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Popular wisdom has it that manufacturing in the United States is no longer a viable entity. We are told that quality is poor, skilled labor is difficult to obtain, if not impossible, demand is low, and the government is helping to discourage business. So what should we do, give up?
Why traditional lean manufacturing approaches need to be adapted for job shop environments.
When Forest City Gear started manufacturing gears for medical components in the 1980s, it was a minuscule part of the company's business. Today, the medical device industry represents 18-20%.
If anyone should ever need convincing that the state of American manufacturing is in ongoing decline, consider this: the state of Michigan has the highest concentration of engineers in the country, yet also has the highest unemployment rate. But there are ripples of hope out there as grassroots and otherwise organized groups are fighting the good fight in an attempt to reverse that trend.
It wasn’t so very long ago that a high school-educated, able-bodied person with a will to work typically had little trouble finding a decent job in manufacturing. Whether at an area job shop, an OEM plant or auto plant—work was to be had. Work that paid well enough to marry, buy a home, feed, raise and educate a family—with even enough left over for a modest retirement pension.
Nashville - One of the highlights of this year's SME Advanced Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic was a tour of the new GM Saturn automobile manufacturing plant outside the city. There in the Tennessee hills is a hopeful vision of the future of the American automobile industry. It may well be the future of American large-scale manufacturing in general.
This article gives readers a glimpse of some companies that manufacture gears in the Far East. We've talked with more than a dozen companies in India, Taiwan and Korea...
In the August issue, we examined the lean tools that will and will not work in high-mix, low-volume manufacturing facilities. Now, we will examine how to implement the tools that will work in the job shop with an approach that expands the capabilities of value stream mapping.
Make no mistake -- lean manufacturing is here to stay. And no wonder. As a fiercely competitive global economy continues to alter companies’ “Main Street” thinking, that relatively new dynamic is spurring the need for “I-need-it-yesterday” production output. And for increasingly more industries -- big or small -- that means getting as lean as you can, as fast as you can.
Before we get into projections and prognostications about the future, let’s take a minute to review 2012. For many in the gear industry, the year was better than expected. Some manufacturers had a very successful year leading up to an even more successful manufacturing trade show (IMTS 2012). Others were searching for more business, hoping that the general state of the economy wouldn’t make things worse. In some cases, it did.
The struggles of the manufacturing economy in 2009 are well documented. Even among those of us with long careers, most of us have never seen activity come to a screeching halt the way it did last year. 2009 was tough on all of us. So, what should we expect in 2010?
Publisher Michael Goldstein discusses the loss of U.S. manufacturing capability and what we should do about it.
Two high-volume gear production cells grace the shop floor at Delta Research Corporation in Livonia, Michigan. Thanks to lean manufacturing, these cells have never shipped a defective part to a customer since they were developed over three years ago.
A series of short reports on global manufacturing growth and the gear industry's role.
News about New Products
Latest news about the Latest Products
Onshore and offshore wind turbines boast some of the most critical assets in order to run effectively.
The complete Industry News section from the March/April 2015 issue of Gear Technology.
Latest new from the Gear Industry
In this special section, our editors have gathered recent news and information related to the heat treatment of gears. Here you’ll find a comprehensive assortment of news and upcoming events that will help you understand the various heat treatment processes available for gears and choose the best option for your projects, whether you heat treat in-house or send your gears to a commercial heat treating provider.
News from around the Gear Industry
Latest News from around the industry
The complete Product News section from the March/April 2015 issue of Gear Technology.
The complete product news section from the September / October 2014 Issue Gear Technology.
India is rapidly turning into a global manufacturing hub, thanks to the country’s manufacturing and engineering capabilities, vast pool of skilled expertise and its size. These qualities offer it a strategic advantage for the manufacturing segment. A large number of international companies in varied segments have already set up a manufacturing base in India and others are following suit. It only makes sense to bring this industry segment together under one roof to discuss the current trends and technology prevalent to the marketplace. IPTEX 2012 is scheduled from February 9–11, 2012 at the Bombay Exhibition Center in Mumbai, India.
How lean manufacturing principles can help transform your gear manufacturing business.
Over the past few months I've talked with several different gear manufacturers who are in the process of upgrading their gear making equipment with modern CNC machine tools. Each of these manufacturers has come to the realization that in order to stay competitive, he needs to streamline operations and become more efficient...
The quality of gearing is a function of many factors ranging from design, manufacturing processes, machine capability, gear steel material, the machine operator, and the quality control methods employed. This article discusses many of the bevel gear manufacturing problems encountered by gear manufacturers and some of the troubleshooting techniques used.
Manufacturing is a hot topic everywhere these days, what with economic stimulus plans targeting the struggling industry worldwide. Many hopes are tied to a manufacturing recovery to bring us further up out of the economic doldrums of 2007–2008. Most indicators show that manufacturing is climbing back, so what better time for the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) 2010 to witness first hand the next generation’s technology.
Another year, another AGMA Fall Technical Conference. But this is no ho-hum event. Not when every year, the conference attracts some of the greatest mechanical engineering minds on the planet, along with representatives of the world’s greatest manufacturing entities. And who knows—perhaps one day there will be an extraterrestrial contingent—the science is that good. And all of it readily applicable to real-world manufacturing.
Following is a report from The Manufacturers Alliance for Productivity and Innovation (MAPI). Founded in 1933, the alliance contributes to the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturing by providing economic research, professional development, and an independent, expert source of manufacturing information.
News From Around the Gear Industry
A common goal of gear manufacturers is to produce gearing that is competitively priced, that meets all quality requirements with the minimum amount of cost in a timely manner, and that satisfies customers' expectations. In order to optimize this goal, the gear manufacturer must thoroughly understand each manufacturing process specified, the performance capability of that process, and the effect of that particular process as it relates to the quality of the manufactured gear. If the wrong series of processes has been selected or a specific selected process is not capable of producing a quality part, manufacturing costs are greatly increased.
When you push 850 horsepower and 9,000 rpm through a racing transmission, you better hope it stands up. Transmission cases and gears strewn all over the racetrack do nothing to enhance your standing, nor that of your transmission supplier.
Our special advertising section featuring some of the premier gear industry suppliers at IMTS 2016.
The final installment of our Job Shop Lean series includes a wide variety of educational resources to help you continue your own lean journey.
POLCA: An alternative to Kanban for high-variety or custom-engineered products.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2014 issue of Gear Technology.
"Design for manufacturability" (DFM) is a well-established practice, essential to realizing the successful transformation of concepts into mass-produced gears and motion control devices. And yet, all too often issues that could have been avoided are identified very late in the process that impact production costs and schedules. This suggests that key DFM principles are often underutilized in practice and are not applied consistently - or to the degree necessary - to avoid these negative results.
The Tiger Team from Hoerbiger looks for ways to cut waste and improve throughput in the company's assembly cell.
What was once recognized as the unique genius of America is now slipping away from us and, in many areas, is now seen as a "second rate" capability. Unless action is taken now, this country is in real danger of being unable to regain its supremacy in technological development and economic vigor. First Americans must understand the serious implications of the problem; and second, we must dedicate ourselves to national and local actions that will ensure a greater scientific and technological literacy in America.
Computers are everywhere. It's gotten so that it's hard to find an employee who isn't using one in the course of his or her day - whether he be CEO or salesman, engineer or machinist. Everywhere you look, you find the familiar neutral-colored boxes and bright glowing screens. And despite the gear industry's traditional reluctance to embrace new technology, more and moe of what you find on those screens are gears.
The complete Product News section from the January/February 2013 issue of Gear Technology.
This is the first article in an eight-part "reality" series on implementing continuous improvement at Hoerbiger Corporation. Throughout 2013, Dr. Shahrukh Irani will report on his progress applying the job shop lean strategies he developed during his time at Ohio State University.
The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2012 issue of Gear Technology.
It’s been said that the best ideas are often someone else's. But with rebuilt, retrofitted, re-controlled or remanufactured machine tools, buyer beware and hold onto your wallet. Sourcing re-work vendors and their services can require just as much homework, if not necessarily dollars, as with just-off-the-showroom-floor machines.
The complete Industry News section from the May 2013 issue of Gear Technology
The complete Product News section from the September 2013 issue of Gear Technology.
The complete Product News section from the October 2013 issue of Gear Technology.
