, rack forgings in gear quality carbon and alloy steels with through-hardening, carburizing and bearing quality grades with forged-in steps to save on machining. Shafts are available up to 45-feet-long and 50,000 pounds and the company can produce part weights from under 100 pounds to more than 30 tons for the gear industry.

Applied Process
Applied Process is a world leader in austempering technology.

Barber-Colman, Div of Bourn & Koch
Bourn & Koch designs and builds new machines for hobbing, grinding, turning and shaping. We also provide parts and service for legacy machine tool products, including Barber-Colman, Fellows and many others.

Bourn & Koch Inc.
Established in 1974, Bourn & Koch Inc. is a manufacturer of industrial machine tools for a wide variety of industries. Bourn & Koch Inc. expanded in the new machine market by purchasing Barber-Colman Machine Tool Division in 1985, by purchasing Fellows and Roto-Technology in 2002, and by purchasing DeVlieg Bullard in 2004.

Broach Masters / Universal Gear Co.
Manufacturer of Broaches, Disc Shapers, Disc Shaper Cutters, Shank Shapers, Shank Shaper Cutters, Gear Shaper Cutters, Spline Broaches, Master Gears, Spline Gages, Spline Gauges, Fine Pitch, Serration. Made in USA.

Comtorgage Corporation
Comtorgage Corporation manufactures a variety of hand-held, indicating gages (analog or digital) designed and built to measure various characteristics of machined, molded, forged, and pressed parts. Comtorgages are intended for use on the shop floor, or in the lab, wherever there is a requirement for frequent, and accurate monitoring of specific dimensions, with or without data collection.

ECM USA
ECM Technologies started manufacturing heat-treatment furnaces in 1928. Since that time, ECM personnel have always been completely committed to extending their knowledge in the field of temperature control, high pressures, vacuum and the behavior of materials. This expertise, on an industrial scale, has always been enriched by our close partnership with furnace users, engineers, heat treat engineers and developers. Today, our knowledge base is at the core of all our customers' production lines. It is this concern for caring and listening, combined with our passion for our profession, which has forged ECM Technology and ECM USA’s recognized spirit of innovation.

ESGI Tools Pvt. Ltd.
We introduce ourselves as the leading manufacturer & Exporters of gear cutting tools, including hobs, shaper cutters, shaving cutters, rack milling cutters, Coniflex bevel gear cutters, shaving cutters and master gears.

Excel Gear
EXCEL-LENT gear design software can optimize rack and pinion, spur, helical, internal, external, and circular pitch gears in English or metric units. Our gear/gear box design software quickly determines product parameters for various applications saving HUNDREDS of engineering hours.

Fellows Machine Tools
We long have been known for manufacturing new hobbing horizontal hobbing machines under our Bourn & Koch name. We also build new Fellows Gear Shapers, Motch Vertical Turning machines, Springfield Vertical OD/ID Grinding machines, and Blanchard Rotary Grinding Machines.

Gear Resource Technologies Inc.
Gear Resource Technologies, Inc. (GRT) has focused directly upon precision tooling needs of gear manufacturers, since 1997. We provide a highly-responsive engineering, analytical, and manufacturing resource, for the many specific tooling needs of the industry.

Gleason Corporation
Gleason Corporation’s mission is to be The Total Gear Solutions Provider™ to its global customer base. Gleason is a world leader in the development, manufacture and sale of gear production machinery and related equipment. The Company’s products are used by customers in automotive, truck, aircraft, agriculture, mining, windpower, construction, power tool and marine industries and by a diverse set of customers serving various industrial equipment markets. Gleason has manufacturing operations in Rochester, New York; Rockford, Illinois; Dayton, Ohio; Munich and Ludwigsburg, Germany; Studen, Switzerland; Bangalore; India, and Suzhou, China and has sales and service offices throughout North and South America, Europe and in the Asia-Pacific region.

Gleason Cutting Tools Corporation
Wherever superior gear performance is needed -- from hand-held power tools to super tankers, from automobiles to aircraft -- Gleason Cutting Tools Corporation gear tools are at work, helping raise the standard of bevel and cylindrical gear manufacturing to levels unimaginable just a few years ago.

Ipsen, Inc.
Ipsen, Inc. designs and manufactures thermal processing systems (vacuum heat treat furnaces and atmosphere heat treat furnaces) for a wide variety of markets, including Aerospace, Medical, Energy, Chemical and Automotive. With thousands of installed systems worldwide, whether it's innovative titanium knee implants, making cars more efficient, developing new jet engines or going to the moon, Ipsen delivers quality.

Kapp Technologies
For over 50 years, KAPP GmbH has been one of the world's premier manufacturers of machine tools for the precision finishing of gears.

KISSsoft USA LLC
The KISSsoft calculation program has been developed to focus on the needs of mechanical engineers and power transmission profes

Liebherr America
Liebherr Gear Technology Co. is your North American access point to a broad range of technically advanced gear manufacturing technologies and processes.

Machine Tool Builders
MTB recontrols existing CNC machines and rebuilds manual change gear machines, such as gear shapers, hobbers, and grinders into precision machines by converting mechanical components to motorized servos with multiple axes and spindles using CNC controls. Specializing in Fellows, Fromag-Rapida, Hoglund, Kapp, Liebherr, Lorenz, Module, Pfauter, and Red Ring brands.

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America
Our family of gear cutting machines shares a name and a whole lot more. Mitsubishi gear hobbers, shapers, shavers and grinders also share Mitsubishi machine construction and Mitsubishi software and have common controls. That is why only Mitsubishi gear machines--the most complete family of gear machines--can deliver the fastest CNC learning curves and the highest quality gears.

R.E. Smith & Co.
Over 60 years experience in the gear industry. Over 20 years consulting experience in all types of industries. Over 140 different clients with applications from tiny camera gears to large hydro-electric plant drive gears. We have published numerous articles and technical papers in the area of gear metrology, noise, and transmission error (single flank composite) testing.

Samputensili S.p.A.
SU America is a unit of Samputensili S.p.A. of Bologna, Italy and a part of the multi-national Maccaferri Industrial Group.

Solar Atmospheres
Solar Atmospheres specializes in vacuum heat treating, vacuum nitriding, vacuum brazing as well as vacuum carburizing services. With processing expertise and personalized service, Solar will process your small or large parts efficiently with our unique range of 40 vacuum furnaces. Sizes range from lab furnaces to the world's largest commercial vacuum furnace.

Star Cutter Co.
Headquartered in Farmington Hills, MI, StarCut Sales, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Star Cutter Company and is a partner in the Star SU LLC enterprise for marketing, sales, and service. Through Star SU and StarCut Sales, Inc.'s international organization Star Cutter Company markets and services its products in North America, South America, Europe and the Far East.

Star SU LLC
Star SU LLC provides the latest in gear and rotor manufacturing technology by offering a wide variety of gear cutting machinery, tools and services.

Star SU LLC
SU America is a unit of Samputensili S.p.A. of Bologna, Italy and a part of the multinational Maccaferri Industrial Group of companies. Samputensili produces machines, tools and services for the gear manufacturing industry. Manufacturing facilities are located in Italy, France, Brazil, Korea, Japan and the United States.

Steelmans Broaches Pvt. Ltd.
Manufacturers and Exporters of Push and Pull style Spline, Serration, Keyway, Surface, Standard Broaches and Broach Sets. We also manufacture Gear Hobs, Gear Cutters, Serration Cutters,Gear Shaper Cutter, Shaving Cutters , Milling Cutters....

Acme Manufacturing Co.
AMT - The Association For Manufacturing Technology
Avion Manufacturing
Boltex Manufacturing
Drake Manufacturing Services Co. Inc.
Ingersoll Cutting Tools
Kinematics Manufacturing, Inc.
Klingelnberg GmbH
Mosey Manufacturing Co. Inc.
MPT Manufacturing Process Technologies
Parker Industries Inc.
Proto Manufacturing
Roto-Flo / U.S. Gear Tools
Sandvik Coromant
Seco/Warwick Corp.
Smart Manufacturing Technology Ltd.
Solar Manufacturing
Steuby Manufacturing Company, Inc.
U.S. Gear Tools
Universal Technical Systems
V W Broaching Service, Inc.
Waterloo Manufacturing Software
Wenzel America

Related Power Transmission Categories

Bevel Gear Manufacturing
Custom Gear Manufacturing
Gear Manufacturing Services
Gear Rack Manufacturing Services
Prototype Manufacturing
Stock Gear Manufacturing

Related Power Transmission Companies

Arrow Gear Co.
Since its inception in 1947, Arrow Gear Company has continued to build a solid reputation for quality, service and reliability. From the very beginning, Arrow has provided high precision spur, helical and bevel gears that meet the rapidly changing and the demanding requirements of many industries.

B & R Machine and Gear Corp.
B & R Machine and Gear Corporation is a family owned and operated gear manufacturer since 1974. We are a custom gear facility, manufacturing gears to customer supplied blueprint specifications and/or samples.

BRECOflex CO., L.L.C.
BRECOflex CO., L.L.C. ? The world leader in the polyurethane timing belt industry sets higher standards with new state-of-the-art products. BRECOflex timing belts, pulleys and accessories are scientifically designed and manufactured for undeviatin...

C&U Americas, LLC
C&U Bearings are used by some of the world’s leading manufacturers and service providers in a wide variety of applications. Every C&U Bearing is made to exacting standards to deliver the ultimate in the precision, performance, and quality.

Circle Gear & Machine Co.
Quality Custom Gearing Complete Machine Shop ? Reverse Engineering ? Breakdown Service Available

Excel Gear, Inc.
Excel Gear engineers have over 50 yrs of experience in machine tool design, gearbox design and manufacturing, wind turbine gearbox, gear manufacturing, analysis and testing of gears, high speed spindles, CNC gimbal heads and attachments. Our qualified engineers can assist in virtually any phase of your project, however complex.

Kamar Industries
Kamar Industries manufactures custom gears, provides stock gears and related power transmission components. Small quantity gear orders and quick lead times available in addition to production lot runs. We serve a diverse cross section of industry sectors with gear products to satisfy each unique application.

Luoyang SBI Special Bearing Co. Ltd.
With highly advanced technology, Luoyang SBI Special Bearing Co., Ltd. has been dedicated to providing a wide variety of bearing solutions for industries all around the world since its establishment in 1989.

Midwest Gear & Tool, Inc.
With more than 20 years in gear manufacturing, Midwest Gear & Tool has an elaborate straight and spiral bevel gear manufacturing capability. We also manufacture a complete line of hydraulic, electric and manual transmissions and reducers. We m...

NSK Corporation
NSK is a global manufacturer of bearings and other motion & control products. It operates 51 manufacturing facilities worldwide and 12 global technology centers of excellence that draw from world-leading industry knowledge and manufacturing experience. NSK's dedication to engineering innovation results in state-of-the-art products designed to improve performance and extend service life. NSK's unique Asset Improvement Program helps customers improve productivity and efficiency to significantly reduce operating costs. The company’s industry and process-specific expertise and solutions are applied to identify and solve problems that are limiting productivity. This enables customers to achieve improved performance, enhanced competitiveness and increased profitability.

Precipart
We're building solutions to critical motion control specifications every day. That's because custom speedreducers and gearmotors from 7mm diameter and larger are our specialty. And our profound knowledge of materials and gear manufacturing gives youan edge. From our engineering expertise to prototype and production runs, we work in a wide range of industries, including the aerospace/avionics, scientific instrumentation and medical diagnostic and clinical equipment markets.

QA1 Precision Products
QA1 designs, manufactures and distributes rod ends, spherical bearings, performance shock absorbers, struts, springs, and related items. QA1 engineers products that are utilized in a wide variety of industries such as performance racing, off-road recreational vehicles, fitness equipment, packaging equipment, etc. We are also very experienced in value-added global sourcing for our large OEM customers – we routinely supply major companies with forged, cast, fabricated or machined suspension and driveline components. QA1’s quality system is certified to the ISO 9001:2008 standard.

RJ Link International, Inc.
We design and manufacture custom gearboxes, provide precision machined components and perform contract machining services - including gear grinding.

Ronson Gears Pty. Ltd.
Established in 1954 Ronson Gears, is your English speaking and English thinking Asia-Pacific alternative for Precision Gears and Gear Assemblies. Doing business internationally for almost 60 years, Ronson Gears has garnered a reputation for quality, delivery and first-class customer service.

Rush Gears Inc.
Manufacturer of Custom and Standard Industrial Gears. Inch and Metric Gears. Steel Gears, Plastic Gears and Stainless Steel Gears. Spur Gears, Helical Gears, Worm & Worm Gears, Gear Rack, Gear Stock & Pinions, Geared Shafts, Splines & Spline Shaft...

Smalley Steel Ring Company
Smalley Steel Ring Company manufactures Spirolox® Retaining Rings and Smalley Wave Springs. Spiral/Spirolox rings are interchangeable with stamped ring grooves; require no special tooling for removal. Wave springs reduce heights by 50%, with equal force/deflection as standard coil springs. Fit in tight radial/axial spaces. 10,000 stock parts, carbon/stainless steel. Specials from .200"- 120"; No-Tooling-Charges.

ZZN Transmission Plant
The ZZN Transmission Plant has over 30 years of experience in manufacturing powertrain components. Its production facilities and highly qualified staff guarantee the world’s top quality products. Numerically controlled machines, machining centers, electron beam vacuum welding center and modern heat treatment equipment enable the manufacture of high quality products.

Articles About manufacturing


1 Investing in Ourselves is the Key to Revitalizing American Manufacturing (July/August 1992)

Popular wisdom has it that manufacturing in the United States is no longer a viable entity. We are told that quality is poor, skilled labor is difficult to obtain, if not impossible, demand is low, and the government is helping to discourage business. So what should we do, give up?

2 Adapting Lean for High-Mix, Low-Volume Manufacturing Facilities (August 2012)

Why traditional lean manufacturing approaches need to be adapted for job shop environments.

3 Medical Device Manufacturing Keeps Gear Industry Healthy (March/April 2006)

When Forest City Gear started manufacturing gears for medical components in the 1980s, it was a minuscule part of the company's business. Today, the medical device industry represents 18-20%.

4 American Manufacturing - Can It Be Saved (November/December 2009)

If anyone should ever need convincing that the state of American manufacturing is in ongoing decline, consider this: the state of Michigan has the highest concentration of engineers in the country, yet also has the highest unemployment rate. But there are ripples of hope out there as grassroots and otherwise organized groups are fighting the good fight in an attempt to reverse that trend.

5 Manufacturing and Pursuit of the American Dream: Reality or Fool's Quest (November/December 2012)

It wasn’t so very long ago that a high school-educated, able-bodied person with a will to work typically had little trouble finding a decent job in manufacturing. Whether at an area job shop, an OEM plant or auto plant—work was to be had. Work that paid well enough to marry, buy a home, feed, raise and educate a family—with even enough left over for a modest retirement pension.