The complete Product News section from the January/February 2014 issue of Gear Technology.
The complete Industry News section from the August 2013 issue of Gear Technology.
Readers respond to our "Job Shop Lean" column and the "My Gear is Bigger than Your Gear" article.
Although a cell is dedicated to produce a single part family, it must have the requisite equipment capabilities, routing flexibility, cross-trained employees and, to the extent possible, minimal external process dependencies. Cells are often implemented in job shops since they provide the operational benefits of flowline production.
We are well into an odd-number year, so it must be just about time for another Gear Expo. Indeed, the big show -- Gear Expo 2013 -- kicks off in Indianapolis at 9:00 a.m. Tuesday, September 17, wrapping up Thursday the 19th at 4:00 p.m. And whether you are exhibiting or attending, the bottom line is you are going -- a good thing for you, your company and the tightly knit U.S. gear industry.
Job shops may be ill-advised to undertake a complete reorganization into FLEAN (Flexible and Lean) cells. A FLEAN cell would (i) be flex-ible enough to produce any and all orders for parts that belong in a specific part family and (ii) utilize lean to the maximum extent possible to eliminate waste.
The working surfaces of gear teeth are often the result of several machining operations. The surface texture imparted by the manufacturing process affects many of the gear's functional characteristics. To ensure proper operation of the final assembly, a gear's surface texture characteristics, such as waviness and roughness, can be evaluated with modern metrology instruments.
Traditional methods of manufacturing precision gears usually employ either hobbing or shaper cutting. Both of these processes rely upon generating the conjugate tooth form by moving the work-piece in a precise relation to the tool. Recently, attention has been given to forming gear teeth in a single step. Advantages to such a process include reduced production time, material savings, and improved performance characteristics. Drawbacks include complicated tool designs, non-uniformity of gears produced throughout the life of the tooling, and lengthy development times.
For eight days every other year, the sponsor of the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS), the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT), strives to turn Chicago's McCormick Place into a "productivity marketplace," the largest and most completer display and demonstration of manufacturing technology ever seen in the Americas. If the growth of the show is any indicator, that effort has been very successful indeed. With over 1.4 million square feet of exhibit space taking up all five levels and all three exhibit halls of McCormick Place, each level would rank as one of the nation's 200 largest trade shows. That wasn't always the size or scope of the show. Its inception, while impressive for the time, was humble by today's standards.
For years, politicians, educators and business leaders have generated various ideas to revitalize U.S. manufacturing and engineering. These include manufacturing initiatives, internal training programs and an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in the classroom. The declining expertise in these fields, however, continues to be a growing problem in every facet of manufacturing and engineering.
In today’s manufacturing environment, shorter and more efficient product development has become the norm. It is therefore important to consider every detail of the development process, with a particular emphasis on design. For green machining of gears, the most productive and important process is hobbing. In order to analyze process design for this paper, a manufacturing simulation was developed capable of calculating chip geometries and process forces based on different models. As an important tool for manufacturing technology engineers, an economic feasibility analysis is implemented as well. The aim of this paper is to show how an efficient process design—as well as an efficient process—can be designed.
September 3-11 the 1986 International Machine Tool Show, "The World of Manufacturing Technology", will be held at the McCormick Place Exposition Center in Chicago. More that 1000 exhibits from over thirty countries are planned. These exhibits will present a complete range of machine-tool products from 2-story high presses to complete manufacturing systems, lathes, lasers, CAD/CAM systems and robotics.
Introduction The standard profile form in cylindrical gears is an involute. Involutes are generated with a trapezoidal rack — the basis for easy and production-stable manufacturing (Fig. 1).
This article discusses applications of statistical process capability indices for controlling the quality of tooth geometry characteristics, including profile and lead as defined by current AGMA-2015, ISO-1328, and DIN-3960 standards. It also addresses typical steps to improve manufacturing process capability for each of the tooth geometry characteristics when their respective capability indices point to an incapable process.
A great deal of attention has been paid to the decline of manufacturing in America, and I've been accused of being a town crier since the 1980s, when I began to see our nation lose its edge to foreign competition. My concerns have proven well-founded.
The gear industry is full of storytellers. It's a niche market that boasts a remarkable cast of characters that have been sharing their stories with us for 30 years. In that time, the editors and staff of Gear Technology magazine have had the privilege to report the ins and outs of this highly-specialized industry. From technical articles to case studies and features, the main focus of this magazine has been to "provide a forum of discovery and innovation for you, the gear manufacturing industry." Our Publisher, Michael Goldstein, said as much in our inaugural issue of May/June 1984.
the gear industry is awash in manufacturing technologies that promise to eliminate waste by producing gears in near-net shape, cut production and labor costs and permit gear designers greater freedom in materials. These methods can be broken down into the following categories: alternative ways to cut, alternative ways to form and new, exotic alternatives. Some are new, some are old and some are simply amazing.
Aerospace manufacturing has seen quite a turnaround in the past few years. The world's manufacturers of airplanes, helicopters, missiles, space vehicles and satellites are all extremely busy right now--and that's keeping quite a few gear manufacturers busy as well.
No matter how well gears are designed and manufactured, gear corrosion can occur that may easily result in catastrophic failure. Since corrosion is a sporadic and rare event and often difficult to observe in the root fillet region or in finely pitched gears with normal visual inspection, it may easily go undetected. This paper presents the results of an incident that occurred in a gear manufacturing facility several years ago that resulted in pitting corrosion and intergranular attack (IGA).
Lamentations continue—legitimately so—over the second-citizen status of manufacturing in the United States. The need undoubtedly continues for renewed support by government and educators for making things here once again...
In this article, the authors calculated the numerical coordinates on the tooth surfaces of spiral bevel gears and then modeled the tooth profiles using a 3-D CAD system. They then manufactured the large-sized spiral bevel gears based on a CAM process using multi-axis control and multi-tasking machine tooling. The real tooth surfaces were measured using a coordinate measuring machine and the tooth flank form errors were detected using the measured coordinates. Moreover, the gears were meshed with each other and the tooth contact patterns were investigated. As a result, the validity of this manufacturing method was confirmed.
A net-shaped metal forming process has been developed for manufacturing quality, durable, high-yield and cost-efficient gears for high-volume production.
In this issue of Gear Technology, we are focusing on using computers to their greatest advantage in gear design and manufacturing. In a sense, that's old news. It's a cliche to suggest that computers make our work life easier and more productive. No company that wishes to remain competitive in today's global manufacturing environment can afford to be without computers in all their manifestations. We need them in the office; we need them next to our desks in place of drafting boards; we need them on the shop floor.
A fundamental characteristic of the gear industry is that it is capital intensive. In the last decade, the gear manufacturing industry has been undergoing an intense drive toward improving and modernizing its capital equipment base. The Department of Commerce reports that annual sales of gear cutting equipment have increased nearly 60% since 1990. While this effort has paid off in increased competitiveness for the American gear industry, it is important to remember that there is another capital crucial to manufacturing success - "human capital."
Traditionally, gear rating procedures consider manufacturing accuracy in the application of the dynamic factor, but only indirectly through the load distribution are such errors in the calculation of stresses used in the durability and gear strength equations. This paper discusses how accuracy affects the calculation of stresses and then uses both statistical design of experiments and Monte Carlo simulation techniques to quantify the effects of different manufacturing and assembly errors on root and contact stresses.
Worm gearing is of great antiquity, going back about 2100 years to Archimedes, who is generally acknowledged as its inventor. Archimedes' concept used an Archimedial spiral to rotate a toothed wheel. Development of the worm gearing principle progressed along conventional lines until about 500 years ago when Leonardo DaVinci evolved the double enveloping gear concept.
But associations and grassroots organizations lack public awareness.
A best practice in gear design is to limit the amount of backlash to a minimum value needed to accommodate manufacturing tolerances, misalignments, and deflections, in order to prevent the non-driving side of the teeth to make contact and rattle. Industry standards, such as ANSI/AGMA 2002 and DIN3967, provide reference values of minimum backlash to be used in the gear design. However, increased customers’ expectations in vehicle noise eduction have pushed backlash and allowable manufacturing tolerances to even lower limits. This is especially true in the truck market, where engines are quieter because they run at lower speeds to improve fuel economy, but they quite often run at high torsional vibration levels. Furthermore, gear and shaft arrangements in truck transmissions have become more complex due to increased number of speeds and to improve efficiency. Determining the minimum amount of backlash is quite a challenge. This paper presents an investigation of minimum backlash values of helical gear teeth applied to a light-duty pickup truck transmission. An analytical model was developed to calculate backlash limits of each gear pair when not transmitting load, and thus susceptible to generate rattle noise, through different transmission power paths. A statistical approach (Monte Carlo) was used since a significant number of factors affect backlash, such as tooth thickness variation; center distance variation; lead; runout and pitch variations; bearing clearances; spline clearances; and shaft deflections and misalignments. Analytical results identified the critical gear pair, and power path, which was confirmed experimentally on a transmission. The approach presented in this paper can be useful to design gear pairs with a minimum amount of backlash, to prevent double flank contact and to help reduce rattle noise to lowest levels.
The capabilities and limitations of manufacturing gears by conventional means are well-known and thoroughly documented. In the search to enhance or otherwise improve the gear-making process, manufacturing methods have extended beyond chip-cutting - hobbing, broaching, shaping, shaving, grinding, etc. and their inherent limitations based on cutting selection and speed, feed rates, chip thickness per tooth, cutting pressure, cutter deflection, chatter, surface finish, material hardness, machine rigidity, tooling, setup and other items.
The chamfering and deburring operations on gear teeth have become more important as the automation of gear manufacturing lines in the automotive industry have steadily increased. Quieter gears require more accurate chamfers. This operation also translates into significant coast savings by avoiding costly rework operations. This article discusses the different types of chamfers on gear teeth and outlines manufacturing methods and guidelines to determine chamfer sizes and angles for the product and process engineer.
The name Gleason is practically synonymous with gear manufacturing. Since the company was founded in 1865, the technology of gear manufacturing has been its focus, its core and its competitive advantage.
Designing and manufacturing gears requires the skills of a mathematician, the knowledge of an engineer and the experience of a precision machinist. For good measure, you might even include the are of a magician, because the formulas and calculations involved in gear manufacturing are so obscure and the processes so little known that only members of an elite cadre of professionals can perform them.
Material losses and long production times are two areas of conventional spur and helical gear manufacturing in which improvements can be made. Metalforming processes have been considered for manufacturing spur and helical gears, but these are costly due to the development times necessary for each new part design. Through a project funded by the U.S. Army Tank - Automotive Command, Battelle's Columbus Division has developed a technique for designing spur and helical gear forging and extrusion dies using computer aided techniques.
A single tooth bending (STB) test procedure has been developed to optimally map gear design parameters. Also, a test program on case-carburized, aerospace standard gears has been conceived and performed in order to appreciate the influence of various technological parameters on fatigue resistance and to draw the curve shape up to the gigacycle region.
The manufacturing process to produce a gear essentially consist of: material selection, blank preshaping, tooth shaping, heat treatment, and final shaping. Only by carefully integrating of the various operations into a complete manufacturing system can an optimum gear be obtained. The final application of the gear will determine what strength characteristics will be required which subsequently determine the material and heat treatments.
Economic production is one of the main concerns of any manufacturing facility. In recent years, cost increases and tougher statutory requirements have increasingly made cutting fluids a problematic manufacturing and cost factor in metalworking. Depending on the cutting fluid, production process and supply unit, cutting-fluid costs may account for up to 16% of workpiece cost. In some cases, they exceed tool cost by many times (Ref. 1). The response by manufacturers is to demand techniques for dry machining (Ref. 2).
I've been thinking a lot about the importance of manufacturing over the last couple of years, especially as I've watched more and more of it leave our country. We work in an industry that is both economically and strategically vital, but I'm concerned that most Americans do not realize the importance of manufacturing, or what will happen if it continues to dissipate.
While universally known as a Japanese “invention” that was popularized by Toyota, lean in fact traces its roots to the work of post-World War II American occupation forces in Japan.
Hobbing is one of the most fundamental processes in gear manufacturing. Its productivity and versatility make hobbing the gear manufacturing method of choice for a majority of spur and helical gears.
It is with great anticipation that we move closer to AGMA's Fall Technical Conference and Gear Expo '87, which is being held on Oct. 4-6 in Cincinnati, OH. This bold undertaking by both AGMA and the exhibitors in the Expo's 160 booths is an attempt to make a major change in the industry's approach to the exposition of gear manufacturing equipment. By combining the Expo with the Fall Technical Conference, those involved in gear manufacturing will have the opportunity to review the latest equipment, trends, and most innovative ideas, while keeping up with the newest technology in the industry.
No one (not even you and I) consistently makes parts with perfect form and dimensions, so we must be able to efficiently check size and shape at many stages in the manufacturing and assembly process to eliminate scrap and rework and improve processes and profits. Automated inspection systems, which are widely used in all kinds of manufacturing operations, provide great efficiencies in checking individual features, but may not be as effective when asked to evaluate an entire part. You need to know why this is true and what you can do to improve your part yields.
Much of the existing guidelines for making large, high-performance gears for wind turbine gearboxes exhibit a need for improvement. Consider: the large grinding stock used to compensate for heat treatment distortion can significantly reduce manufacturing productivity; and, materials and manufacturing processes are two other promising avenues to improvement. The work presented here investigates quenchable alloy steels that, combined with specifically developed Case-hardening and heat treatment processes, exhibits reduced distortion and, in turn, requires a smaller grinding stock.
Gear shaping is one of the most popular production choices in gear manufacturing. While the gear shaping process is really the most versatile of all the gear manufacturing methods and can cut a wide variety of gears, certain types of gears can only be cut by this process. These are gears closely adjacent to shoulders; gears adjacent to other gears, such as on countershafts; internal gears, either open or blind ended; crown or face gears; herringbone gears of the solid configuration of with a small center groove; rack; parts with filled-in spaces or teeth, such as are used in some clutches.
Primitive gears were known and used well over 2,000 years ago, and gears have taken their place as one of the basic machine mechanisms; yet, our knowledge and understanding of gearing principles is by no means complete. We see the development of faster and more reliable gear quality assessment and new, more productive manufacture of gears in higher materials hardness states. We have also seen improvement in gear applications and design, lubricants, coolants, finishes and noise and vibration control. All these advances push development in the direction of smaller, more compact applications, better material utilization and improved quietness, smoothness of operation and gear life. At the same time, we try to improve manufacturing cost-effectiveness, making use of highly repetitive and efficient gear manufacturing methods.
Heat Treating - The evil twin of the gear processing family. Heat treating and post-heat treating corrective processes can run up to 50% or more of the total gear manufacturing cost, so it's easy to see why, in these days when "lean and mean" production is the rage, and every part of the manufacturing process is under intense scrutiny, some of the harshest light falls on heat treating.
What is so unique about gear manufacturing and inspection? Machining is mostly associated with making either flat or cylindrical shapes. These shapes can be created by a machine's simple linear or circular movements, but an involute curve is neither a straight line nor a circle. In fact, each point of the involute curve has a different radius and center of curvature. Is it necessary to go beyond simple circular and linear machine movements in order to create an involute curve? One of the unique features of the involute is the fact that it can be generated by linking circular and linear movements. This uniqueness has become fertile soil for many inventions that have simplified gear manufacturing and inspection. As is the case with gear generating machines, the traditional involute inspection machines take advantage of some of the involute properties. Even today, when computers can synchronize axes for creating any curve, taking advantage of involute properties can be very helpful. I t can simplify synchronization of machine movements and reduce the number of variables to monitor.
This article summarizes the development of an improved titanium nitride (TiN) recoating process, which has, when compared to conventional recoat methods, demonstrated tool life increases of up to three times in performance testing of hobs and shaper cutters. This new coating process, called Super TiN, surpasses the performance of standard TiN recoating for machining gear components. Super TiN incorporates stripping, surface preparation, smooth coating techniques and polishing before and after recoating. The combination of these improvements to the recoating process is the key to its performance.
Most firms in the gear industry we've talked to over the past year are making more gears than ever, generating more sales, and filling up their schedule books into next year and beyond.
In co-operation with Voith, a major transmission manufacturer in Germany, Heller has developed a process that significantly enhances the productivity of pre-milling and gear milling operations performed on a single 5-axis machining center.