6 The Winds of Change (January/February 1991)

Nashville - One of the highlights of this year's SME Advanced Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic was a tour of the new GM Saturn automobile manufacturing plant outside the city. There in the Tennessee hills is a hopeful vision of the future of the American automobile industry. It may well be the future of American large-scale manufacturing in general.

7 Gear Manufacturing in the Far East (January/February 2006)

This article gives readers a glimpse of some companies that manufacture gears in the Far East. We've talked with more than a dozen companies in India, Taiwan and Korea...

8 A Quick-Start Approach for Implementing Lean in Job Shops (October 2012)

In the August issue, we examined the lean tools that will and will not work in high-mix, low-volume manufacturing facilities. Now, we will examine how to implement the tools that will work in the job shop with an approach that expands the capabilities of value stream mapping.

9 Real-World Job Training the Lean Way -- And Loving It (September 2011)

Make no mistake -- lean manufacturing is here to stay. And no wonder. As a fiercely competitive global economy continues to alter companies’ “Main Street” thinking, that relatively new dynamic is spurring the need for “I-need-it-yesterday” production output. And for increasingly more industries -- big or small -- that means getting as lean as you can, as fast as you can.

10 The Global Gear Industry - Insights, Projections, Facts and Figures (May 2011)

A series of short reports on global manufacturing growth and the gear industry's role.

11 Where Are We Now (January/February 2010)

The struggles of the manufacturing economy in 2009 are well documented. Even among those of us with long careers, most of us have never seen activity come to a screeching halt the way it did last year. 2009 was tough on all of us. So, what should we expect in 2010?

12 Steadfast and Streamlined: Can Lean Soften the Economic Blow (August 2009)

Two high-volume gear production cells grace the shop floor at Delta Research Corporation in Livonia, Michigan. Thanks to lean manufacturing, these cells have never shipped a defective part to a customer since they were developed over three years ago.

13 Protecting Our Own (January/February 2011)

Publisher Michael Goldstein discusses the loss of U.S. manufacturing capability and what we should do about it.

14 If Only We Had a Crystal Ball... (November/December 2012)

Before we get into projections and prognostications about the future, let’s take a minute to review 2012. For many in the gear industry, the year was better than expected. Some manufacturers had a very successful year leading up to an even more successful manufacturing trade show (IMTS 2012). Others were searching for more business, hoping that the general state of the economy wouldn’t make things worse. In some cases, it did.

15 IPTEX 2012 Preview (November/December 2011)

India is rapidly turning into a global manufacturing hub, thanks to the country’s manufacturing and engineering capabilities, vast pool of skilled expertise and its size. These qualities offer it a strategic advantage for the manufacturing segment. A large number of international companies in varied segments have already set up a manufacturing base in India and others are following suit. It only makes sense to bring this industry segment together under one roof to discuss the current trends and technology prevalent to the marketplace. IPTEX 2012 is scheduled from February 9–11, 2012 at the Bombay Exhibition Center in Mumbai, India.

16 Product News (January/February 2014)

The complete Product News section from the January/February 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

17 Industry News (August 2014)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

18 Product News (October 2013)

The complete Product News section from the October 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

19 Product News (September 2013)

The complete Product News section from the September 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

20 Where Did All the Displaced Manufacturing Workers Go (August 2013)

Following is a report from The Manufacturers Alliance for Productivity and Innovation (MAPI). Founded in 1933, the alliance contributes to the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturing by providing economic research, professional development, and an independent, expert source of manufacturing information.

21 Lean Resources (November/December 2013)

The final installment of our Job Shop Lean series includes a wide variety of educational resources to help you continue your own lean journey.

22 Journey to the Land of Manufacturing Milk and Honey--What Are You Waiting For? (July 2008)

How lean manufacturing principles can help transform your gear manufacturing business.

23 IMTS 2010 Poised for Manufacturing Resurgence (July 2010)

Manufacturing is a hot topic everywhere these days, what with economic stimulus plans targeting the struggling industry worldwide. Many hopes are tied to a manufacturing recovery to bring us further up out of the economic doldrums of 2007–2008. Most indicators show that manufacturing is climbing back, so what better time for the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) 2010 to witness first hand the next generation’s technology.

24 Bevel Gear Manufacturing Troubleshooting (March/April 1991)

The quality of gearing is a function of many factors ranging from design, manufacturing processes, machine capability, gear steel material, the machine operator, and the quality control methods employed. This article discusses many of the bevel gear manufacturing problems encountered by gear manufacturers and some of the troubleshooting techniques used.

25 Letters to the Editor (September 2013)

Readers respond to our "Job Shop Lean" column and the "My Gear is Bigger than Your Gear" article.

26 Applying Process Control to Gear Manufacturing (March/April 1992)

A common goal of gear manufacturers is to produce gearing that is competitively priced, that meets all quality requirements with the minimum amount of cost in a timely manner, and that satisfies customers' expectations. In order to optimize this goal, the gear manufacturer must thoroughly understand each manufacturing process specified, the performance capability of that process, and the effect of that particular process as it relates to the quality of the manufactured gear. If the wrong series of processes has been selected or a specific selected process is not capable of producing a quality part, manufacturing costs are greatly increased.

27 AGMA FTM: Where Great Minds and Manufacturing Mesh (November/December 2012)

Another year, another AGMA Fall Technical Conference. But this is no ho-hum event. Not when every year, the conference attracts some of the greatest mechanical engineering minds on the planet, along with representatives of the world’s greatest manufacturing entities. And who knows—perhaps one day there will be an extraterrestrial contingent—the science is that good. And all of it readily applicable to real-world manufacturing.

28 Grinding Gears for Racing Transmissions (September/October 2009)

When you push 850 horsepower and 9,000 rpm through a racing transmission, you better hope it stands up. Transmission cases and gears strewn all over the racetrack do nothing to enhance your standing, nor that of your transmission supplier.

29 Design of a Flexible and Lean Machining Cell, Part I (June/July 2013)

Although a cell is dedicated to produce a single part family, it must have the requisite equipment capabilities, routing flexibility, cross-trained employees and, to the extent possible, minimal external process dependencies. Cells are often implemented in job shops since they provide the operational benefits of flowline production.

30 Industry News (August 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

31 Job Shop Lean (January/February 2013)

This is the first article in an eight-part "reality" series on implementing continuous improvement at Hoerbiger Corporation. Throughout 2013, Dr. Shahrukh Irani will report on his progress applying the job shop lean strategies he developed during his time at Ohio State University.

32 Industry News (November/December 2012)

The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2012 issue of Gear Technology.

33 Gear Teeth With Byte (January/February 1998)

Computers are everywhere. It's gotten so that it's hard to find an employee who isn't using one in the course of his or her day - whether he be CEO or salesman, engineer or machinist. Everywhere you look, you find the familiar neutral-colored boxes and bright glowing screens. And despite the gear industry's traditional reluctance to embrace new technology, more and moe of what you find on those screens are gears.

34 A Lean Strategy for Job Shops (November/December 2005)

POLCA: An alternative to Kanban for high-variety or custom-engineered products.

35 A Second Rate Society - Never (August/September 1984)

What was once recognized as the unique genius of America is now slipping away from us and, in many areas, is now seen as a "second rate" capability. Unless action is taken now, this country is in real danger of being unable to regain its supremacy in technological development and economic vigor. First Americans must understand the serious implications of the problem; and second, we must dedicate ourselves to national and local actions that will ensure a greater scientific and technological literacy in America.

36 DFM Crucial for Gear Industry Success (March/April 2013)

"Design for manufacturability" (DFM) is a well-established practice, essential to realizing the successful transformation of concepts into mass-produced gears and motion control devices. And yet, all too often issues that could have been avoided are identified very late in the process that impact production costs and schedules. This suggests that key DFM principles are often underutilized in practice and are not applied consistently - or to the degree necessary - to avoid these negative results.

37 Product News (January/February 2013)

The complete Product News section from the January/February 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

38 Design of a Flexible and Lean Machining Cell, Part II (August 2013)

Job shops may be ill-advised to undertake a complete reorganization into FLEAN (Flexible and Lean) cells. A FLEAN cell would (i) be flex-ible enough to produce any and all orders for parts that belong in a specific part family and (ii) utilize lean to the maximum extent possible to eliminate waste.

39 Industry News (May 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the May 2013 issue of Gear Technology

40 If You Rebuild It, They Will Buy It (May 2013)

It’s been said that the best ideas are often someone else's. But with rebuilt, retrofitted, re-controlled or remanufactured machine tools, buyer beware and hold onto your wallet. Sourcing re-work vendors and their services can require just as much homework, if not necessarily dollars, as with just-off-the-showroom-floor machines.

41 Gear Expo 2013 - An Oscar-Worthy Indy Production (August 2013)

We are well into an odd-number year, so it must be just about time for another Gear Expo. Indeed, the big show -- Gear Expo 2013 -- kicks off in Indianapolis at 9:00 a.m. Tuesday, September 17, wrapping up Thursday the 19th at 4:00 p.m. And whether you are exhibiting or attending, the bottom line is you are going -- a good thing for you, your company and the tightly knit U.S. gear industry.

42 Job Shop Lean - Assembly (May 2013)

The Tiger Team from Hoerbiger looks for ways to cut waste and improve throughput in the company's assembly cell.

43 Manufacturing Method of Large-Sized Spiral Bevel Gears in Cyclo-Palloid System Using Multi-Axis Control and Multi-Tasking Machine Tool (August 2011)

In this article, the authors calculated the numerical coordinates on the tooth surfaces of spiral bevel gears and then modeled the tooth profiles using a 3-D CAD system. They then manufactured the large-sized spiral bevel gears based on a CAM process using multi-axis control and multi-tasking machine tooling. The real tooth surfaces were measured using a coordinate measuring machine and the tooth flank form errors were detected using the measured coordinates. Moreover, the gears were meshed with each other and the tooth contact patterns were investigated. As a result, the validity of this manufacturing method was confirmed.

44 IMTS 1986 - The World of Manufacturing Technology (July/August 1986)

September 3-11 the 1986 International Machine Tool Show, "The World of Manufacturing Technology", will be held at the McCormick Place Exposition Center in Chicago. More that 1000 exhibits from over thirty countries are planned. These exhibits will present a complete range of machine-tool products from 2-story high presses to complete manufacturing systems, lathes, lasers, CAD/CAM systems and robotics.

45 Manufacturing of Forged and Extruded Gears (July/August 1990)

Traditional methods of manufacturing precision gears usually employ either hobbing or shaper cutting. Both of these processes rely upon generating the conjugate tooth form by moving the work-piece in a precise relation to the tool. Recently, attention has been given to forming gear teeth in a single step. Advantages to such a process include reduced production time, material savings, and improved performance characteristics. Drawbacks include complicated tool designs, non-uniformity of gears produced throughout the life of the tooling, and lengthy development times.

46 Alternative Gear Manufacturing (July/August 1998)

the gear industry is awash in manufacturing technologies that promise to eliminate waste by producing gears in near-net shape, cut production and labor costs and permit gear designers greater freedom in materials. These methods can be broken down into the following categories: alternative ways to cut, alternative ways to form and new, exotic alternatives. Some are new, some are old and some are simply amazing.

47 An Innovative Way of Designing Gear Hobbing Processes (May 2012)

In today’s manufacturing environment, shorter and more efficient product development has become the norm. It is therefore important to consider every detail of the development process, with a particular emphasis on design. For green machining of gears, the most productive and important process is hobbing. In order to analyze process design for this paper, a manufacturing simulation was developed capable of calculating chip geometries and process forces based on different models. As an important tool for manufacturing technology engineers, an economic feasibility analysis is implemented as well. The aim of this paper is to show how an efficient process design—as well as an efficient process—can be designed.

48 IMTS 2000: The World of Manufacturing (September/October 2000)

For eight days every other year, the sponsor of the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS), the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT), strives to turn Chicago's McCormick Place into a "productivity marketplace," the largest and most completer display and demonstration of manufacturing technology ever seen in the Americas. If the growth of the show is any indicator, that effort has been very successful indeed. With over 1.4 million square feet of exhibit space taking up all five levels and all three exhibit halls of McCormick Place, each level would rank as one of the nation's 200 largest trade shows. That wasn't always the size or scope of the show. Its inception, while impressive for the time, was humble by today's standards.

49 The Replacements - Taking Steps to Strengthen the Future Skilled Workforce (January/February 2009)

For years, politicians, educators and business leaders have generated various ideas to revitalize U.S. manufacturing and engineering. These include manufacturing initiatives, internal training programs and an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in the classroom. The declining expertise in these fields, however, continues to be a growing problem in every facet of manufacturing and engineering.

50 The Past, Present and Future of Gear Manufacturing (June 2014)

The gear industry is full of storytellers. It's a niche market that boasts a remarkable cast of characters that have been sharing their stories with us for 30 years. In that time, the editors and staff of Gear Technology magazine have had the privilege to report the ins and outs of this highly-specialized industry. From technical articles to case studies and features, the main focus of this magazine has been to "provide a forum of discovery and innovation for you, the gear manufacturing industry." Our Publisher, Michael Goldstein, said as much in our inaugural issue of May/June 1984.

51 Improving Gear Manufacturing Quality With Surface Texture Measurement (March/April 1993)

The working surfaces of gear teeth are often the result of several machining operations. The surface texture imparted by the manufacturing process affects many of the gear's functional characteristics. To ensure proper operation of the final assembly, a gear's surface texture characteristics, such as waviness and roughness, can be evaluated with modern metrology instruments.

52 Gear Corrosion During the Manufacturing Process (September/October 2009)

No matter how well gears are designed and manufactured, gear corrosion can occur that may easily result in catastrophic failure. Since corrosion is a sporadic and rare event and often difficult to observe in the root fillet region or in finely pitched gears with normal visual inspection, it may easily go undetected. This paper presents the results of an incident that occurred in a gear manufacturing facility several years ago that resulted in pitting corrosion and intergranular attack (IGA).

53 Is the Manufacturing Comeback Just an Illusion (May 2014)

A great deal of attention has been paid to the decline of manufacturing in America, and I've been accused of being a town crier since the 1980s, when I began to see our nation lose its edge to foreign competition. My concerns have proven well-founded.

54 Well-Paying Manufacturing Jobs Are Blowing in the Wind--And State Governments are Racing to Harness Them (January/February 2008)

Lamentations continue—legitimately so—over the second-citizen status of manufacturing in the United States. The need undoubtedly continues for renewed support by government and educators for making things here once again...

55 Manufacturing Net-Shaped, Cold-Formed Gears (May 2008)

A net-shaped metal forming process has been developed for manufacturing quality, durable, high-yield and cost-efficient gears for high-volume production.

56 Blue Skies for Aerospace Parts Manufacturing (March/April 2006)

Aerospace manufacturing has seen quite a turnaround in the past few years. The world's manufacturers of airplanes, helicopters, missiles, space vehicles and satellites are all extremely busy right now--and that's keeping quite a few gear manufacturers busy as well.