The research presented here is part of an ongoing (six years to date) project of the Cluster of Excellence (CoE). CoE is a faculty-wide group of researchers from RWTH Aachen University in Aachen (North Rhine-Westphalia). This presentation is a result of the group’s examination of "integrative production technology for high-wage countries," in which a shaft for a dual-clutch gearbox is developed.
Aachen has long been the center of European gear research.
Complete guide ti Columbus Gear Expo July/August 2003.
Video Review for March/April 2003.
If the free iPad giveaway from FANUC doesn’t draw you in, the wall-to-wall new machine tool technology displays should have you stopped dead in your tracks. To be exact, there will be 1.2 million square feet of exhibit space that may have your jaw dropping. IMTS may be the last show you want to forget to bring walking shoes to.
In the approximately 15 years that I have been writing editorials for Gear Technology, I've purposely avoided certain topics. Sex, religion and my own used gear machinery business are among the subjects that have always been off limits. But with this issue, I'm going to break one of my long-standing taboos by talking politics.
Over the years, we have traveled extensively throughout the industrialized world, and became increasingly aware of the availability of enormous amounts of technical writing concerning research, experiments, and techniques in the gear manufacturing field. New manufacturing methods, materials, and machines were continuously being developed, but the technical information about them was not readily available to those that could best use it. There was no central source for disseminating this knowledge.
Roughly 100 years ago, Cornelius J. Brosnan of Springfield, Massachusetts, invented and received the first U.S. patent for a paper clip. At about the same time, his fellow inventors were coming up with such marvels as the zipper, the safety razor and the typewriter.
Part I of this paper describes the theory behind double-flank composite inspection, detailing the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. Part II, which will appear in the next issue, includes a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection, especially for large-volume operations. Part II covers statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.
ITAMCO develops gear-related apps for the iPhone and related devices.
Lots of us became interested in gears while taking drafting classes in high school.
An all too common — and disturbing — question these days: Are you having trouble finding skilled workers? Taking that a step further begs the next question — Are you having trouble finding customers with
The forming of gear teeth has traditionally been a time-consuming heavy stock removal operation in which close tooth size, shape, runout and spacing accuracy are required. This is true whether the teeth are finished by a second forming operation or a shaving operation.
These days it's hard to get through breakfast without reading or hearing another story about how the computer is changing the way we live, sleep, eat, breathe, make things and do business. The message is that everything is computerized now, or, if it isn't, it will be by next Tuesday at the latest, Well, maybe.
This issue's editorial is a reprint of the keynote address given by Michael Goldstein at the Computer Aided Gear Design Seminar held at the University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA on November 9, 1987.
The last decade has been a period of far-reaching change for the metal working industry. The effect of higher lubricant costs, technical advances in machine design and increasing competition are making it essential that manufacturers of gears pay more attention to testing, selecting and controlling cutting fluid systems. Lubricant costs are not a large percentage of the process cost relative to items such as raw materials, equipment and labor, and this small relative cost has tended to reduce the economic incentive to evaluate and to change cutting fluids.
Part I of this paper, which appeared in the January/February issue of Gear Technology, described the theory behind double-flank composite inspection. It detailed the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. The concluding Part II presents a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection -- especially for large-volume operations. It also addresses statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.
Carburized and hardened gears have optimum load-carrying capability. There are many alternative ways to produce a hard case on the gear surface. Also, selective direct hardening has some advantages in its ability to be used in the production line, and it is claimed that performance results equivalent to a carburized gear can be obtained. This article examines the alternative ways of carburizing, nitriding, and selective direct hardening, considering equipment, comparative costs, and other factors. The objective must be to obtain the desired quality at the lowest cost.
Multiple CAM initiatives at Snyder Industries are improving safety, quality and productivity for parts ranging from 50 to 5,000 lbs.
Hagen Hofmann of Hoefler presents his views on global trade, competition and the future of the gear industry.
Founded in 1927 as the Machine Tool Show and held every two years, the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) has grown into the largest manufacturing trade show in both North and South America. The statistics for the 1998 show offer a glimpse of the magnitude. Over 1,440 exhibitors showed off 60 million pounds of machinery and went through 5 million pounds of display materials during the week long show. The show organizers themselves sent out 2,632,560 promotional pieces. Twenty-three foreign machine tool associations participated. It took 4,600 trucks to get everything to McCormick Place for the show. There were 450 journalists covering the event, which was attended by 121,764 people. There was $1,034.618,000 worth of business transacted on the show floor of IMTS 1998.
Until recently, there was a void in the quality control of gear manufacturing in this country (Ref. 1). Gear measurements were not traceable to the international standard of length through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The U.S. military requirement for traceability was clearly specified in the military standard MIL-STD-45662A (Ref. 2). This standard has now been replaced by commercial sector standards including ISO 9001:1994 (Ref. 3), ISO/IEC Guide 25 (Ref, 4), and the U.S. equivalent of ISO/IEC Guide 25 - ANSI/NCSL Z540-2-1997 (Ref. 5). The draft replacement to ISO/IEC Guide 25 - ISO 17025 states that measurements must either be traceable to SI units or reference to a natural constant. The implications of traceability to the U.S. gear industry are significant. In order to meet the standards, gear manufacturers must either have calibrated artifacts or establish their own traceability to SI units.
I just got off the phone with an associate of mine at a large gear manufacturing company.I was congratulating him on being awarded a new contract when he told me that they had just experienced a substantial downsizing.
Dear Editor, I am writing this in response to some articles appearing in your journal, but I want to take the opportunity, also, to express my thanks for all the good work your publication is doing. I always look forward to your next issue being in my mail slot. I know I will find timely technical articles relevant to our manufacturing situation here at Amarillo Gear Co., as well as thought provoking commentary on events and trends affecting our business. The Publisher's Page is always worth the reading.
Most Navy brass would say that Commander D. Michael Abrashoff ran a loose ship. But his style of empowering his crew by delegating authority is changing the way the Navy thinks about management. His speech at the recent annual meeting of the American Gear Manufacturers Association offered a simple, common-sense approach that can be applied not only to running a ship, but also to gear manufacturing or any other industry.
Two-shaft planetary gear drives are power-branching transmissions, which lead the power from input to output shaft on several parallel ways. A part of the power is transferred loss-free as clutch power. That results in high efficiency and high power density. Those advantages can be used optimally only if an even distribution of load on the individual branches of power is ensured. Static over-constraint, manufacturing deviations and the internal dynamics of those transmission gears obstruct the load balance. With the help of complex simulation programs, it is possible today to predict the dynamic behavior of such gears. The results of those investigations consolidate the approximation equations for the calculation of the load factors...
Q&A is an interactive gear forum. Send us your gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we will pass them to our panel of experts.
Traditionally, high-quality gears are cut to shape from forged blanks. Great accuracy can be obtained through shaving and grinding of tooth forms, enhancing the power capacity, life and quietness of geared power transmissions. In the 1950s, a process was developed for forging gears with teeth that requires little or no metal to be removed to achieve final geometry. The initial process development was undertaken in Germany for the manufacture of bevel gears for automobile differentials and was stimulated by the lack of available gear cutting equipment at that time. Later attention has turned to the forging of spur and helical gears, which are more difficult to form due to the radial disposition of their teeth compared with bevel gears. The main driver of these developments, in common with most component manufacturing, is cost. Forming gears rather than cutting them results in increased yield from raw material and also can increase productivity. Forging gears is therefore of greater advantage for large batch quantities, such as required by the automotive industry.
In recent years, improvements in the reliability of the vacuum carburizing process have allowed its benefits to be realized in high-volume, critical component manufacturing operations. The result: parts with enhanced hardness and mechanical properties.
Bodine Electric Co. of Chicago, IL., has a 97-year history of fine-and medium-pitch gear manufacturing. Like anywhere else, traditions, old systems, and structures can be beneficial, but they can also become paradigms and obstacles to further improvements. We were producing a high quality product, but our goal was to become more cost effective. Carbide hobbing is seen as a technological innovation capable of enabling a dramatic, rather than an incremental, enhancement to productivity and cost savings.
Q&A is an interactive gear forum. Send us you gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we will pass them to our panel of experts.