57 Who Makes the Nails (November/December 2001)

I've been thinking a lot about the importance of manufacturing over the last couple of years, especially as I've watched more and more of it leave our country. We work in an industry that is both economically and strategically vital, but I'm concerned that most Americans do not realize the importance of manufacturing, or what will happen if it continues to dissipate.

58 Selection of Material and Compatible Heat Treatments for Gearing (May/June 1986)

The manufacturing process to produce a gear essentially consist of: material selection, blank preshaping, tooth shaping, heat treatment, and final shaping. Only by carefully integrating of the various operations into a complete manufacturing system can an optimum gear be obtained. The final application of the gear will determine what strength characteristics will be required which subsequently determine the material and heat treatments.

59 Dry Machining for Gear Shaping (November/December 2001)

Economic production is one of the main concerns of any manufacturing facility. In recent years, cost increases and tougher statutory requirements have increasingly made cutting fluids a problematic manufacturing and cost factor in metalworking. Depending on the cutting fluid, production process and supply unit, cutting-fluid costs may account for up to 16% of workpiece cost. In some cases, they exceed tool cost by many times (Ref. 1). The response by manufacturers is to demand techniques for dry machining (Ref. 2).

60 Editorial (May/June 1984)

Over the years, we have traveled extensively throughout the industrialized world, and became increasingly aware of the availability of enormous amounts of technical writing concerning research, experiments, and techniques in the gear manufacturing field. New manufacturing methods, materials, and machines were continuously being developed, but the technical information about them was not readily available to those that could best use it. There was no central source for disseminating this knowledge.

61 The Limits of the Computer Revoltion (May/June 1993)

In this issue of Gear Technology, we are focusing on using computers to their greatest advantage in gear design and manufacturing. In a sense, that's old news. It's a cliche to suggest that computers make our work life easier and more productive. No company that wishes to remain competitive in today's global manufacturing environment can afford to be without computers in all their manifestations. We need them in the office; we need them next to our desks in place of drafting boards; we need them on the shop floor.

62 The XL Gears Project (January/February 2014)

Much of the existing guidelines for making large, high-performance gears for wind turbine gearboxes exhibit a need for improvement. Consider: the large grinding stock used to compensate for heat treatment distortion can significantly reduce manufacturing productivity; and, materials and manufacturing processes are two other promising avenues to improvement. The work presented here investigates quenchable alloy steels that, combined with specifically developed Case-hardening and heat treatment processes, exhibits reduced distortion and, in turn, requires a smaller grinding stock.

63 Shaper Cutters-Design & Applications Part 1 (March/April 1990)

Gear shaping is one of the most popular production choices in gear manufacturing. While the gear shaping process is really the most versatile of all the gear manufacturing methods and can cut a wide variety of gears, certain types of gears can only be cut by this process. These are gears closely adjacent to shoulders; gears adjacent to other gears, such as on countershafts; internal gears, either open or blind ended; crown or face gears; herringbone gears of the solid configuration of with a small center groove; rack; parts with filled-in spaces or teeth, such as are used in some clutches.

64 Gear Heat Treating in the 90s: Beyond Black Magic (March/April 1995)

Heat Treating - The evil twin of the gear processing family. Heat treating and post-heat treating corrective processes can run up to 50% or more of the total gear manufacturing cost, so it's easy to see why, in these days when "lean and mean" production is the rage, and every part of the manufacturing process is under intense scrutiny, some of the harshest light falls on heat treating.

65 The Effect of Manufaturing Microgeometry Variations on the Load Distribution Factor and on Gear Contact and Root Stresses (July 2009)

Traditionally, gear rating procedures consider manufacturing accuracy in the application of the dynamic factor, but only indirectly through the load distribution are such errors in the calculation of stresses used in the durability and gear strength equations. This paper discusses how accuracy affects the calculation of stresses and then uses both statistical design of experiments and Monte Carlo simulation techniques to quantify the effects of different manufacturing and assembly errors on root and contact stresses.

66 How Gear Hobbing Works (March/April 2013)

Hobbing is one of the most fundamental processes in gear manufacturing. Its productivity and versatility make hobbing the gear manufacturing method of choice for a majority of spur and helical gears.

67 Basic Spur Gear Design (November/December 1988)

Primitive gears were known and used well over 2,000 years ago, and gears have taken their place as one of the basic machine mechanisms; yet, our knowledge and understanding of gearing principles is by no means complete. We see the development of faster and more reliable gear quality assessment and new, more productive manufacture of gears in higher materials hardness states. We have also seen improvement in gear applications and design, lubricants, coolants, finishes and noise and vibration control. All these advances push development in the direction of smaller, more compact applications, better material utilization and improved quietness, smoothness of operation and gear life. At the same time, we try to improve manufacturing cost-effectiveness, making use of highly repetitive and efficient gear manufacturing methods.

68 Chamfering and Deburring External Parallel Axis Gears (November/December 1996)

The chamfering and deburring operations on gear teeth have become more important as the automation of gear manufacturing lines in the automotive industry have steadily increased. Quieter gears require more accurate chamfers. This operation also translates into significant coast savings by avoiding costly rework operations. This article discusses the different types of chamfers on gear teeth and outlines manufacturing methods and guidelines to determine chamfer sizes and angles for the product and process engineer.

69 Invest in the Future--Now! (September/October 1987)

It is with great anticipation that we move closer to AGMA's Fall Technical Conference and Gear Expo '87, which is being held on Oct. 4-6 in Cincinnati, OH. This bold undertaking by both AGMA and the exhibitors in the Expo's 160 booths is an attempt to make a major change in the industry's approach to the exposition of gear manufacturing equipment. By combining the Expo with the Fall Technical Conference, those involved in gear manufacturing will have the opportunity to review the latest equipment, trends, and most innovative ideas, while keeping up with the newest technology in the industry.

70 Involute Inspection Methods and Interpretation of Inspection Results (July/August 1997)

What is so unique about gear manufacturing and inspection? Machining is mostly associated with making either flat or cylindrical shapes. These shapes can be created by a machine's simple linear or circular movements, but an involute curve is neither a straight line nor a circle. In fact, each point of the involute curve has a different radius and center of curvature. Is it necessary to go beyond simple circular and linear machine movements in order to create an involute curve? One of the unique features of the involute is the fact that it can be generated by linking circular and linear movements. This uniqueness has become fertile soil for many inventions that have simplified gear manufacturing and inspection. As is the case with gear generating machines, the traditional involute inspection machines take advantage of some of the involute properties. Even today, when computers can synchronize axes for creating any curve, taking advantage of involute properties can be very helpful. I t can simplify synchronization of machine movements and reduce the number of variables to monitor.

71 Computer Aided Design (CAD) of Forging and Extrusion Dies for the Production of Gears by Forming (January/February 1985)

Material losses and long production times are two areas of conventional spur and helical gear manufacturing in which improvements can be made. Metalforming processes have been considered for manufacturing spur and helical gears, but these are costly due to the development times necessary for each new part design. Through a project funded by the U.S. Army Tank - Automotive Command, Battelle's Columbus Division has developed a technique for designing spur and helical gear forging and extrusion dies using computer aided techniques.

72 EDM Specialty Gears (May/June 1996)

The capabilities and limitations of manufacturing gears by conventional means are well-known and thoroughly documented. In the search to enhance or otherwise improve the gear-making process, manufacturing methods have extended beyond chip-cutting - hobbing, broaching, shaping, shaving, grinding, etc. and their inherent limitations based on cutting selection and speed, feed rates, chip thickness per tooth, cutting pressure, cutter deflection, chatter, surface finish, material hardness, machine rigidity, tooling, setup and other items.

73 Automated Inspection Systems: The Whole Picture (January/February 1998)

No one (not even you and I) consistently makes parts with perfect form and dimensions, so we must be able to efficiently check size and shape at many stages in the manufacturing and assembly process to eliminate scrap and rework and improve processes and profits. Automated inspection systems, which are widely used in all kinds of manufacturing operations, provide great efficiencies in checking individual features, but may not be as effective when asked to evaluate an entire part. You need to know why this is true and what you can do to improve your part yields.

74 Capitalizing on Your Human Capital (November/December 1997)

A fundamental characteristic of the gear industry is that it is capital intensive. In the last decade, the gear manufacturing industry has been undergoing an intense drive toward improving and modernizing its capital equipment base. The Department of Commerce reports that annual sales of gear cutting equipment have increased nearly 60% since 1990. While this effort has paid off in increased competitiveness for the American gear industry, it is important to remember that there is another capital crucial to manufacturing success - "human capital."

75 Gear Software You Didn't Know About (January/February 1997)

Designing and manufacturing gears requires the skills of a mathematician, the knowledge of an engineer and the experience of a precision machinist. For good measure, you might even include the are of a magician, because the formulas and calculations involved in gear manufacturing are so obscure and the processes so little known that only members of an elite cadre of professionals can perform them.

76 Gear Manufacturing Past, Present & Future (January/February 2000)

Roughly 100 years ago, Cornelius J. Brosnan of Springfield, Massachusetts, invented and received the first U.S. patent for a paper clip. At about the same time, his fellow inventors were coming up with such marvels as the zipper, the safety razor and the typewriter.

77 Gear Manufacturing Methods - Forming the Teeth (January/February 1987)

The forming of gear teeth has traditionally been a time-consuming heavy stock removal operation in which close tooth size, shape, runout and spacing accuracy are required. This is true whether the teeth are finished by a second forming operation or a shaving operation.

78 Cone Drive Double Enveloping Worm Gearing Design and Manufacturing (October/November 1984)

Worm gearing is of great antiquity, going back about 2100 years to Archimedes, who is generally acknowledged as its inventor. Archimedes' concept used an Archimedial spiral to rotate a toothed wheel. Development of the worm gearing principle progressed along conventional lines until about 500 years ago when Leonardo DaVinci evolved the double enveloping gear concept.

79 Manufacturing Software...To Go (September/October 2010)

ITAMCO develops gear-related apps for the iPhone and related devices.

80 Practical Considerations for the Use of Double-Flank Testing for the Manufacturing Control of Gearing - Part II (March/April 2014)

Part I of this paper, which appeared in the January/February issue of Gear Technology, described the theory behind double-flank composite inspection. It detailed the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. The concluding Part II presents a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection -- especially for large-volume operations. It also addresses statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.

81 High Tech Manufacturing--Challenges for the 1990s (March/April 1988)

This issue's editorial is a reprint of the keynote address given by Michael Goldstein at the Computer Aided Gear Design Seminar held at the University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA on November 9, 1987.

82 Improved Ion Bond Recoating for the Gear Manufacturing Industry (January/February 1997)

This article summarizes the development of an improved titanium nitride (TiN) recoating process, which has, when compared to conventional recoat methods, demonstrated tool life increases of up to three times in performance testing of hobs and shaper cutters. This new coating process, called Super TiN, surpasses the performance of standard TiN recoating for machining gear components. Super TiN incorporates stripping, surface preparation, smooth coating techniques and polishing before and after recoating. The combination of these improvements to the recoating process is the key to its performance.

83 CNC Gear Manufacturing - Where Are We Now (January/February 1995)

These days it's hard to get through breakfast without reading or hearing another story about how the computer is changing the way we live, sleep, eat, breathe, make things and do business. The message is that everything is computerized now, or, if it isn't, it will be by next Tuesday at the latest, Well, maybe.

84 The Effects of Surface Hardening on the Total Gear Manufacturing System (January/February 1991)

Carburized and hardened gears have optimum load-carrying capability. There are many alternative ways to produce a hard case on the gear surface. Also, selective direct hardening has some advantages in its ability to be used in the production line, and it is claimed that performance results equivalent to a carburized gear can be obtained. This article examines the alternative ways of carburizing, nitriding, and selective direct hardening, considering equipment, comparative costs, and other factors. The objective must be to obtain the desired quality at the lowest cost.

85 IMTS 2010: Pumping Blood into the International Manufacturing Community (August 2010)

If the free iPad giveaway from FANUC doesn’t draw you in, the wall-to-wall new machine tool technology displays should have you stopped dead in your tracks. To be exact, there will be 1.2 million square feet of exhibit space that may have your jaw dropping. IMTS may be the last show you want to forget to bring walking shoes to.

86 Heller Introduces Gear Manufacturing on Five-Axis Milling Machines (August 2010)

In co-operation with Voith, a major transmission manufacturer in Germany, Heller has developed a process that significantly enhances the productivity of pre-milling and gear milling operations performed on a single 5-axis machining center.

87 Where Manufacturing and Education Mesh (January/February 2007)

But associations and grassroots organizations lack public awareness.

88 Bending Fatigue Tests of Helicopter Case Carburized Gears: Influence on Material, Design and Manufacturing Parameters (November/December 2009)

A single tooth bending (STB) test procedure has been developed to optimally map gear design parameters. Also, a test program on case-carburized, aerospace standard gears has been conceived and performed in order to appreciate the influence of various technological parameters on fatigue resistance and to draw the curve shape up to the gigacycle region.

89 The Skinny on Lean Manufacturing (June 2007)

While universally known as a Japanese “invention” that was popularized by Toyota, lean in fact traces its roots to the work of post-World War II American occupation forces in Japan.

90 Beachfront Gear Manufacturing (January/February 2007)

Lots of us became interested in gears while taking drafting classes in high school.

91 The Outlook for Gear Manufacturing - A European Perspective (July/August 2005)

Hagen Hofmann of Hoefler presents his views on global trade, competition and the future of the gear industry.

92 Making It in America: U.S. Manufacturing Is Alive, Well and Prospering (September/October 2005)

Most firms in the gear industry we've talked to over the past year are making more gears than ever, generating more sales, and filling up their schedule books into next year and beyond.

93 Advances from Aachen - WZL and GRC Contribute to Gear Manufacturing (July/August 2005)

Aachen has long been the center of European gear research.

94 Politics of Manufacturing (July/August 1998)

In the approximately 15 years that I have been writing editorials for Gear Technology, I've purposely avoided certain topics. Sex, religion and my own used gear machinery business are among the subjects that have always been off limits. But with this issue, I'm going to break one of my long-standing taboos by talking politics.

95 Cutting Fluid Selection and Process Controls for the Gear Manufacturing Industry (July/August 1987)

The last decade has been a period of far-reaching change for the metal working industry. The effect of higher lubricant costs, technical advances in machine design and increasing competition are making it essential that manufacturers of gears pay more attention to testing, selecting and controlling cutting fluid systems. Lubricant costs are not a large percentage of the process cost relative to items such as raw materials, equipment and labor, and this small relative cost has tended to reduce the economic incentive to evaluate and to change cutting fluids.

96 Columbus Gear Expo - In the Heart of Manufacturing World (July/August 2003)

Complete guide ti Columbus Gear Expo July/August 2003.

97 Practical Considerations for the Use of Double-Flank Testing for the Manufacturing Control of Gearing - Part I (January/February 2014)

Part I of this paper describes the theory behind double-flank composite inspection, detailing the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. Part II, which will appear in the next issue, includes a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection, especially for large-volume operations. Part II covers statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.

98 Fundamentals of Gears and Gear Manufacturing (March/April 2003)

Video Review for March/April 2003.

99 Optimization of a Process Chain for Gear Shaft Manufacturing (March/April 2013)

The research presented here is part of an ongoing (six years to date) project of the Cluster of Excellence (CoE). CoE is a faculty-wide group of researchers from RWTH Aachen University in Aachen (North Rhine-Westphalia). This presentation is a result of the group’s examination of "integrative production technology for high-wage countries," in which a shaft for a dual-clutch gearbox is developed.

100 CNC Basics (January/February 1995)

NC and CNC machines are at the heart of manufacturing today. They are the state-of-the-art equipment everybody has (or is soon going to get) that promise to lower costs, increase production and turn manufacturers into competitive powerhouses. Like many other high tech devices (such as microwaves and VCRs), lots of people have and use them - even successfully - without really knowing much about how they operate. But upgrading to CNC costs a lot of money, so it's crucial to separate the hype from the reality.

101 Comparing Standards (September/October 1998)

One of the best ways to learn the ISO 6336 gear rating system is to recalculate the capacity of a few existing designs and to compare the ISO 6336 calculated capacity to your experience with those designs and to other rating methods. For these articles, I'll assume that you have a copy of ISO 6336, you have chosen a design for which you have manufacturing drawings and an existing gear capacity calculation according to AGMA 2001 or another method. I'll also assume that you have converted dimensions, loads, etc. into the SI system of measurement.

102 Redliner Charts and Gear Inspection (March/April 1999)

Q&A is your interactive gear forum. Send us your gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we'll put them before our panel of experts.

103 The Effect of Metallurgy on the Performance of Carburized Gears (March/April 1996)

Gears are designed to be manufactured, processed and used without failure throughout the design life of the gear. One of INFAC's objectives (*see p.24) is to help manufacture of gears to optimize performance and life. One way to achieve this is to identify failure mechanisms and then devise strategies to overcome them by modifying the manufacturing parameters.

104 The Basics of Gear Metrology and Terminology Part I (September/October 1998)

It is very common for those working in the gear manufacturing industry to have only a limited understanding of the fundamental principals of involute helicoid gear metrology, the tendency being to leave the topic to specialists in the gear lab. It is well known that quiet, reliable gears can only be made using the information gleaned from proper gear metrology.

105 Product Liability for Engineers (July/August 1998)

This textbook, written for college level engineering students, gives a basic grounding in the complexities of product liability law. It also provides useful information to those of us involved in the manufacturing of gears and gear systems in that the fundamental concepts apply to all types of manufacturers.

106 The ELIMS Project (January/February 1995)

Arrow Gear Company of Downers Grove, IL, has implemented a computer system that fully integrates exchange between all of its computer applications. The ELIMS (Electronic Linkage of Information Management Systems) project has increased manufacturing productivity and reduced lead times.

107 Bigger and Better Than Ever (July/August 1999)

Gear Expo 99, AGMA's biennial showcase for the gear industry, has left the Rust Belt this year and landed in Music City U.S.A., Nashville, Tennessee. The event, with exhibitors from around the globe showing off the latest in gear manufacturing as well as metal working processes, will be held at the Nashville Convention Center, October 24-27, 1999. According to Kurt Medert, AGMA vice president and Gear Expo show manager, "In choosing Nashville, AGMA;s Trade Show Advisory Council found a city that is an excellent trade show site. It has the right mix of convention center, nearby hotels, and a clean downtown area with entertainment readily available for the exhibitors and visitors alike. Nashville is in the heart of southern industry, which we see as a focus of growth for the gear industry and its customers."

108 Quality Gear Inspection - Part I (September/October 1994)

Quality gear inspection means doing the "right" inspections "right." A lot of time and money can be spent doing the wrong types of inspections related to function and doing them incorrectly. As we will discover later, such things as runout can creep into the manufacturing and inspection process and completely ruin any piece of data that is taken. this is one of the most important problems to control for quality inspection.

109 Calculating SAP and TIF (September/October 1999)

Q&A is your interactive gear forum. send us your gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we'll put them before our panel of experts.

110 Hard Gear Finishing with a Geometrically Defined Cutting Edge (November/December 1999)

The market demand for gear manufacturers to transmit higher torques via smaller-sized gear units inevitably leads to the use of case-hardened gears with high manufacturing and surface quality. In order to generate high part quality, there is an increasing trend towards the elimination of the process-induced distortion that occurs during heat treatment by means of subsequent hard finishing.

111 Ferritic Nitrocarburizing Gears to Increase Wear Resistance and Reduce Distortion (March/April 2000)

Quality gear manufacturing depends on controlled tolerances and geometry. As a result, ferritic nitrocarburizing has become the heat treat process of choice for many gear manufacturers. The primary reasons for this are: 1. The process is performed at low temperatures, i.e. less than critical. 2. the quench methods increase fatigue strength by up to 125% without distorting. Ferritic nitrocarburizing is used in place of carburizing with conventional and induction hardening. 3. It establishes gradient base hardnesses, i.e. eliminates eggshell on TiN, TiAIN, CrC, etc. In addition, the process can also be applied to hobs, broaches, drills, and other cutting tools.

112 New Innovations in Hobbing - Part I (September/October 1994)

Prior to the introduction of titanium nitride to the cutting tool industry in the early 1980s, there was very little progress in the general application of hobbing in the gear cutting industry. The productivity gains realized with this new type of coating initiated a very active time of advancement in the gear manufacturing process.

113 Guide to Gear Expo (September/October 1999)

Thousands of gear industry professionals will converge October 24-27 in Nashville, TN, for Gear Expo 99, the industry's biennial collection of the latest in gear manufacturing technology. With nearly 50,000 square feet of exhibit space sold more than two months in advance of the show, this year's Gear Expo will offer visitors more opportunity for supplier comparison than ever before. As of July 20, 166 suppliers of equipment, tooling, services and precision gear products were scheduled to participate, with as many as 20 additional booths yet to be sold, according to AGMA vice president and Gear Expo show manager Kurt Medert. The largest previous Gear Expo was held in 1997 in Detroit, with 43,100 square feet of exhibit space and 161 exhibitors.

114 If He Builds It, Will They Come (September/October 1999)

Richard Spens has been rebuilding antique machine tools for nearly a decade. He is drawn to the ornate architecture and fascinated by the open design that allows you to see inside a machine as it operates. "Working with machines has been a lifelong thing with me," said Spens, now a design engineer. "I started building steam engines when I was 10 years old." What he's working on now, however, is bigger than any steam engine or machine tool. In rural Livonia, Michigan, Spens is converting an old dairy barn into an accurate recreation of a turn-of-the-century, belt driven gear shop. It's an outgrowth of his interest in antique machine tools and, he feels, a way to stem the tide that is costing America so many manufacturing and skilled trade jobs.

115 A Comparison of ISO 4156-ANSI B92.2M - 1980 With Older Imperial Standards (September/October 1994)

The purpose of this article is to discuss ISO 4156/ANSI B92.2M-1980 and to compare it with other, older standards still in use. In our experience designing and manufacturing spline gauges and other spline measuring or holding devices for splined component manufacturers throughout the world, we are constantly surprised that so many standards have been produced covering what is quite a small subject. Many of the standards are international standards; others are company standards, which are usually based on international standards. Almost all have similarities; that is, they all deal with splines that have involute flanks of 30 degrees, 37.5 degrees or 45 degrees pressure angle and are for the most part flank-fitting or occasionally major-diameter-fitting.

116 Dry Cutting of Bevel and Hypoid Gears (May/June 1998)

High-speed machining using carbide has been used for some decades for milling and turning operations. The intermittent character of the gear cutting process has delayed the use of carbide tools in gear manufacturing. Carbide was found at first to be too brittle for interrupted cutting actions. In the meantime, however, a number of different carbide grades were developed. The first successful studies in carbide hobbing of cylindrical gears were completed during the mid-80s, but still did not lead to a breakthrough in the use of carbide cutting tools for gear production. Since the carbide was quite expensive and the tool life was too short, a TiN-coated, high-speed steel hob was more economical than an uncoated carbide hob.

117 Choosing the Right Heat Treater (March/April 1998)

Heat treating is a critical operation in gear manufacturing. It can make or break the quality of your final product. Yet it is one that frequently gear manufacturers outsource to someone else. Then the crucial question becomes, how do you know you're getting the right heat treater? How can you guarantee your end product when you have turned over this important process to someone else?

118 Gear Grinding 1995 (July/August 1995)

Gear grinding is one of the most expensive and least understood aspects of gear manufacturing. But with pressures for reduced noise, higher quality and greater efficiency, gear grinding appears to be on the rise.

119 Dry Hobbing Saves Automaker Money, Improves Gear Quality (November/December 1996)

It takes confidence to be the first to invest in new manufacturing technology. But the payback can be significant. That has been the experience at the Ford Motor Company's Transmission & Chassis Division plant at Indianapolis, IN, which boasts the world's first production application of dry hobbing.

120 George Wyss & Dennis Richmond of Reishauer Corporation (July/August 1995)

For this interview, we spoke with George Wyss, president, and Dennis Richmond, vice president of Reishauer Corporation about gear grinding and its place in gear manufacturing today.

121 The Advantages of Ion Nitriding Gears (November/December 1996)

When it comes to setting the standard for gear making, the auto industry often sets the pace. Thus when automakers went to grinding after hardening to assure precision, so did the machine shops that specialize in gearing. But in custom manufacturing of gears in small piece counts, post-heat treat grinding can grind away profits too.

122 Goldstein's Paradox (March/April 2000)

I just got off the phone with an associate of mine at a large gear manufacturing company.I was congratulating him on being awarded a new contract when he told me that they had just experienced a substantial downsizing.

123 18 Things You Should Know About SPC for Gears (November/December 1996)

Statistical Precess Control (SPC) and statistical methods in general are useful techniques for identifying and solving complex gear manufacturing consistency and performance problems. Complex problems are those that exist in spite of our best efforts and the application of state-of-the-art engineering knowledge.

124 Gear Grinding Comes of Age (July/August 1995)

In the quest for ever more exacting and compact commercial gears, precision abrasives are playing a key production role - a role that can shorten cycle time, reduce machining costs and meet growing market demand for such requirements as light weights, high loads, high speed and quiet operation. Used in conjunction with high-quality grinding machines, abrasives can deliver a level of accuracy unmatched by other manufacturing techniques, cost-effectively meeting AGMA gear quality levels in the 12 to 15 range. Thanks to advances in grinding and abrasive technology, machining has become one of the most viable means to grind fast, strong and quiet gears.

125 Two columns for the price of one... (November/December 1996)

Just back from IMTS and once again, I'm struck by the enormous vitality and strength of the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy. It has made a phoenix-like rise from the grave dug for it by pundits in the '80s and has come back more robust and competitive than ever.

126 Long-Life, Low-cost, Near-Net-Shape forged Gears (May/June 1995)

Near-net gear forging today is producing longer life gears at significantly lower costs than traditional manufacturing techniques. Advances in forging equipment, controls and die-making capability have been combined to produce commercially viable near-net-shape gears in diameters up to 17" with minimum stock allowances. These forged gears require only minimal finishing to meet part tolerance specifications.

127 Thermal Effects on CMMs (September/October 1997)

The trend toward moving coordinate measuring machines to the shop floor to become an integral part of the manufacturing operations brings real time process control within the reach of many companies. Putting measuring machines on the shop floor, however, subjects them to harsh environmental conditions. Like any measuring system, CMMs are sensitive to any ambient condition that deviates from the "perfect" conditions of the metrology lab.

128 Heat Treating Challenges for the Future (March/April 1996)

The heat treating of gears presents a difficult challenge to both the heat treater and the gear manufacturer. The number and variety of variables involved in the manufacturing process itself and the subsequent heat treating cycle create a complex matrix of factors which need to be controlled in order to produce a quality product. A heat treater specializing in gears or a gear manufacturer doing his own heat treating must have a clear understanding of these issues in order to deliver a quality product and make a profit at the same time. The situation also presents a number of areas that could benefit greatly from continued research and development.

129 Multi-Metal Composite Gear-Shaft Technology (January/February 1995)

A research program, conducted in conjunction with a U.S. Army contract, has resulted in the development of manufacturing technology to produce a multi-metal composite gear/shaft representing a substantial weight savings compared to a solid steel component. Inertia welding is used to join a steel outer ring to a light-weight titanium alloy web and/or shaft through the use of a suitable interlayer material such as aluminum.

130 Detroit in 97 - the Biggest Gear Expo Ever (July/August 1997)

"A Decade of Performance" is the theme of the American Gear Manufacturers Association Gear Expo 97, to be held October 19-22 at Detroit's Cobo Hall. Products and services related to every aspect of the gear manufacturing process, from turning and grinding the blanks to coating and inspection of the gears,will be represented at the show.

131 The Paperless Factory (January/February 1995)

You're already a veteran of the computer revolution. Only you and your controller know how much money you've spent and only your spouse knows how many sleepless nights you've had in the last ten years trying to carve out a place in the brave new world of computerized gear manufacturing. PC's, CNCs, CAD, CAM, DNC, SPC, CMM: You've got a whole bowl of alphabet soup out there on the shop floor. Overall these machines have lived up to their promises. Production time is down, quality is up. You have fewer scrapped parts and better, more efficient machine usage.

132 Cutting Tools Now (May/June 1996)

The cutting tool is basic to gear manufacturing. Whether it's a hob, broach, shaper cutter or EDM wire, not much gets done without it. And the mission of the tool remains the same as always; removing material as quickly, accurately and cost-effectively as possible. Progress in the field tends to be evolutionary, coming gradually over time, but recently, a confluence of emerging technologies and new customer demands has caused significant changes in the machines, the materials and the coatings that make cutting tools.

133 New Book For Gear Purchaseres & Specifiers (May/June 1997)

This book is written for those among us, with or without a technical background, who have an occasional need to use, purchase or specify gears. The author assumes an audience that is not made up of experienced gear designers, but of people who do need to have a basic understanding of the criteria used by the designer. The subjects covered include not only the gears themselves, but their manufacturing methods, the systems that contain them and the terms used to describe them.

134 The Shape of Things to Come (July/August 1995)

An engineer's responsibility for verifying a new design or product concept as manufacturable early in the development cycle is a tough challenge. What appears to work on a blueprint or in a three-dimensional CAD file on a computer screen many not work on the factory floor; and the downstream impact on the manufacturing process of an undetected design flaw can be enormous. Costs can run into the millions.

135 Opportunity Knocked (October 2013)

For anyone involved in gear manufacturing, Gear Expo is an absolute treasure. In 2013, it was bigger and more varied than it's been in a decade. With 226 exhibitors covering every conceivable gear-related technology, Gear Expo offered visitors unparalleled opportunities to interview potential new suppliers.