Quality gear manufacturing depends on controlled tolerances and geometry. As a result, ferritic nitrocarburizing has become the heat treat process of choice for many gear manufacturers. The primary reasons for this are: 1. The process is performed at low temperatures, i.e. less than critical. 2. the quench methods increase fatigue strength by up to 125% without distorting. Ferritic nitrocarburizing is used in place of carburizing with conventional and induction hardening. 3. It establishes gradient base hardnesses, i.e. eliminates eggshell on TiN, TiAIN, CrC, etc. In addition, the process can also be applied to hobs, broaches, drills, and other cutting tools.
When you're manufacturing fun, very often you need gears. The Addendum team recently went on a behind-the-scenes gear-finding mission with Jerold S. Kaplan, Principal Engineer, Show/Ride Mechanical Engineering at Walt Disney Imagineering in Lake Buena Vista, FL. We found that at least part of Disney's magic comes from good, old-fashioned mechanical engineering.
The tooth-by-tooth, submerged induction hardening process for gear tooth surface hardening has been successfully performed at David Brown for more than 30 years. That experience - backed up by in-depth research and development - has given David Brown engineers a much greater understanding of, and confidence in, the results obtainable from the process. Also, field experience and refinement of gear design and manufacturing procedures to accommodate the induction hardening process now ensure that gears so treated are of guaranteed quality.
Austempered irons and steels offer the design engineer alternatives to conventional material/process combinations. Depending on the material and the application, austempering may provide the producers of gear and shafts with the following benefits: ease of manufacturing, increased bending and/or contact fatigue strength, better wear resistance or enhanced dampening characteristics resulting in lower noise. Austempered materials have been used to improve the performance of gears and shafts in many applications in a wide range of industries.
Welcome to our Software Bits page. Here we feature new software products for gear design, manufacturing and testing.
Q&A is your interactive gear forum. Send us your gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we'll put them before our panel of experts.
It takes confidence to be the first to invest in new manufacturing technology. But the payback can be significant. That has been the experience at the Ford Motor Company's Transmission & Chassis Division plant at Indianapolis, IN, which boasts the world's first production application of dry hobbing.
Just back from IMTS and once again, I'm struck by the enormous vitality and strength of the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy. It has made a phoenix-like rise from the grave dug for it by pundits in the '80s and has come back more robust and competitive than ever.
This book is written for those among us, with or without a technical background, who have an occasional need to use, purchase or specify gears. The author assumes an audience that is not made up of experienced gear designers, but of people who do need to have a basic understanding of the criteria used by the designer. The subjects covered include not only the gears themselves, but their manufacturing methods, the systems that contain them and the terms used to describe them.
"A Decade of Performance" is the theme of the American Gear Manufacturers Association Gear Expo 97, to be held October 19-22 at Detroit's Cobo Hall. Products and services related to every aspect of the gear manufacturing process, from turning and grinding the blanks to coating and inspection of the gears,will be represented at the show.
When it comes to setting the standard for gear making, the auto industry often sets the pace. Thus when automakers went to grinding after hardening to assure precision, so did the machine shops that specialize in gearing. But in custom manufacturing of gears in small piece counts, post-heat treat grinding can grind away profits too.
Statistical Precess Control (SPC) and statistical methods in general are useful techniques for identifying and solving complex gear manufacturing consistency and performance problems. Complex problems are those that exist in spite of our best efforts and the application of state-of-the-art engineering knowledge.
Gear grinding is one of the most expensive and least understood aspects of gear manufacturing. But with pressures for reduced noise, higher quality and greater efficiency, gear grinding appears to be on the rise.
Gears are designed to be manufactured, processed and used without failure throughout the design life of the gear. One of INFAC's objectives (*see p.24) is to help manufacture of gears to optimize performance and life. One way to achieve this is to identify failure mechanisms and then devise strategies to overcome them by modifying the manufacturing parameters.
The heat treating of gears presents a difficult challenge to both the heat treater and the gear manufacturer. The number and variety of variables involved in the manufacturing process itself and the subsequent heat treating cycle create a complex matrix of factors which need to be controlled in order to produce a quality product. A heat treater specializing in gears or a gear manufacturer doing his own heat treating must have a clear understanding of these issues in order to deliver a quality product and make a profit at the same time. The situation also presents a number of areas that could benefit greatly from continued research and development.
The cutting tool is basic to gear manufacturing. Whether it's a hob, broach, shaper cutter or EDM wire, not much gets done without it. And the mission of the tool remains the same as always; removing material as quickly, accurately and cost-effectively as possible. Progress in the field tends to be evolutionary, coming gradually over time, but recently, a confluence of emerging technologies and new customer demands has caused significant changes in the machines, the materials and the coatings that make cutting tools.
The trend toward moving coordinate measuring machines to the shop floor to become an integral part of the manufacturing operations brings real time process control within the reach of many companies. Putting measuring machines on the shop floor, however, subjects them to harsh environmental conditions. Like any measuring system, CMMs are sensitive to any ambient condition that deviates from the "perfect" conditions of the metrology lab.
Heat treating is a critical operation in gear manufacturing. It can make or break the quality of your final product. Yet it is one that frequently gear manufacturers outsource to someone else. Then the crucial question becomes, how do you know you're getting the right heat treater? How can you guarantee your end product when you have turned over this important process to someone else?
Gear Expo 99, AGMA's biennial showcase for the gear industry, has left the Rust Belt this year and landed in Music City U.S.A., Nashville, Tennessee. The event, with exhibitors from around the globe showing off the latest in gear manufacturing as well as metal working processes, will be held at the Nashville Convention Center, October 24-27, 1999. According to Kurt Medert, AGMA vice president and Gear Expo show manager, "In choosing Nashville, AGMA;s Trade Show Advisory Council found a city that is an excellent trade show site. It has the right mix of convention center, nearby hotels, and a clean downtown area with entertainment readily available for the exhibitors and visitors alike. Nashville is in the heart of southern industry, which we see as a focus of growth for the gear industry and its customers."
Richard Spens has been rebuilding antique machine tools for nearly a decade. He is drawn to the ornate architecture and fascinated by the open design that allows you to see inside a machine as it operates. "Working with machines has been a lifelong thing with me," said Spens, now a design engineer. "I started building steam engines when I was 10 years old." What he's working on now, however, is bigger than any steam engine or machine tool. In rural Livonia, Michigan, Spens is converting an old dairy barn into an accurate recreation of a turn-of-the-century, belt driven gear shop. It's an outgrowth of his interest in antique machine tools and, he feels, a way to stem the tide that is costing America so many manufacturing and skilled trade jobs.
Thousands of gear industry professionals will converge October 24-27 in Nashville, TN, for Gear Expo 99, the industry's biennial collection of the latest in gear manufacturing technology. With nearly 50,000 square feet of exhibit space sold more than two months in advance of the show, this year's Gear Expo will offer visitors more opportunity for supplier comparison than ever before. As of July 20, 166 suppliers of equipment, tooling, services and precision gear products were scheduled to participate, with as many as 20 additional booths yet to be sold, according to AGMA vice president and Gear Expo show manager Kurt Medert. The largest previous Gear Expo was held in 1997 in Detroit, with 43,100 square feet of exhibit space and 161 exhibitors.
Q&A is your interactive gear forum. send us your gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we'll put them before our panel of experts.
An engineer's responsibility for verifying a new design or product concept as manufacturable early in the development cycle is a tough challenge. What appears to work on a blueprint or in a three-dimensional CAD file on a computer screen many not work on the factory floor; and the downstream impact on the manufacturing process of an undetected design flaw can be enormous. Costs can run into the millions.
One of the best ways to learn the ISO 6336 gear rating system is to recalculate the capacity of a few existing designs and to compare the ISO 6336 calculated capacity to your experience with those designs and to other rating methods. For these articles, I'll assume that you have a copy of ISO 6336, you have chosen a design for which you have manufacturing drawings and an existing gear capacity calculation according to AGMA 2001 or another method. I'll also assume that you have converted dimensions, loads, etc. into the SI system of measurement.
High-speed machining using carbide has been used for some decades for milling and turning operations. The intermittent character of the gear cutting process has delayed the use of carbide tools in gear manufacturing. Carbide was found at first to be too brittle for interrupted cutting actions. In the meantime, however, a number of different carbide grades were developed. The first successful studies in carbide hobbing of cylindrical gears were completed during the mid-80s, but still did not lead to a breakthrough in the use of carbide cutting tools for gear production. Since the carbide was quite expensive and the tool life was too short, a TiN-coated, high-speed steel hob was more economical than an uncoated carbide hob.
This textbook, written for college level engineering students, gives a basic grounding in the complexities of product liability law. It also provides useful information to those of us involved in the manufacturing of gears and gear systems in that the fundamental concepts apply to all types of manufacturers.
It is very common for those working in the gear manufacturing industry to have only a limited understanding of the fundamental principals of involute helicoid gear metrology, the tendency being to leave the topic to specialists in the gear lab. It is well known that quiet, reliable gears can only be made using the information gleaned from proper gear metrology.
The market demand for gear manufacturers to transmit higher torques via smaller-sized gear units inevitably leads to the use of case-hardened gears with high manufacturing and surface quality. In order to generate high part quality, there is an increasing trend towards the elimination of the process-induced distortion that occurs during heat treatment by means of subsequent hard finishing.
I have outsourced gear macrogeometry due to lack of resources. Now I received the output from them and one of the gears is with —0.8× module correction factor for m = 1.8 mm gear. Since bending root stress and specific slide is at par with specification, but negative correction factor —0.8× module — is quite high — how will it influence NVH behavior/transmission error? SAP and TIF are very close to 0.05 mm; how will that influence the manufacturing/cost?
Have you ever stood on a beach at the edge of the water and felt the grains of sand dissolve from under your feet as the water recedes? No matter how hard you plant your feet or grip your toes, you can’t hold on to the sand. It just flows away right from under you. In many ways that sand is like the knowledge and experience of our graying manufacturing workforce. It seems inevitable that much of that knowledge is being washed away.
The recently available capability for the free-form milling of gears of various gear types and sizes — all within one manufacturing system — is becoming increasingly recognized as a flexible machining process for gears.
Developed here is a new method to automatically find the optimal topological modification from the predetermined measurement grid points for bevel gears. Employing this method enables the duplication of any flank form of a bevel gear given by the measurement points and the creation of a 3-D model for CAM machining in a very short time. This method not only allows the user to model existing flank forms into 3-D models, but also can be applied for various other purposes, such as compensating for hardening distortions and manufacturing deviations which are very important issues but not yet solved in the practical milling process.
Since we began publishing in 1984, Gear Technology's mission has been to educate our readers. For 31 years, we've shown you the basics of gear manufacturing as well as the cutting edge. We take our educational mission quite seriously, and we go through steps that most publishers don't have time for or wouldn't consider.
As in nearly all industries, more costeffective solutions are currently called for in the gear manufacturing industry.
An in-depth look at the major booths with the latest technology used in gear manufacturing.
Recently, a new type of hob with carbide inserts has been introduced, providing higher cutting speeds, longer tool life and higher feed rates when compared to re-grindable, high-speed steel hobs. But with this kind of hob, new challenges occur due to positional errors of the cutting edges when mounted on the tool. These errors lead to manufacturing errors on the gear teeth which must be controlled. In this paper, the tooth quality of a gear manufactured by hobs with different quality classes is analyzed using a simulation model in combination with Monte Carlo methods.
Precision components (industrial bearing races and automotive gears) can distort during heat treatment due to effects of free or unconstrained oil quenching. However, press quenching can be used to minimize these effects. This quenching method achieves the relatively stringent geometrical requirements stipulated by industrial manufacturing specifications. As performed on a wide variety of steel alloys, this specialized quenching technique is presented here, along with a case study showing the effects of prior thermal history on the distortion that is generated during press quenching.
Every so often manufacturing is jolted out of its inertia by a transformative technology – one that fundamentally changes not only the way products are made, but also the economics of the business.
Dressable vitrified bond CBN grinding tools combine the advantages of other common tool systems in generating gear grinding. Yet despite those technological advantages, there is only a small market distribution of these grinding tools due to high tool costs. Furthermore, scant literature exists regarding generating gear grinding with dressable CBN. This is especially true regarding the influence of the grinding tool system on manufacturing-related component properties. The research objective of this report is to determine the advantages of dressable CBN tools in generating gear grinding.
A finite elements-based contact model is developed to predict load distribution along the spline joint interfaces; effects of spline misalignment are investigated along with intentional lead crowning of the contacting surfaces. The effects of manufacturing tooth indexing error on spline load distributions are demonstrated by using the proposed model.
Compact, custom and portable solutions are gaining more attention in manufacturing today as companies seek out the tools that offer the greatest productivity gains on the shop floor. Gear inspection seems to be following suit.
Our goal at Gear Technology for the past 31 years has been to bring you the best possible technical information about gear manufacturing. We serve as the industry’s educational resource, explaining the technology not only so that you can understand it, but also so that you can make use of it in your gear-related business.
Due to increasing requirements regarding the vibrational behavior of automotive transmissions, it is necessary to develop reliable methods for noise evaluation and design optimization. Continuous research led to the development of an elaborate method for gear noise evaluation. The presented methodology enables the gear engineer to optimize the microgeometry with respect to robust manufacturing.
THE FINAL CHAPTER This is the last in the series of chapters excerpted from Dr. Hermann J. Stadtfeld’s Gleason Bevel Gear Technology — a book written for specialists in planning, engineering, gear design and manufacturing. The work also addresses the technical information needs of researchers, scientists and students who deal with the theory and practice of bevel gears and other angular gear systems. While all of the above groups are of course of invaluable importance to the gear industry, it is surely the students who hold the key to its future. And with that knowledge it is reassuring to hear from Dr. Stadtfeld of the enthusiastic response he has received from younger readers of these chapter installments.
Looking for some simple yet useful advice heading into IMTS 2016? Never second guess your machine tool investment. Flexibility is a mandatory requirement in gear manufacturing today. Accuracy, reliability and efficiency must improve with each new machine tool purchase. Innovation is always the end game. So it comes as no surprise that IMTS 2016 attendees will have plenty of gear grinding technologies to consider this fall.
There’s no substitute for a good software package in gear manufacturing. It’s a critical shop floor tool that provides practical engineering services that customers appreciate. When you’re in the business of specifying and procuring high quality gears, the software needs to meet many objectives including the consideration of all tolerances of center distance, tooth thickness and tip diameters, root diameters, fillets, etc. It’s also imperative that the software updates include the latest revisions to the gear standards being used in the industry.
During a year with a strong dollar, tanked oil prices and a number of soft markets that just aren’t buying, one might expect spline manufacturers to be experiencing the same tumult everyone else is. But when I got a chance to speak with some of the suppliers to spline manufacturers at IMTS about how business is going, many of the manufacturing industry’s recent woes never came up, and instead were replaced by a shrug and an “eh, business is doing pretty well.”
This proposed standard would not make any recommendations regarding the required quality for any application. The intent is to establish standard pre-finish quality classes for typical finishing operations, which only include the inspection elements that are important to properly evaluate pre-finish gear quality as it applies to the finishing operation. It would be the responsibility of the manufacturing/process engineer, quality engineer, or other responsible individual to establish the required pre-finish quality class for their application.
The “less is more” mantra is certainly a rallying cry in manufacturing. Technologies like multiaxis machining, 3D printing and automation are enabling companies to be more efficient, cost-conscious and flexible on the shop floor.
In the previous sections, the development of conjugate bevel gearsets via hand calculations was demonstrated. The goal of this exercise was to encourage the reader to gain a basic understanding of the theory of bevel gears. This knowledge will help gear engineers to better judge bevel gear design and their manufacturing methods. In order to make the basis of this learning experience even more realistic, this chapter will convert a conjugate bevel gearset into a gearset that is suitable in a real-world application. Length and profile crowning will be applied to the conjugate flank surfaces. Just as in the previous chapter, all computations are demonstrated as manual hand calculations. This also shows that bevel gear theory is not as complicated as commonly assumed.
In the quest for ever more exacting and compact commercial gears, precision abrasives are playing a key production role - a role that can shorten cycle time, reduce machining costs and meet growing market demand for such requirements as light weights, high loads, high speed and quiet operation. Used in conjunction with high-quality grinding machines, abrasives can deliver a level of accuracy unmatched by other manufacturing techniques, cost-effectively meeting AGMA gear quality levels in the 12 to 15 range. Thanks to advances in grinding and abrasive technology, machining has become one of the most viable means to grind fast, strong and quiet gears.