136 Boom or Bust - Are You in the Right Markets (June/July 2013)

Over the past few months we've talked with a lot of gear manufacturers. Many of them tell us business is strong, while others are struggling with reduced demand. The difference between them isn't so much in the quality of their manufacturing operations, but rather trends in the end markets they serve.

137 Light Weight Assembled Gears - A Green Design Solution (May 2013)

It is widely recognized that the reduction of CO2 requires consistent light-weight design of the entire vehicle. Likewise, the trend towards electric cars requires light-weight design to compensate for the additional weight of battery systems. The need for weight reduction is also present regarding vehicle transmissions. Besides the design of the gearbox housing, rotating masses such as gear wheels and shafts have a significant impact on fuel consumption. The current technology shows little potential of gear weight reduction due to the trade-off between mass optimization and the manufacturing process. Gears are usually forged followed or not by teeth cutting operation.

138 Tooth Root Optimization of Powder Metal Gears - Reducing Stress from Bending and Transient Loads (June/July 2013)

This paper will provide examples of stress levels from conventional root design using a hob and stress levels using an optimized root design that is now possible with PM manufacturing. The paper will also investigate how PM can reduce stresses in the root from transient loads generated by abusive driving.

139 Engineering Questions - SME has the Answers with Knowledge Edge (August 2013)

The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) has been gathering, validating and sharing manufacturing knowledge for more than 80 years. Traditionally, SME resources were purchased by individuals for their own personal use or by colleges and universities as textbooks. Recently, these same colleges and universities were looking for digital resources to provide to their instructors and students. Companies were requesting SME content digitally for their employees as well.

140 EMO 2013 - Intelligence in Production (August 2013)

Preview of some of the exhibits relevant to gear manufacturing at the upcoming EMO 2013.

141 Reinventing Cutting Tool Production at Gleason (May 2013)

Investment in advanced new manufacturing technologies is helping to reinvent production processes for bevel gear cutters and coarse-pitch hobs at Gleason - delivering significant benefits downstream to customers seeking shorter deliveries, longer tool life and better results.

142 Heavy-Duty Demands - Modern Coating Technology Examined (May 2013)

The hob is a perfect example of how a little manufacturing ingenuity can make a reliable, highly productive cutting tool. It's an engineering specimen that creates higher cutting speeds, better wear resistance and increases rigidity. The cutting tool alone, however, can't take all the credit for its resourcefulness. Advanced coating technology from companies like Sulzer, Oerlikon Balzers, Ionbond, Seco Tools and Cemecon helps improve cutting tools by reducing overall costs, increasing tool life and maintaining the highest levels of productivity. The following is a quick recap of new technologies and the latest information in the coating market.

143 Gear Industry Buyers Guide 2012 (November/December 2012)

The 2012 Gear Technology Buyers Guide was compiled to provide you with a handy resource containing the contact information for significant suppliers of machinery, tooling, supplies and services used in gear manufacturing.

144 Large Pinions for Open Gears - The Increase of Single Mesh Load (January/February 2013)

This paper introduces mandatory improvements in design, manufacturing and inspection - from material elaboration to final machining - with special focus on today's large and powerful gearing.

145 GT Extras (March/April 2013)

A sampling of newsletter articles and videos related to gear manufacturing from March/April 2013.

146 Liebherr LFG Grinding Machine (May 2013)

This machine concept facilitates highly productive profile grinding for large workpieces. The range for external and internal gears comprises models for manufacturing workpieces up to 2,000 millimeters – for industrial gear units, wind power, and marine propulsion applications

147 IMTS - Big Trade Show for the City of Big Shoulders (July/August 1994)

The biggest industrial trade show in the world this year - and the manufacturing machinery industry's most important marketplace - will be at McCormick Place in Chicago September 7 - 15.

148 The Halls of Ivy Tech Are Humming with Precision Tooling (October 2013)

If you've been following this space with any regularity, you know that grassroots efforts among industry and academia are springing up around the country to help win the hearts, minds and talents of young people in nudging them towards a career in manufacturing. Add another partnership to the list.

149 Load Distribution Analysis of Spline Joints (May 2014)

A finite elements-based contact model is developed to predict load distribution along the spline joint interfaces; effects of spline misalignment are investigated along with intentional lead crowning of the contacting surfaces. The effects of manufacturing tooth indexing error on spline load distributions are demonstrated by using the proposed model.

150 Portable Gear Inspection (July 2014)

Compact, custom and portable solutions are gaining more attention in manufacturing today as companies seek out the tools that offer the greatest productivity gains on the shop floor. Gear inspection seems to be following suit.

151 The Influence of Tool Tolerances on the Gear Quality of a Gear Manufactured by an Indexable Insert Hob (July 2014)

Recently, a new type of hob with carbide inserts has been introduced, providing higher cutting speeds, longer tool life and higher feed rates when compared to re-grindable, high-speed steel hobs. But with this kind of hob, new challenges occur due to positional errors of the cutting edges when mounted on the tool. These errors lead to manufacturing errors on the gear teeth which must be controlled. In this paper, the tooth quality of a gear manufactured by hobs with different quality classes is analyzed using a simulation model in combination with Monte Carlo methods.

152 IMTS 2014 Product Preview (August 2014)

An in-depth look at the major booths with the latest technology used in gear manufacturing.

153 Technological Potential and Performance of Gears Ground by Dressable CBN Tools (March/April 2014)

Dressable vitrified bond CBN grinding tools combine the advantages of other common tool systems in generating gear grinding. Yet despite those technological advantages, there is only a small market distribution of these grinding tools due to high tool costs. Furthermore, scant literature exists regarding generating gear grinding with dressable CBN. This is especially true regarding the influence of the grinding tool system on manufacturing-related component properties. The research objective of this report is to determine the advantages of dressable CBN tools in generating gear grinding.

154 Press Quenching and Effects of Prior Thermal History on Distortion during Heat Treatment (March/April 2014)

Precision components (industrial bearing races and automotive gears) can distort during heat treatment due to effects of free or unconstrained oil quenching. However, press quenching can be used to minimize these effects. This quenching method achieves the relatively stringent geometrical requirements stipulated by industrial manufacturing specifications. As performed on a wide variety of steel alloys, this specialized quenching technique is presented here, along with a case study showing the effects of prior thermal history on the distortion that is generated during press quenching.

155 Gear Standards and ISO GPS (October 2013)

In today’s globalized manufacturing, all industrial products having dimensional constraints must undergo conformity specifications assessments on a regular basis. Consequently, (standardization) associated with GD&T (geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing) should be un-ambiguous and based on common, accepted rules. Of course gears - and their mechanical assemblies - are special items, widely present in industrial applications where energy conversion and power transmission are involved.

156 2013 State of the Gear Industry (November/December 2013)

Gear Technology’s annual State-of- the-Gear-Industry survey polls gear manufacturers about the latest trends and opinions relating to the overall health of the gear industry. As in years past, the survey was conducted anonymously, with invitations sent by e-mail to gear manufacturing companies around the world.

157 Buyers Guide 2013 Categories (November/December 2013)

The 2013 Gear Technology Buyers Guide was compiled to provide you with a handy resource containing the contact information for significant suppliers of machinery, tooling, supplies and services used in gear manufacturing.

158 The Next Transformation (March/April 2014)

Every so often manufacturing is jolted out of its inertia by a transformative technology – one that fundamentally changes not only the way products are made, but also the economics of the business.

159 2012 State of the Gear Industry (November/December 2012)

Gear Technology’s annual state-of-the-gear-industry survey polls gear manufacturers about the latest trends and opinions relating to the overall health of the gear industry. As in years past, the survey was conducted anonymously, with invitations sent by e-mail to gear manufacturing companies around the world.

160 Differential Gears (October 2012)

What are the manufacturing methods used to make bevel gears used in automotive differentials?

161 Load Distribution in Planetary Gears (May/June 2001)

Two-shaft planetary gear drives are power-branching transmissions, which lead the power from input to output shaft on several parallel ways. A part of the power is transferred loss-free as clutch power. That results in high efficiency and high power density. Those advantages can be used optimally only if an even distribution of load on the individual branches of power is ensured. Static over-constraint, manufacturing deviations and the internal dynamics of those transmission gears obstruct the load balance. With the help of complex simulation programs, it is possible today to predict the dynamic behavior of such gears. The results of those investigations consolidate the approximation equations for the calculation of the load factors...

162 Austempered Gears and Shafts: Tough Solutions (March/April 2001)

Aurstempered irons and steels offer the design engineer alternatives to conventional material/process combinations. Depending on the material and the application, austempering may provide the producers of gear and shafts with the following benefits: ease of manufacturing, increased bending and/or contact fatigue strength, better wear resistance or enhanced dampening characteristics resulting in lower noise. Austempered materials have been used to improve the performance of gears and shafts in many applications in a wide range of industries.

163 Calculating Dynamic Loads, Sizing Worm Gears and Figuring Geometry Factors (May/June 2001)

Q&A is an interactive gear forum. Send us you gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we will pass them to our panel of experts.

164 Hidden Runout (September/October 2001)

Q&A is an interactive gear forum. Send us your gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we will pass them to our panel of experts.

165 Net-Shape Forged Gears - The State of the Art (January/February 2002)

Traditionally, high-quality gears are cut to shape from forged blanks. Great accuracy can be obtained through shaving and grinding of tooth forms, enhancing the power capacity, life and quietness of geared power transmissions. In the 1950s, a process was developed for forging gears with teeth that requires little or no metal to be removed to achieve final geometry. The initial process development was undertaken in Germany for the manufacture of bevel gears for automobile differentials and was stimulated by the lack of available gear cutting equipment at that time. Later attention has turned to the forging of spur and helical gears, which are more difficult to form due to the radial disposition of their teeth compared with bevel gears. The main driver of these developments, in common with most component manufacturing, is cost. Forming gears rather than cutting them results in increased yield from raw material and also can increase productivity. Forging gears is therefore of greater advantage for large batch quantities, such as required by the automotive industry.

166 The Submerged Induction Hardening of Gears (March/April 2001)

The tooth-by-tooth, submerged induction hardening process for gear tooth surface hardening has been successfully performed at David Brown for more than 30 years. That experience - backed up by in-depth research and development - has given David Brown engineers a much greater understanding of, and confidence in, the results obtainable from the process. Also, field experience and refinement of gear design and manufacturing procedures to accommodate the induction hardening process now ensure that gears so treated are of guaranteed quality.

167 Gears With Ears (March/April 2001)

When you're manufacturing fun, very often you need gears. The Addendum team recently went on a behind-the-scenes gear-finding mission with Jerold S. Kaplan, Principal Engineer, Show/Ride Mechanical Engineering at Walt Disney Imagineering in Lake Buena Vista, FL. We found that at least part of Disney's magic comes from good, old-fashioned mechanical engineering.

168 Gear Measurement Traceability and Uncertainty (July/August 2000)

Until recently, there was a void in the quality control of gear manufacturing in this country (Ref. 1). Gear measurements were not traceable to the international standard of length through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The U.S. military requirement for traceability was clearly specified in the military standard MIL-STD-45662A (Ref. 2). This standard has now been replaced by commercial sector standards including ISO 9001:1994 (Ref. 3), ISO/IEC Guide 25 (Ref, 4), and the U.S. equivalent of ISO/IEC Guide 25 - ANSI/NCSL Z540-2-1997 (Ref. 5). The draft replacement to ISO/IEC Guide 25 - ISO 17025 states that measurements must either be traceable to SI units or reference to a natural constant. The implications of traceability to the U.S. gear industry are significant. In order to meet the standards, gear manufacturers must either have calibrated artifacts or establish their own traceability to SI units.

169 The IMTS 2000 Primer (July/August 2000)

Founded in 1927 as the Machine Tool Show and held every two years, the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) has grown into the largest manufacturing trade show in both North and South America. The statistics for the 1998 show offer a glimpse of the magnitude. Over 1,440 exhibitors showed off 60 million pounds of machinery and went through 5 million pounds of display materials during the week long show. The show organizers themselves sent out 2,632,560 promotional pieces. Twenty-three foreign machine tool associations participated. It took 4,600 trucks to get everything to McCormick Place for the show. There were 450 journalists covering the event, which was attended by 121,764 people. There was $1,034.618,000 worth of business transacted on the show floor of IMTS 1998.

170 Old World Expertise (November/December 2000)

Dear Editor, I am writing this in response to some articles appearing in your journal, but I want to take the opportunity, also, to express my thanks for all the good work your publication is doing. I always look forward to your next issue being in my mail slot. I know I will find timely technical articles relevant to our manufacturing situation here at Amarillo Gear Co., as well as thought provoking commentary on events and trends affecting our business. The Publisher's Page is always worth the reading.

171 Software Bits (January/February 2001)

Welcome to our Software Bits page. Here we feature new software products for gear design, manufacturing and testing.

172 Atmospher vs. Vacuum Carburizing (March/April 2002)

In recent years, improvements in the reliability of the vacuum carburizing process have allowed its benefits to be realized in high-volume, critical component manufacturing operations. The result: parts with enhanced hardness and mechanical properties.

173 Carbide Hobbing Case Study (May/June 2002)

Bodine Electric Co. of Chicago, IL., has a 97-year history of fine-and medium-pitch gear manufacturing. Like anywhere else, traditions, old systems, and structures can be beneficial, but they can also become paradigms and obstacles to further improvements. We were producing a high quality product, but our goal was to become more cost effective. Carbide hobbing is seen as a technological innovation capable of enabling a dramatic, rather than an incremental, enhancement to productivity and cost savings.

174 IMTS 2012 Product Preview (September 2012)

Previews of manufacturing technology related to gears that will be on display at IMTS 2012.

175 IMTS 2012 Booth Listings (September 2012)

Complete listing of booths with relevant gear manufacturing technologies.

176 IMTS 2012 Events, Conferences and Some Just Plain Fun (September 2012)

IMTS exists primarily as a buy-and-sell North American venue for practically every conceivable technology used in manufacturing, and in that regard it has no equal. There you’ll find on display the latest and greatest technology, from hardware to software and everything in between. But anyone who has attended past shows is aware that IMTS is much more than that. Following is a rundown of "extracurricular" activities you’ll find waiting for your edification and enjoyment.

177 My Glass is Half Full (October 2012)

Publisher Michael Goldstein is confident that the manufacturing economy will continue to grow throughout next year, no matter who wins the 2012 presidential election.

178 Case Study Involving Surface Durability and Improved Surface Finish (August 2012)

Gear tooth wear and micropitting are very difficult phenomena to predict analytically. The failure mode of micropitting is closely correlated to the lambda ratio. Micropitting can be the limiting design parameter for long-term durability. Also, the failure mode of micropitting can progress to wear or macropitting, and then go on to manifest more severe failure modes, such as bending. The results of a gearbox test and manufacturing process development program will be presented to evaluate super-finishing and its impact on micropitting.