If only there were some source of endless knowledge, experience and wisdom to guide you through your gear-related problems. If only there were some philosopher on a mountaintop whose sole purpose was to bring enlightenment to your gear noise problems, to unravel the mysteries of profile shift, to provide insight to a critical gear manufacturing problem or to explain the meaning of life (gear life, that is).
Generating gear grinding is one of the most important finishing processes for small and medium-sized gears, its process design often determined by practical knowledge. Therefore a manufacturing simulation with the capability to calculate key values for the process — such as the specific material removal rate — is developed here. Indeed, this paper presents first results of a model for a local analysis of the value. Additionally, an empirical formula — based on a multiple regression model for a global value describing the process — is provided.
Gear Technology's annual State-of-the-Gear-Industry survey polls gear manufacturers about the latest trends and opinions relating to the overall health of the gear industry. As in years past, the survey was conducted anonymously, with invitations sent by e-mail to gear manufacturing companies around the world.
The 2015 Gear Technology Buyers Guide was compiled to provide you with a handy resource containing the contact information for significant suppliers of machinery, tooling, supplies and services used in gear manufacturing.
The 2013 Gear Technology Buyers Guide was compiled to provide you with a handy resource containing the contact information for significant suppliers of machinery, tooling, supplies and services used in gear manufacturing.
Gear Technology’s annual State-of- the-Gear-Industry survey polls gear manufacturers about the latest trends and opinions relating to the overall health of the gear industry. As in years past, the survey was conducted anonymously, with invitations sent by e-mail to gear manufacturing companies around the world.
Publisher Michael Goldstein is confident that the manufacturing economy will continue to grow throughout next year, no matter who wins the 2012 presidential election.
IMTS exists primarily as a buy-and-sell North American venue for practically every conceivable technology used in manufacturing, and in that regard it has no equal. There you’ll find on display the latest and greatest technology, from hardware to software and everything in between. But anyone who has attended past shows is aware that IMTS is much more than that. Following is a rundown of "extracurricular" activities you’ll find waiting for your edification and enjoyment.
What are the manufacturing methods used to make bevel gears used in automotive differentials?
Gear Technology’s annual state-of-the-gear-industry survey polls gear manufacturers about the latest trends and opinions relating to the overall health of the gear industry. As in years past, the survey was conducted anonymously, with invitations sent by e-mail to gear manufacturing companies around the world.
The 2012 Gear Technology Buyers Guide was compiled to provide you with a handy resource containing the contact information for significant suppliers of machinery, tooling, supplies and services used in gear manufacturing.
Complete listing of booths with relevant gear manufacturing technologies.
Previews of manufacturing technology related to gears that will be on display at IMTS 2012.
The effort described in this paper addresses a desire in the gear industry to increase power densities and reduce costs of geared transmissions. To achieve these objectives, new materials and manufacturing processes, utilized in the fabrication of gears, and being evaluated. In this effort, the first priority is to compare the performance of gears fabricated using current materials and processes. However, once that priority is satisfied, it rapidly transforms to requiring accurate design data to utilize these novel materials and processes. This paper describes the effort to address one aspect of this design data requirement.
The need for improved power transmissions that use gears and gearboxes with smaller overall dimensions and with lower noise generation has left manufacturing engineers searching for different methods of gear processing. This search has led to the requirement of hardened gears.
Computer technology has touched all areas of our lives, impacting how we obtain airline tickets, purchase merchandise and receive medical advice. This transformation has had a vast influence on manufacturing as well, providing process improvements that lead to higher quality and lower costs. However, in the case of the gear industry, the critical process of tooth contact pattern development for spiral bevel gears remains relatively unchanged.
In America and most parts of the world, people are looking for answers about what's going to happen next in the manufacturing economy. We're all looking for evidence that better times are ahead, or at least that the worst is over. We crave a clear indicator, something that shows us in black and white that the situation is going to get better.
Gear tooth wear and micropitting are very difficult phenomena to predict analytically. The failure mode of micropitting is closely correlated to the lambda ratio. Micropitting can be the limiting design parameter for long-term durability. Also, the failure mode of micropitting can progress to wear or macropitting, and then go on to manifest more severe failure modes, such as bending. The results of a gearbox test and manufacturing process development program will be presented to evaluate super-finishing and its impact on micropitting.
This paper introduces mandatory improvements in design, manufacturing and inspection - from material elaboration to final machining - with special focus on today's large and powerful gearing.
A sampling of newsletter articles and videos related to gear manufacturing from March/April 2013.
Preview of some of the exhibits relevant to gear manufacturing at the upcoming EMO 2013.
The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) has been gathering, validating and sharing manufacturing knowledge for more than 80 years. Traditionally, SME resources were purchased by individuals for their own personal use or by colleges and universities as textbooks. Recently, these same colleges and universities were looking for digital resources to provide to their instructors and students. Companies were requesting SME content digitally for their employees as well.
For anyone involved in gear manufacturing, Gear Expo is an absolute treasure. In 2013, it was bigger and more varied than it's been in a decade. With 226 exhibitors covering every conceivable gear-related technology, Gear Expo offered visitors unparalleled opportunities to interview potential new suppliers.
If you've been following this space with any regularity, you know that grassroots efforts among industry and academia are springing up around the country to help win the hearts, minds and talents of young people in nudging them towards a career in manufacturing. Add another partnership to the list.
In today’s globalized manufacturing, all industrial products having dimensional constraints must undergo conformity specifications assessments on a regular basis. Consequently, (standardization) associated with GD&T (geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing) should be un-ambiguous and based on common, accepted rules. Of course gears - and their mechanical assemblies - are special items, widely present in industrial applications where energy conversion and power transmission are involved.
This paper will provide examples of stress levels from conventional root design using a hob and stress levels using an optimized root design that is now possible with PM manufacturing. The paper will also investigate how PM can reduce stresses in the root from transient loads generated by abusive driving.
Over the past few months we've talked with a lot of gear manufacturers. Many of them tell us business is strong, while others are struggling with reduced demand. The difference between them isn't so much in the quality of their manufacturing operations, but rather trends in the end markets they serve.
This machine concept facilitates highly productive profile grinding for large workpieces. The range for external and internal gears comprises models for manufacturing workpieces up to 2,000 millimeters – for industrial gear units, wind power, and marine propulsion applications
The hob is a perfect example of how a little manufacturing ingenuity can make a reliable, highly productive cutting tool. It's an engineering specimen that creates higher cutting speeds, better wear resistance and increases rigidity. The cutting tool alone, however, can't take all the credit for its resourcefulness. Advanced coating technology from companies like Sulzer, Oerlikon Balzers, Ionbond, Seco Tools and Cemecon helps improve cutting tools by reducing overall costs, increasing tool life and maintaining the highest levels of productivity. The following is a quick recap of new technologies and the latest information in the coating market.
Investment in advanced new manufacturing technologies is helping to reinvent production processes for bevel gear cutters and coarse-pitch hobs at Gleason - delivering significant benefits downstream to customers seeking shorter deliveries, longer tool life and better results.
It is widely recognized that the reduction of CO2 requires consistent light-weight design of the entire vehicle. Likewise, the trend towards electric cars requires light-weight design to compensate for the additional weight of battery systems. The need for weight reduction is also present regarding vehicle transmissions. Besides the design of the gearbox housing, rotating masses such as gear wheels and shafts have a significant impact on fuel consumption. The current technology shows little potential of gear weight reduction due to the trade-off between mass optimization and the manufacturing process. Gears are usually forged followed or not by teeth cutting operation.
Nobody's sure what went on in Bolsa Chica, CA, when gear-shaped stones were used there 8,700 years ago, but a popular belief is that at least some activity revolved around manufacturing.
AGMS's 1986 Manufacturing Symposium will offer an open forum with industry experts and papers on topics of interest to everyone involved in gear manufacturing.
A review of "A Nation on Borrowed Time," a book by Joe Arvin and Scott Newton about the decline of America's ability to create wealth through manufacturing, and its effect on the overall economy.
How you can get involved in a grassroots movement to save American manufacturing--and the American economy.
Fred Young, CEO of Forest City Gear, talks about sophisticated gear manufacturing methods and how they can help solve common gear-related problems.