179 Shades of Gray (July/August 2003)

In America and most parts of the world, people are looking for answers about what's going to happen next in the manufacturing economy. We're all looking for evidence that better times are ahead, or at least that the worst is over. We crave a clear indicator, something that shows us in black and white that the situation is going to get better.

180 Gears of Rockwell Hardness (September/October 2002)

Nobody's sure what went on in Bolsa Chica, CA, when gear-shaped stones were used there 8,700 years ago, but a popular belief is that at least some activity revolved around manufacturing.

181 Cutting Hardened Gears (November/December 2002)

The need for improved power transmissions that use gears and gearboxes with smaller overall dimensions and with lower noise generation has left manufacturing engineers searching for different methods of gear processing. This search has led to the requirement of hardened gears.

182 Experimental Characterization of Bending Fatigue Strength in Gear Teeth (January/February 2003)

The effort described in this paper addresses a desire in the gear industry to increase power densities and reduce costs of geared transmissions. To achieve these objectives, new materials and manufacturing processes, utilized in the fabrication of gears, and being evaluated. In this effort, the first priority is to compare the performance of gears fabricated using current materials and processes. However, once that priority is satisfied, it rapidly transforms to requiring accurate design data to utilize these novel materials and processes. This paper describes the effort to address one aspect of this design data requirement.

183 Spiral Bevel Gear Development: Elminiating Trial and Erroe with Computer Technology (January/February 2003)

Computer technology has touched all areas of our lives, impacting how we obtain airline tickets, purchase merchandise and receive medical advice. This transformation has had a vast influence on manufacturing as well, providing process improvements that lead to higher quality and lower costs. However, in the case of the gear industry, the critical process of tooth contact pattern development for spiral bevel gears remains relatively unchanged.

184 Management on the High Seas (May/June 2000)

Most Navy brass would say that Commander D. Michael Abrashoff ran a loose ship. But his style of empowering his crew by delegating authority is changing the way the Navy thinks about management. His speech at the recent annual meeting of the American Gear Manufacturers Association offered a simple, common-sense approach that can be applied not only to running a ship, but also to gear manufacturing or any other industry.

185 Precision Forged Spiral Bevel Gears (August/September 1984)

A recent U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command project, conducted by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories. successfully developed the methodology of CAD/CAM procedures for manufacturing dies (via EDM) for forging spiral bevel gears. Further, it demonstrated that precision forging of spiral bevel gears is a practical production technique. Although no detailed economic evaluation was made in this study, it is expected that precision forging offers an attractive alternative to the costly gear cutting operations for producing spiral bevel gears.

186 Machine Tool Evolution: Innovation andIngenuity Key to Long-Term Success (July 2008)

How machine tools R&D helps drive gear manufacturing productivity.

187 Guidelines for Modern Bevel Gear Grinding (August 2008)

This paper acknowledges the wide variety of manufacturing processes--especially in grinding--utlized in the production of bevel gears...

188 All-in-One Broaching Capability (January/February 2010)

Faster, more efficient manufacturing offered with table-top design from American Broach & Machine.

189 Sizing Up Big Gears (January/February 2010)

Quality, materials and technology continue to challenge the big gear manufacturing market.

190 What to Know About Bevel Gear Grinding (September/October 2005)

Guidelines are insurance against mistakes in the often detailed work of gear manufacturing. Gear engineers, after all, can't know all the steps for all the processes used in their factories.

191 A Planetary System that Increases Power Density (January/February 2005)

Turnkey Design Services is manufacturing a planetary gear system to increase power density.

192 On-Site or Online, AGMA Teaches Gear Basics and Beyond (January/February 2007)

Despite the many things being done to promote manufacturing nationwide, there still remains an acute need for gear-specific training, remedial or otherwise.

193 Iowa’s 21st Century Renewable Energy Expedition (January/February 2008)

Iowa Governor Chet Culver weighs in on the importance of the wind turbine industry for manufacturing growth.

194 Ohio is Forging Strong Links in Wind Turbine Supply Chain (January/February 2008)

Ohio's Lt. Governor Lee Fisher talks about Ohio companies at the forefront of wind turbine industry manufacturing.

195 State of the Gear Industry 2006 (November/December 2006)

In October, Gear Technology conducted an anonymous survey of gear manufacturers. More than 300 answered questions about their manufacturing operations and current challenges.

196 Hey Brother, Can You Spare Some Time (March/April 2010)

How you can get involved in a grassroots movement to save American manufacturing--and the American economy.

197 Are We Going the Way of the Mayans and Romans (March/April 2010)

A review of "A Nation on Borrowed Time," a book by Joe Arvin and Scott Newton about the decline of America's ability to create wealth through manufacturing, and its effect on the overall economy.

198 What's the Big Attraction - IMTS 2010 (September/October 2010)

The great thing about a trade show the size of IMTS is the amount of options available to attendees. If you’re into cars, fighter jets, machine tools, fighting robots, manufacturing relics or simply the latest technology advancements in a particular industry, you’ll find it at IMTS 2010.

199 The Slow Climb (November/December 2010)

Publisher Michael Goldstein talks about the slow but steady pace of the recovery of the manufacturing economy.

200 Carl Zeiss CMM Guides Andrew Tool with Complex Mars Rover Project (March/April 2011)

At Andrew Tool, CMMs have been an integral part of their manufacturing processes for years, but they had never faced a project with such intricate measurements, tight tolerances, heat treatments and a very short time frame requirement.

201 Induction Heat Treating Gains Ground through Advances in Technology (March/April 2011)

In recent years, there has been significant interest in expanding the use of induction hardening in gear manufacturing operations. Over the past several years, many of the limits to induction hardening have shrunk, thanks to recent advances in technology, materials and processing techniques.

202 Variation Analysis of Tooth Engagement and Load Sharing in Involute Splines (June 2010)

Involute spline couplings are used to transmit torque from a shaft to a gear hub or other rotating component. External gear teeth on the shaft engage an equal number of internal teeth in the hub. Because multiple teeth engage simultaneously, they can transmit much larger torques than a simple key and keyway assembly. However, manufacturing variations affect the clearance between each pair of mating teeth, resulting in only partial engagement.

203 The Counterfeit Culture: Fake Products and Parts Present Global Market Challenges (May 2010)

It’s happened to most manufacturers at one point or another. A defective product comes back from a customer in need of repair. Perhaps a bearing or a gear drive has failed, and the customer simply needs a replacement. Upon further examination, the company realizes it was never one of its products in the first place, but a fabricated copy that snuck into the market. The manufacturing community has been dealing with counterfeit products for decades, but used machinery dealers and Internet shoppers seem to continuously get hit by scam artists.

204 Crowning: A Cheap Fix for Noise and Misalignment Problems (March/April 2010)

Fred Young, CEO of Forest City Gear, talks about sophisticated gear manufacturing methods and how they can help solve common gear-related problems.

205 New Developments in Gear Hobbing (March/April 2010)

Several innovations have been introduced to the gear manufacturing industry in recent years. In the case of gear hobbing—the dry cutting technology and the ability to do it with powder-metallurgical HSS—might be two of the most impressive ones. And the technology is still moving forward. The aim of this article is to present recent developments in the field of gear hobbing in conjunction with the latest improvements regarding tool materials, process technology and process integration.

206 Future Demands Next Generation of Standards and Practices in Gear Industry (May 2010)

Gear manufacturers are moving into an era that will see changes in both engineering practices and industry standards as new end-products evolve. Within the traditional automotive industry, carbon emission reduction legislation will drive the need for higher levels of efficiency and growth in electric and hybrid vehicles. Meanwhile, the fast growing market of wind turbines is already opening up a whole new area of potential for gearbox manufacturers, but this industry is one that will demand reliability, high levels of engineering excellence and precision manufacturing.

207 Your Tax Dollars at Work: U.S. Commerce Department, Your Boots on the Ground Overseas (May 2010)

Easily one of the central issues affecting U.S. manufacturing is what one might call the exports deficit—the inability of American companies to sell products to, for instance, Asian markets, developing countries and other ports of call—due to what they perceive to be unfair trade agreements and or policies.

208 Labor Pains in the American Gear Industry--Any Relief in Sight (January/February 2007)

Lack of skilled workers mirrors U.S. manufacturing's decline.

209 Help Wanted: Gear Company Seeks Perfect Machinist (January/February 2007)

Sales are up and it's time to hire some additional gear manufacturing personnel. Let's see--what qualities are wee looking for in the ideal candidates?

210 Software Bits (January/February 2004)

The latest software for gear design, engineering and manufacturing.

211 Gear Milling on Non-Gear Dedicated Machinery (July 2009)

Imagine the flexibility of having one machine capable of milling, turning, tapping and gear cutting with deburring included for hard and soft material. No, you’re not in gear fantasy land. The technology to manufacture gears on non gear-dedicated, mult-axis machines has existed for a few years in Europe, but has not yet ventured into mainstream manufacturing. Deckel Maho Pfronten, a member of the Gildemeister Group, took the sales plunge this year, making the technology available on most of its 2009 machines.

212 Hob Length Effects (September/October 1985)

Hobbing is probably the most popular gear manufacturing process. Its inherent accuracy and productivity makes it a logical choice for a wide range of sizes.

213 Influence of Relative Displacements Between Pinion and Gear on Tooth Root Stresses of Spiral Bevel Gears (July/August 1985)

The manufacturing quality of spiral bevel gears has achieved a very high standard. Nevertheless, the understanding of the real stress conditions and the influences. of certain parameters is not satisfactory.

214 Gear Grinding 2003 (November/December 2003)

The benefits of ground gears are well known. They create less noise, transmit more power and have longer lives than non-ground gears. But grinding has always been thought of as an expensive process, one that was necessary only for aerospace or other high-tech gear manufacturing.

215 Hypoloid Gear with Small Shaft Angles and Zero-to-Large Offsets (November/December 2009)

Beveloid gears are used to accommodate a small shaft angle. The manufacturing technology used for beveloid gearing is a special setup of cylindrical gear cutting and grinding machines. A new development, the so-called Hypoloid gearing, addresses the desire of gear manufacturers for more freedoms. Hypoloid gear sets can realize shaft angles between zero and 20° and at the same time, allow a second shaft angle (or an offset) in space that provides the freedom to connect two points in space.

216 Going Lean Is One Thing (June 2007)

Google “lean manufacturing” and you will find a virtually endless font of information regarding formal lean implementation. You’ll see definitions for Japanese words such as kaizen, gemba, muda, mura, kanban, and so on. You will also find other variations or iterations of lean, e.g.: Six Sigma, Lean Sigma, TPS (Toyota Production System), TOC (Theory of Constraints), JIT (Just in Time), and others.

217 Effects of Axle Deflection and Tooth Flank Modification on Hypoid Gear Stress Distribution and Contact Fatigue Life (August 2009)

As is well known in involute gearing, “perfect” involute gears never work perfectly in the real world. Flank modifications are often made to overcome the influences of errors coming from manufacturing and assembly processes as well as deflections of the system. The same discipline applies to hypoid gears.

218 Gears: Kid-Tested, Museum-Approved (September/October 2009)

When children are asked what they want to be when they grow up, the answers are undoubtedly diverse. Some immediately respond with doctor, lawyer or firefighter while others take a more creative approach with answers like spy, princess or superhero. The Addendum Staff has yet to come across a youngster that seems committed to a career in gear manufacturing.

219 Low Pressure Carburizing of Large Transmission Parts (September/October 2009)

Often, the required hardness qualities of parts manufactured from steel can only be obtained through suitable heat treatment. In transmission manufacturing, the case hardening process is commonly used to produce parts with a hard and wear-resistant surface and an adequate toughness in the core. A tremendous potential for rationalization, which is only partially used, becomes available if the treatment time of the case hardening process is reduced. Low pressure carburizing (LPC) offers a reduction of treatment time in comparison to conventional gas carburizing because of the high carbon mass flow inherent to the process (Ref. 1).

220 An International Wind Turbine Gearbox Standard (July 2009)

Industrial gear standards have been used to support reliability through the specification of requirements for design, manufacturing and verification. The consensus development of an international wind turbine gearbox standard is an example where gear products can be used in reliable mechanical systems today. This has been achieved through progressive changes in gear technology, gear design methods and the continual development and refinement of gearbox standards.

221 IMTS 2004 Sneak Preview (July/August 2004)

There’s a bustle of activity as exhibitors prepare for America’s most significant manufacturing trade show. The red carpets are ready, the lights are being tested, and the crowds are gathering with anticipation. Amid the excitement, Gear Technology has managed to sneak under the usher’s ropes to provide you with this advance look at some of the gear-related products and technologies that will be featured at IMTS 2004.

222 Custom Gear Cycle Times Plummet with Help from Reishauer, Siemens (September/October 2009)

Custom Gear and Machine, Inc., of Roscoe, IL, recently purchased a Reishauer RZ400 gear grinder and, on one job, has seen the cycle time drop from 40 minutes to six minutes, according to Tim Rose, vice president of manufacturing, who runs the business with co-owners Dave Patterson and Mike Rasmann.

223 Simulation of Hobbing for Analysis of Cutting Edge Failure due to Chip Crush (September/October 2004)

There are great advantages in dry hobbing, not only for friendliness toward the environment, but also for increasing productivity and for decreasing manufacturing cost. Dry hobbing, however, often causes failures in hob cutting edges or problems with the surface quality of gear tooth flanks. These difficulties are not present when hobbing with cutting oil. Pinching and crushing of generated chips between the hob cutting edge and the work gear tooth flank is considered a major cause of those problems.

224 Wind, Alt-Energy Themes Sweep Through Hannover Fairgrounds (March/April 2009)

As an indicator of what’s up-and-coming in the manufacturing technology world, Hannover Messe 2009 reflects the prominence of alternative energy and efficiency.

225 State of the Gear Industry 2009 (November/December 2009)

In October, Gear Technology conducted an anonymous survey of gear manufacturers. Invitations were sent by e-mail to thousands of individuals around the world. More than 300 individuals responded to the online survey, answering questions about their manufacturing operations and current challenges facing their businesses.

226 Practical Magic - Metrology Products Keep Pace with Machine Technology (July 2009)

Gear metrology is a revolving door of software packages and system upgrades. It has to be in order to keep up with the productivity and development processes of the machines on the manufacturing floor. Temperature compensation, faster inspection times and improved software packages are just a few of the advancements currently in play as companies prepare for new opportunities in areas like alternative energy, automotive and aerospace/defense.

227 Advantages of Involute Splines as Compared to Straight Sided Splines (May/June 1985)

Since the design of involute splines and their manufacture requires considerable knowledge, not only of the basic properties of the involute profile, but also of various other elements which affect the spline fit and the sometimes complex principles underlying manufacturing and checking equipment, the question is frequently raised as to why the involute profile is given preference in designing splines over the seemingly simpler straight sided tooth profile.

228 Full Speed Ahead (May 2012)

Indexable carbide insert (ICI) cutting tools continue to play a pivotal role in gear manufacturing. By offering higher cutting speeds, reduced cycle times, enhanced coatings, custom configurations and a diverse range of sizes and capabilities, ICI tools have proven invaluable for finishing and pre-grind applications. They continue to expand their unique capabilities and worth in the cutting tool market.

229 Building a Better Mousetrap (May 2009)

At its location in Roscoe, IL, the Forest City Gear facility is surrounded by wildlife splendor. Fruit trees, nature walks and the occasional cute and furry animal sighting create an unlikely landscape for a manufacturing site. Of course, cavorting with the cute and furry does have its drawbacks.

230 Gear Failure Analysis Involving Grinding Burn (January/February 2009)

When gears are case-hardened, it is known that some growth and redistribution of stresses that result in geometric distortion will occur. Aerospace gears require post case-hardening grinding of the gear teeth to achieve necessary accuracy. Tempering of the case-hardened surface, commonly known as grinding burn, occurs in the manufacturing process when control of the heat generation at the surface is lost.

231 Grinding, Finishing and Software Upgrades Abound (March/April 2011)

Machine tool companies are expanding capabilities to better accommodate the changing face of manufacturing. Customers want smaller-sized equipment to take up less valuable floor space, multifunctional machines that can handle a variety of operations and easy set-up changes that offer simplified operation and maintenance.

232 Measurement of Directly Designed Gears with Symmetric and Asymmetric Teeth (January/February 2011)

In comparison with the traditional gear design approach based on preselected, typically standard generating rack parameters, the Direct Gear Design method provides certain advantages for custom high-performance gear drives that include: increased load capacity, efficiency and lifetime; reduced size, weight, noise, vibrations, cost, etc. However, manufacturing such directly designed gears requires not only custom tooling, but also customization of the gear measurement methodology. This paper presents definitions of main inspection dimensions and parameters for directly designed spur and helical, external and internal gears with symmetric and asymmetric teeth.

233 The Wafer Shaper Cutter (March/April 1989)

In 1985 a new tooling concept for high volume gear production was introduced to the gear manufacturing industry. Since then this tool, the wafer shaper cutter, has proven itself in scores of applications as a cost-effective, consistent producer of superior quality parts. This report examines the first high-production installation at the plant of a major automotive supplies, where a line of twenty shapers is producing timing chain sprockets.

234 Hard Finishing and Fine Finishing Part 1 (September/October 1989)

Profitable hard machining of tooth flanks in mass production has now become possible thanks to a number of newly developed production methods. As used so far, the advantages of hard machining over green shaving or rolling are the elaborately modified tooth flanks are produced with a scatter of close manufacturing tolerances. Apart from an increase of load capacity, the chief aim is to solve the complex problem of reducing the noise generation by load-conditioned kinematic modifications of the tooth mesh. In Part II, we shall deal with operating sequences and machining results and with gear noise problems.

235 Editorial (November/December 1989)

The press release on my desk this morning said, "The (precision metal working) industry cannot attract enough qualified applicants. As many as 1,500 jobs a year (in the Chicago are alone) are going unfilled." So what else is new? That's just hard proof confirming the suspicion many of us have had for some time. Some of the best, most qualified and experienced people in our shops are reaching retirement age, and there's no one around to fill their spots. And, if the situation is bad in the metal working trades in general, it's even more critical in the gearing industry. Being small and highly specialized, gear manufacturing attracts even less attention and finds recruitment harder than the other precision metal trades.

236 Growing Pains - Renewables Hang on in Turbulent Energy Market (June/July 2012)

The turbines are still spinning. They’re spinning on large wind farms in the Great Plains, offshore in the Atlantic and even underwater where strong tidal currents offer new energy solutions. These turbines spin regularly while politicians and policy makers— tied up in discussions on tax incentives, economic recovery and a lot of finger pointing—sit idle. Much like the auto and aerospace industries of years past, renewable energy is coping with its own set of growing pains. Analysts still feel confident that clean energy will play a significant role in the future of manufacturing—it’s just not going to play the role envisioned four to five years ago.

237 Calculation of Optimum Tooth Flank Corrections for Helical Gears (September/October 1988)

The load carrying behavior of gears is strongly influenced by local stress concentrations in the tooth root and by Hertzian pressure peaks in the tooth flanks produced by geometric deviations associated with manufacturing, assembly and deformation processes. The dynamic effects within the mesh are essentially determined by the engagement shock, the parametric excitation and also by the deviant tooth geometry.

238 Enhanced Product Performance--Through CBN Grinding (September/October 1988)

Modern manufacturing processes have become an ally of the product designer in producing higher quality, higher performing components in the transportation industry. This is particularly true in grinding systems where the physical properties of CBN abrasives have been applied to improving cycle times, dimensional consistency, surface integrity and overall costs. Of these four factors, surface integrity offers the greatest potential for influencing the actual design of highly stressed, hardened steel components.

239 Checking Large Gears (March/April 1987)

Gear manufacturing schedules that provide both quality and economy are dependent on efficient quality control techniques with reliable measuring equipment. Given the multitude of possible gear deviations, which can be found only by systematic and detailed measuring of the gear teeth, adequate quality control systems are needed. This is especially true for large gears, on which remachining or rejected workpieces create very high costs. First, observation of the gears allows adjustment of the settings on the equipment right at the beginning of the process and helps to avoid unproductive working cycles. Second, the knowledge of deviations produced on the workpiece helps disclose chance inadequacies on the production side: e.g., faults in the machines and tools used, and provides an opportunity to remedy them.

240 Economics of CNC Gear Hobbing (March/April 1987)

NC and CNC metal cutting machines are among the most popular machine tools in the business today, There is also a strong trend toward using flexible machining centers and flexible manufacturing systems. The same trend is apparent in gear cutting. Currently the trend toward CNC tools has increased, and sophisticated controls and peripheral equipment for gear cutting machines are now available; however, the investment in a CNC gear machine has to be justified on the basis of economic facts as well as technical advantages.

241 Greenhouse of the Gear Industry (May 2011)

Publisher Michael Goldstein talks about how one gear company is encouraging young people in manufacturing. What are you doing?

242 KHV Planetary Gearing (November/December 1987)

Traditionally, a worm or a multi-stage gear box has been used when a large speed ratio is required. However, such boxes will become obsolete as size and efficiency become increasingly important considerations for a modern transmission. The single-enveloped worm gear has a maximum speed ratio of only 40 to 60. Its efficiency is only 30 to 60 per cent. The necessity of using bronze for the worm gear and grinding nitoalloy steel for the worm drives up material and manufacturing costs.

243 Looking To The Future (May/June 1990)

Six years ago this month, the very first issue of Gear Technology, the Journal of Gear Manufacturing, went to press. The reason for starting the publication was a straightforward one: to provide a forum for the presentation of the best technical articles on gear-related subjects from around the world. We wanted to give our readers the information they need to solve specific problems, understanding new technologies, and to be informed about the latest applications in gear design and manufacturing. The premise behind Gear Technology was also a straightforward one: the better informed our readers were about the technology, the more competitive they and their companies would be int he world gear market.

244 Shaper Cutters - Design & Application - Part 2 (May/June 1990)

Cutter Sharpening Cutter sharpening is very important both during manufacturing and subsequently in resharpening after dulling. Not only does this process affect cutter "over cutting edge" quality and the quality of the part cut, but it can also affect the manner in which chip flow takes place on the cutter face if the surface finished is too rough or rippled.

245 Coarse Pitch Gears (May/June 1993)

This article discusses briefly some common manufacturing problems relating to coarse pitch gears and their suggested solutions. Most of the discussion will be limited to a low-quality production environment using universal machine tools.

246 Gear Tip Chamfer and Gear Noise; Surface Measurement of Spiral Bevel Gear Teeth (July/August 1993)

Could the tip chamfer that manufacturing people usually use on the tips of gear teeth be the cause of vibration in the gear set? The set in question is spur, of 2.25 DP, with 20 degrees pressure angle. The pinion has 14 teeth and the mating gear, 63 teeth. The pinion turns at 535 rpm maximum. Could a chamfer a little over 1/64" cause a vibration problem?

247 ISO 9000: Global Market Salvation Or A Pig In A Poke (March/April 1994)

ISO 9000 is the latest hot topic in marketing and manufacturing circles. Everyone seems to be talking about it, but few seem to understand it completely. depending on whom one talks to, it's either the greatest thing to hit industry since the assembly line, another cash cow for slick consultants, a conspiracy on the part of Europeans to dominate global markets, or the next necessary step to compete in the global economy of the twenty-first century. It may be all of the above.

248 The Tech Prep Approach to Worker Training (May/June 1994)

"More than half our young people leave school without the knowledge or foundation required to find and hold a job." according to a 1991 report from the U.S. Dept. of Labor. A huge gap exists between the needs of employers (especially in manufacturing) and the training received by most high school students.

249 Getting Started in Exporting (March/April 1993)

Exporting. It's one of the hot strategies for helping boost businesses of all kinds, gear manufacturing among them. With domestic markets tight and new markets opening up overseas, exporting seems like a reasonable tactic. But while the pressure is on to sell overseas, there is equal, justifiable concern about whether the move is a good one. Horror stories abound about foreign restrictions, bureaucratic snafus, carloads of paperwork, and the complications and nuances of doing business in other languages and with other cultures.

250 Environmentally Safe Fluids for Industrial Cutting, Lubrication, & Cleaning (January/February 1993)

Not long ago, many manufacturing managers thought sensitivity to environmental protection standards meant additional expenses, decreased productivity, and a plethora of headaches and hassles.

251 Come See Us In Detroit (September/October 1991)

October is the time. Detroit is the place. AGMA Gear Expo '91 is the event. Cobo Center in downtown Detroit is where you will want to be in October if you have any interest in gear products, manufacturing, or research.

252 Recent Developments in Gear Metrology (November/December 1991)

Metrology is a vital component of gear manufacturing. Recent changes in this area, due in large part to the advent of computers, are highlighted in this article by comparison with more traditional methods.

253 GT Advertisers Among the Hundreds at IMTS 92 (September/October 1992)

8 Gear Technology advertisers will have booths at IMTS 92, the largest trade show in the Western Hemisphere. The show opens in Chicago on Sept. 9 and runs through the 17th. More than 800 companies from around the world will cover some 931,000 sq. ft. of exhibit space to show the latest manufacturing technology - everything from forming and fabrication products to environmental and plant safety equipment.

254 Industry Shows Shift Emphasis (January/February 1987)

A change has taken place within the industry that is going to have an enormous effect on the marketing, sales, and purchasing of gear manufacturing and related equipment. This change was the American Gear Manufacturers' Association, first biennial combination technical conference and machine tool minishow.

255 Longitudinal Load Distribution Factor for Straddle- and Overhang-Mounted Spur Gears (July/August 1987)

A pair of spur gears generally has an effective lead error which is caused, not only by manufacturing and assembling errors, but also by the deformations of shafts, bearings and housings due to the transmitted load. The longitudinal load distribution on a contact line of the teeth of the gears is not uniform because of the effective lead error.

256 State of the Gear Industry 2011 (November/December 2011)

In November, Gear Technology conducted an anonymous survey of gear manufacturers. Invitations were sent by e-mail to thousands of individuals around the world. More than 300 individuals responded to the online survey, answering questions about their manufacturing operations and current challenges facing their businesses.

257 The New Now: U.S. Workforce Sustainability (March/April 2012)

Faithful Addendum readers are accustomed to finding upbeat, whimsical and oddball stories about gears in this space. What follows is not about gears, exactly. Rather, it is, as opposed to the usual bleak news about America losing its manufacturing mojo—a look at a positive, hopeful development in that regard.

258 Controlling Tooth Loads In Helical Gears (March/April 1986)

Helical gears can drive either nonparallel or parallel shafts. When these gears are used with nonparallel shafts, the contact is a point, and the design and manufacturing requirements are less critical than for gears driving parallel shafts.

259 Best of Times, Worst of Times (November/December 2011)

An American renaissance in manufacturing is needed—and long overdue.

260 2011 AGMA Fall Technical Meeting (September 2011)

The AGMA Fall Technical Meeting provides an opportunity to share ideas with others on the design, analysis, manufacturing and application of gears, gear drives, and related products, as well as associated processes and procedures.

261 Are YOU Having Your Best Year Ever (June/July 2011)

Publisher Michael Goldstein discusses why some gear manufacturing companies are enjoying record years.

262 Size and Material Influence on the Tooth Root, Pitting, Scuffing and Wear Load-Carrying Capacity of Fine-Module Gears (September 2011)

In this study, limiting values for the load-carrying-capacity of fine-module gears within the module range 0.3–1.0 mm were determined and evaluated by comprehensive, experimental investigations that employed technical, manufacturing and material influence parameters.

263 Long on High Technology -- Short on High Technologists (September/October 1986)

At the present time, technology seems to be moving faster than our ability to educate people in its utilization. this is particularly true of the manufacturing engineering profession.

264 Technical Calendar (March/April 1986)

AGMS's 1986 Manufacturing Symposium will offer an open forum with industry experts and papers on topics of interest to everyone involved in gear manufacturing.

265 Kinematic Analysis of Robotic Bevel-Gear Trains (November/December 1986)

In robot configurations it is desirable to be able to obtain an arbitrary orientation of the output element or end-effector. This implies a minimum of two independent rotations about two (generally perpendicular) intersecting axes. If, in addition, the out element performs a mechanical task such as in manufacturing or assembly (e.g., drilling, turning, boring, etc.) it may be necessary for the end-effector to rotate about its axis. If such a motion is to be realized with gearing, this necessitates a three-degree-of-freedom, three-dimensional gear train, which provides a mechanical drive of gyroscopic complexity; i.e., a drive with independently controlled inputs about three axes corresponding to azimuth, nutation, and spin.

266 Connect with Global Technology at IMTS 2008 (September/October 2008)

The International Manufacturing Technology Show has come a long way from the National Machine Tool Builders’ Exposition fi rst held in 1927.

267 New Product Area Pavilions, SME Conferences Highlight IMTS 92 (July/August 1992)

IMTS 92 - The International Manufacturing Technology Show - opens in Chicago September 9 and runs through September 17 at Chicago's McCormick Place. IMTS is the Western Hemisphere's larges trade show. Over 800 companies from all over the globe will be showing products in exhibits covering some 931,000 sq. ft. of space.

268 Guest Editorial (May/June 1984)

At a time when there are many pressures on the Gear Industry and its representative Association, the American Gear Manufacturers Association, it seems particularly appropriate that Gear Technology - The Journal of Gear Manufacturing appears. AGMA is particularly pleased to have the opportunity to write the first editorial for this magazine.

269 Economics of CNC Gear Gashing vs. Large D.P. Hobbing (August/September 1984)

Gear gashing is a gear machining process, very much like gear milling, utilizing the principle of cutting one or more tooth (or tooth space) at a time. The term "GASHING" today applies to the roughing, or roughing and finishing, of coarse diametral pitch gears and sprockets. Manufacturing these large coarse gears by conventional methods of rough and finish hobbing can lead to very long machining cycles and uneconomical machine utilization.

270 ITAMCO Offers Industrial Bluetooth Transmitter (November/December 2012)

Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies (ITAMCO) has released iBlue—the first handheld bluetooth transmitter that gathers crucial production data and sends it to bluetooth-enabled smartphones, tablets and computers.

271 IMTS 2008: The Focus--Global Technology (August 2008)

It’s that even-numbered-year time-of-the-year again. The International Manufacturing Technology Show, IMTS 2008, is right around the corner. This 27th installment of the biennial trade show is focusing on connecting global technology.

272 Drake's Newest Thread Grinder Utilizes Robot Load-Unload System (July/August 2006)

The GS:TE-LM thread grinder from Drake Manufacturing is fitted with a robot load/unload system that provides maximum throughput for high-volume production of ground threads.

273 Every Reason In the World to Go (July/August 1994)

IMTS 94, the Association for Manufacturing Technology's biennial machine tool extravaganza opens September 7 at McCormick Place in Chicago. As always, the size of this show is astonishing. Over 100,000 visitors, enough to populate a medium-size town, will converge on Chicago's lakefront to visit more than 1,200 exhibits spread over the entire McCormick Place complex.

274 A Bicycle with Real Gears (May/June 2003)

The Addendum team was in Chicago in early March, for the National Manufacturing Week show, when it saw something unusual: a bicycle with gears. Real gears, Spiral bevel gears, in fact.

275 Explore "The World of Gearing" in Detroit (July/August 1991)

AGMA's Gear Expo '91, "The World of Gearing," opens October 20 and runs through October 23 at the Cobo Conference & Exhibition Center in "The Heart of the Manufacturing Industry," Detroit, MI. Gear Expo '91 is "the largest trade show ever specifically organized for the gear industry," according to Rich Norment, AGMA's Executive Director.

276 IMTS 1990 Coming To Chicago (July/August 1990)

IMTS-90 - the Western Hemisphere's largest trade show - is coming to Chicago September 5 -13, 1990. The event, sponsored by NMTBA - The Association For Manufacturing Technology - will be held at the McCormick Place Complex. Over 1200 exhibitors will display their products at this event.

277 Notes From the Editor's Desk (May/June 1986)

This issue of Gear Technology, The Journal of Gear Manufacturing, marks the end of our second year of publication. As we approach our third year, it is time to review our statement of purpose. Gear Technology's primary goal was and is to be a reference source and a forum for the American Gear industry, and to advance gear technology throughout the world.

278 Technical Calendar (July/August 1986)

October 5-8, 1986 AGMA Fall technical Conference & Gearing Exhibit September 17-19, 1986 Ohio State University Gear Noise Seminar November 11-13, 1986 SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic November 19-21, 1986 Seminar: Gear System Design for Minimum Noise

279 More IMTS Stuff (September/October 2002)

Student Summit Introduces Next Generation to Manufacturing The IMTS 2002 Show offers an opportunity for students, ranging from grade school to college, to take part in the exhibition.

280 Technical Calendar (November/December 1988)

November 1-3. SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic, Sheraton Meridian, Indianapolis, IN. November 5-10. international Conference on Gearing, Zhengzhou, China

281 Notes From the Editors Desk (May/June 1985)

This issue, our sixth, marks the 1st Anniversary of GEAR TECHNOLOGY, The Journal of Gear Manufacturing.

282 Viewpoint (November/December 1986)

Positive feedback regarding Gear Technology, the Journal of Gear Manufacturing, from some of its new readers.

283 Technical Calendar (January/February 1986)

The Society of Manufacturing Engineers is sponsoring an educational program on the "Fundamentals of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering," to be held January 28-30, 1986 at the Sheraton-Sand Key Resort in Clear-water Beach, Florida.

284 The Next Generation of Gear Specialists (January/February 1996)

AGMA has an excellent Training School for Gear Manufacturing. It's a great product providing a great service to the gear industry. Thus far we've educated 117 employees from 71 companies; students range from new hires with no experience to company presidents. Essentially every class since December, 1992, has been sold out.

285 Technical Calendar (September/October 1988)

September 27-29. American Society for Metals 11th Annual Heat Treating Conference October 10-12. AGMA Fall Technical Meeting. Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, LA November 1-3. SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic, Sheraton Meridian, Indianapolis, IN

286 New Gear Developments at IMTS (November/December 1996)

The International Manufacturing Technology Show provided one of the biggest ever marketplaces for buying and selling gear-making equipment, with 121601 attenders, making it the largest IMTS ever. The show took place September 4-11 at McCormick Place in Chicago, IL.

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70 Emuge Opens New Manufacturing Center (April 13, 2006)
Emuge Corp. moved to its new North American headquarters in West Boylston, MA. According to the company's press release, the new 2... Read News

71 Advent Tool & Manufacturing Debuts New Involute Spline Milling Solution (April 22, 2006)
Advent Tool & Manufacturing released its indexable form milling platform for involute splines, spur gears, "V" shaped gears, and various ... Read News

72 American Axle & Manufacturing Hires New Manager (April 18, 2006)
Daniel Carleton was hired as manager of global gear program for American Axle & Manufacturing. Carleton has been involved with the ge... Read News

73 Northstar Aerospace Announces Executive Appointments to Accelerate Manufacturing Ramp-Up (May 24, 2007)
Northstar Aerospace announced several executive management changes in accordance with the company's plans to drastically accelerate i... Read News

74 Ultrasonic Tanks Aim to Clean-Up Industrial Manufacturing (December 7, 2007)
Ultrasonic tanks by Omegasonics assist in the process of toxic parts cleaning in all industrial machining applications. According to the ... Read News

75 Manufacturing Technology Consumption Up 24.4 Percent in 2006 (April 22, 2006)
The latest figures available from the American Machine Tool Distributors' Association (AMTDA) and the Association for Manufacturi... Read News

76 Sumitomo Acquires Norton Manufacturing Company (November 24, 2008)
Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. and Sumitomo Corporation have completed the acquisition of Norton Manufacturing Company, a manufacturer... Read News

77 Solar Manufacturing Fills Two Senior-Level Engineering Positions (July 24, 2008)
John Barron was named vice president of engineering, and Robert Wilson is now the senior mechanical engineer for Solar Manufacturing. ... Read News

78 SME Releases Latest Video in Manufacturing Insights Series (December 19, 2007)
The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) recently announced the release of Minimum Quantity Lubrication, an addition to the SME Manuf... Read News

79 Solar Manufacturing Names President (December 2, 2008)
James M. Nagy has been appointed president of Solar Manufacturing, Inc. He became vice president of operations in 2002 after joining the ... Read News

80 Aerobraze Promotes Hetzer to Director of Manufacturing (March 14, 2011)
Aerobraze Engineered Technologies, a division of Wall Colmonoy, recently announced that Joe Hetzer has been promoted to general manager f... Read News

81 DMG-Mori Seiki Open Doors for Manufacturing Days Event (August 21, 2013)
DMG/Mori Seiki is pleased to announce registration is now open for its first Manufacturing Days event. The four-day, complimentary event ... Read News

82 Polygon Solutions Hosts National Manufacturing Day Event (October 8, 2013)
As part of their 2013 National Manufacturing Day event activities, rotary broach manufacturer Polygon Solutions Inc. had a plant tour, te... Read News

83 Klobuchar Outlines Revitalization in U.S. Manufacturing (December 23, 2013)
U.S. Senator Amy Klobuchar (D-MN), vice chair of the U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee, recently released a new report detailing the... Read News

84 DMG-Mori Seiki Host Sustainability in Manufacturing Summit (August 15, 2013)
DMG/Mori Seiki USA served as the host for the annual Sustainable Manufacturing Partnership (SMP) meeting held earlier this summer. The SM... Read News

85 DMG-Mori Seiki Release Manufacturing Suite Post Processor (June 24, 2013)
DMG/Mori Seiki recently announced the release of a Mori-APT toolpath-based post processor, available September 2013. The new post process... Read News

86 Mazak Targets Aerospace and Medical Manufacturing Technology (March 7, 2013)
In support of the growing aerospace and medical industries, Mazak Corporation is hosting a Discover More With Mazak event at its Northeas... Read News

87 Microprecision Opens Manufacturing Plant in India (May 14, 2013)
Driven by local demand, primarily in the burgeoning aerospace sector, specialist precision gear manufacturer Microprecision has officiall... Read News

88 Mazak Honored for Manufacturing Investments (May 22, 2013)
In recognition of the expansions of its North American Headquarters campus in Florence, Kentucky, Mazak Corporation received the Cincinna... Read News

89 Mazak Midwest Event to Showcase Total Manufacturing Solutions (January 21, 2014)
Mazak invites manufacturers to its Discover More with Mazak Midwest event, taking place March 25 – 27 from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. at the ... Read News

90 AMT Applauds New Manufacturing Hubs (March 5, 2014)
Speaking to the importance to expand innovation and create job opportunities for Americans, President Obama recently announced the next e... Read News

91 AAM Joins Manufacturing Days as Gold Sponsor (June 4, 2014)
The Alliance for American Manufacturing (AAM) has joined Manufacturing Day 2014 as a Gold Sponsor, supplying the national initiative with... Read News

92 Solar Manufacturing Files for Patent (July 18, 2014)
Solar Manufacturing, Inc. has filed U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 14/120,389 for a High Temperature Vacuum Furnace Heating Element S... Read News

93 AME to Sponsor Manufacturing Day (July 18, 2014)
The Association for Manufacturing Excellence (AME) is proud to announce that it will be a sponsor of this year's Manufacturing Day. C... Read News

94 EMAG Showcases Manufacturing Systems at Technology Days (June 3, 2014)
To celebrate their 20th anniversary, EMAG USA opened its doors to manufacturers and vendors to join them for their open house Technology ... Read News

95 U.S. Patent Office Publishes Solar Manufacturing Patent Application (May 20, 2014)
The management of Solar Manufacturing Inc. and affiliate company Solar Atmospheres Inc., recently announced that Solar Manufacturing inventors... Read News

96 Solar Manufacturing Issues Podcast on Heating Elements (April 7, 2014)
Solar Manufacturing published the latest podcast in its bimonthly series in cooperation with Industrial Heating called “Vacuum Heat Treat Minute."... Read News

97 Solar Manufacturing Installs Compact Vacuum Furnace (April 25, 2014)
Solar Manufacturing announces the installation of a new and compact vacuum furnace design located at its Solar Atmospheres of Western Pennsylvania heat treating affiliate company facility in Hermitage, PA... Read News

98 Dillon Manufacturing Offers Hard Jaws (April 30, 2014)
Hard jaws from Dillon Manufacturing, Inc., feature diamond shaped serrations for increased pull down effect which reduce part slippage and push back from using a bar feeder... Read News

99 Seco Tools Hosts Successful Manufacturing Event (January 17, 2013)
Seco Tools, two-time recipient of the National Association for Business Resources “Best and Brightest Companies to Work For” ... Read News

100 H-D Advanced Manufacturing Acquires Overton Chicago Gear (January 9, 2013)
Hicks Equity Partners and The Riverside Company recently announced that they have partnered with Christopher DiSantis to establish H-D Ad... Read News

101 Manufacturing Summer Camps Entice America's Youth (March 2, 2011)
Nuts, Bolts and Thingamajigs (NBT) and the National Association for Community College Entrepreneurship (NACCE) have partnered togeth... Read News

102 Solar Atmospheres and Solar Manufacturing Release Reference Manual (March 3, 2011)
In a joint effort, Solar Atmospheres and Solar Manufacturing recently produced an updated booklet titled Critical Melting Points and Refe... Read News

103 SME Seeks Manufacturing Technologies (March 11, 2011)
"Innovations That Could Change the Way You Manufacture" is an SME member-driven program, which showcases new and emerging techn... Read News

104 Interactive Manufacturing Experience Charts New Course for U.S. Manufacturing (February 28, 2011)
From some of the United States' largest industrial technology innovators to the heads of small machine shops and providers of workhol... Read News

105 Fairfield Manufacturing Makes Commitment to Indiana (December 29, 2010)
Fairfield Manufacturing will make a $53.1 million capital investment over the next three years at its Lafayette plant. The announcement w... Read News

106 Sandvik Coromant Sponsors Manufacturing Contest (May 18, 2010)
Sandvik Coromant recently sponsored a contest at Vincennes University in Vincennes, Indiana where 21 students from the school's Advan... Read News

107 Manufacturing Museum Must See at IMTS (August 16, 2010)
Artifacts on loan from the American Precision Museum, located in Windsor, Vermont, will entertain and engage visitors on the history of m... Read News

108 AMT Applauds Manufacturing Legislation (October 4, 2010)
The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT) recently released a statement supporting President Obama's signing of the Small Bu... Read News

109 IMTS Preview: Drake Manufacturing (August 26, 2014)
Drake Manufacturing (Booth N-6948) will feature demonstrations of automated worm grinding on the GS:TE 200 External Thread Grinder and th... Read News

110 Drake Manufacturing Enjoys Export Surge with Thread Grinder (May 23, 2011)
Drake Manufacturing Services Co. is enjoying a surge in exports to Chinese manufacturers, with orders in hand for more than 25 machines. ... Read News

111 Dayton Progress Celebrates National Manufacturing Day (October 18, 2012)
Dayton Progress Corporation participated in National Manufacturing Day on October 5th by opening its doors and hosting educational open h... Read News

112 MTB Expands Manufacturing Facilities (November 9, 2012)
Centrally located near Rockford in Northern Illinois, Machine Tool Builders (MTB), a remanufacturer and recontroller of gear-cutting and ... Read News

113 DMG-Mori Seiki USA Marks Grand Opening of Mori Seiki Manufacturing (November 16, 2012)
On Wednesday, November 7, Dr. Masahiko Mori, president of Mori Seiki Co., Ltd. and a member of the Supervisory Board of Gildemeister AG, ... Read News

114 The Manufacturing Institute Partners with PMPA on Machine Training Program (October 11, 2012)
The Manufacturing Institute has partnered with the Precision Machined Products Association, Right Skills Now, a fast-track machining trai... Read News

115 IMTS Preview: Drake Manufacturing Services Co. (August 16, 2012)
In Booth N-6918 at IMTS this year, Drake Manufacturing Services Co. will showcase its latest model GS:TE-LM 200 Linear Motor External Thr... Read News

116 PMA to Host Inaugural Women in Manufacturing Symposium (September 16, 2011)
More than 150 women executives, managers and supervisors will gather in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 25-26, 2011 for the first annual Wome... Read News

117 imX: A Formula for Manufacturing Success (October 5, 2011)
From September 12-14, the Las Vegas Convention Center looked nothing like your typical technology exhibition. The Interactive Manufacturi... Read News

118 Solar Manufacturing, Inc. Adds Sales Support in Pacific Northwest (April 5, 2010)
Solar Manufacturing, Inc. recently formed an agreement with Kelly LeBard, owner of Hartley Sales Corporation, to provide sales representa... Read News