Several innovations have been introduced to the gear manufacturing industry in recent years. In the case of gear hobbing—the dry cutting technology and the ability to do it with powder-metallurgical HSS—might be two of the most impressive ones. And the technology is still moving forward. The aim of this article is to present recent developments in the field of gear hobbing in conjunction with the latest improvements regarding tool materials, process technology and process integration.
Gear manufacturers are moving into an era that will see changes in both engineering practices and industry standards as new end-products evolve. Within the traditional automotive industry, carbon emission reduction legislation will drive the need for higher levels of efficiency and growth in electric and hybrid vehicles. Meanwhile, the fast growing market of wind turbines is already opening up a whole new area of potential for gearbox manufacturers, but this industry is one that will demand reliability, high levels of engineering excellence and precision manufacturing.
Quality, materials and technology continue to challenge the big gear manufacturing market.
Faster, more efficient manufacturing offered with table-top design from American Broach & Machine.
Turnkey Design Services is manufacturing a planetary gear system to increase power density.
In October, Gear Technology conducted an anonymous survey of gear manufacturers. More than 300 answered questions about their manufacturing operations and current challenges.
Guidelines are insurance against mistakes in the often detailed work of gear manufacturing. Gear engineers, after all, can't know all the steps for all the processes used in their factories.
How machine tools R&D helps drive gear manufacturing productivity.
This paper acknowledges the wide variety of manufacturing processes--especially in grinding--utlized in the production of bevel gears...
Easily one of the central issues affecting U.S. manufacturing is what one might call the exports deficit—the inability of American companies to sell products to, for instance, Asian markets, developing countries and other ports of call—due to what they perceive to be unfair trade agreements and or policies.
It’s happened to most manufacturers at one point or another. A defective product comes back from a customer in need of repair. Perhaps a bearing or a gear drive has failed, and the customer simply needs a replacement. Upon further examination, the company realizes it was never one of its products in the first place, but a fabricated copy that snuck into the market. The manufacturing community has been dealing with counterfeit products for decades, but used machinery dealers and Internet shoppers seem to continuously get hit by scam artists.
Publisher Michael Goldstein talks about how one gear company is encouraging young people in manufacturing. What are you doing?
Machine tool companies are expanding capabilities to better accommodate the changing face of manufacturing. Customers want smaller-sized equipment to take up less valuable floor space, multifunctional machines that can handle a variety of operations and easy set-up changes that offer simplified operation and maintenance.
Publisher Michael Goldstein discusses why some gear manufacturing companies are enjoying record years.
For this interview, we spoke with George Wyss, president, and Dennis Richmond, vice president of Reishauer Corporation about gear grinding and its place in gear manufacturing today.
The AGMA Fall Technical Meeting provides an opportunity to share ideas with others on the design, analysis, manufacturing and application of gears, gear drives, and related products, as well as associated processes and procedures.
In recent years, there has been significant interest in expanding the use of induction hardening in gear manufacturing operations. Over the past several years, many of the limits to induction hardening have shrunk, thanks to recent advances in technology, materials and processing techniques.
At Andrew Tool, CMMs have been an integral part of their manufacturing processes for years, but they had never faced a project with such intricate measurements, tight tolerances, heat treatments and a very short time frame requirement.
Involute spline couplings are used to transmit torque from a shaft to a gear hub or other rotating component. External gear teeth on the shaft engage an equal number of internal teeth in the hub. Because multiple teeth engage simultaneously, they can transmit much larger torques than a simple key and keyway assembly. However, manufacturing variations affect the clearance between each pair of mating teeth, resulting in only partial engagement.
The great thing about a trade show the size of IMTS is the amount of options available to attendees. If you’re into cars, fighter jets, machine tools, fighting robots, manufacturing relics or simply the latest technology advancements in a particular industry, you’ll find it at IMTS 2010.
Publisher Michael Goldstein talks about the slow but steady pace of the recovery of the manufacturing economy.
In comparison with the traditional gear design approach based on preselected, typically standard generating rack parameters, the Direct Gear Design method provides certain advantages for custom high-performance gear drives that include: increased load capacity, efficiency and lifetime; reduced size, weight, noise, vibrations, cost, etc. However, manufacturing such directly designed gears requires not only custom tooling, but also customization of the gear measurement methodology. This paper presents definitions of main inspection dimensions and parameters for directly designed spur and helical, external and internal gears with symmetric and asymmetric teeth.
Ohio's Lt. Governor Lee Fisher talks about Ohio companies at the forefront of wind turbine industry manufacturing.
Iowa Governor Chet Culver weighs in on the importance of the wind turbine industry for manufacturing growth.
Imagine the flexibility of having one machine capable of milling, turning, tapping and gear cutting with deburring included for hard and soft material. No, you’re not in gear fantasy land. The technology to manufacture gears on non gear-dedicated, mult-axis machines has existed for a few years in Europe, but has not yet ventured into mainstream manufacturing. Deckel Maho Pfronten, a member of the Gildemeister Group, took the sales plunge this year, making the technology available on most of its 2009 machines.
The latest software for gear design, engineering and manufacturing.
Hobbing is probably the most popular gear manufacturing process. Its inherent accuracy and productivity makes it a logical choice for a wide range of sizes.
The manufacturing quality of spiral bevel gears has achieved a very high standard. Nevertheless, the understanding of the real stress conditions and the influences. of certain parameters is not satisfactory.
Industrial gear standards have been used to support reliability through the specification of requirements for design, manufacturing and verification. The consensus development of an international wind turbine gearbox standard is an example where gear products can be used in reliable mechanical systems today. This has been achieved through progressive changes in gear technology, gear design methods and the continual development and refinement of gearbox standards.
The benefits of ground gears are well known. They create less noise, transmit more power and have longer lives than non-ground gears. But grinding has always been thought of as an expensive process, one that was necessary only for aerospace or other high-tech gear manufacturing.
Beveloid gears are used to accommodate a small shaft angle. The manufacturing technology used for beveloid gearing is a special setup of cylindrical gear cutting and grinding machines. A new development, the so-called Hypoloid gearing, addresses the desire of gear manufacturers for more freedoms. Hypoloid gear sets can realize shaft angles between zero and 20° and at the same time, allow a second shaft angle (or an offset) in space that provides the freedom to connect two points in space.
Google “lean manufacturing” and you will find a virtually endless font of information regarding formal lean implementation. You’ll see definitions for Japanese words such as kaizen, gemba, muda, mura, kanban, and so on. You will also find other variations or iterations of lean, e.g.: Six Sigma, Lean Sigma, TPS (Toyota Production System), TOC (Theory of Constraints), JIT (Just in Time), and others.
As is well known in involute gearing, “perfect” involute gears never work perfectly in the real world. Flank modifications are often made to overcome the influences of errors coming from manufacturing and assembly processes as well as deflections of the system. The same discipline applies to hypoid gears.
When children are asked what they want to be when they grow up, the answers are undoubtedly diverse. Some immediately respond with doctor, lawyer or firefighter while others take a more creative approach with answers like spy, princess or superhero. The Addendum Staff has yet to come across a youngster that seems committed to a career in gear manufacturing.
Often, the required hardness qualities of parts manufactured from steel can only be obtained through suitable heat treatment. In transmission manufacturing, the case hardening process is commonly used to produce parts with a hard and wear-resistant surface and an adequate toughness in the core. A tremendous potential for rationalization, which is only partially used, becomes available if the treatment time of the case hardening process is reduced. Low pressure carburizing (LPC) offers a reduction of treatment time in comparison to conventional gas carburizing because of the high carbon mass flow inherent to the process (Ref. 1).
There’s a bustle of activity as exhibitors prepare for America’s most significant manufacturing trade show. The red carpets are ready, the lights are being tested, and the crowds are gathering with anticipation. Amid the excitement, Gear Technology has managed to sneak under the usher’s ropes to provide you with this advance look at some of the gear-related products and technologies that will be featured at IMTS 2004.
Indexable carbide insert (ICI) cutting tools continue to play a pivotal role in gear manufacturing. By offering higher cutting speeds, reduced cycle times, enhanced coatings, custom configurations and a diverse range of sizes and capabilities, ICI tools have proven invaluable for finishing and pre-grind applications. They continue to expand their unique capabilities and worth in the cutting tool market.
In October, Gear Technology conducted an anonymous survey of gear manufacturers. Invitations were sent by e-mail to thousands of individuals around the world. More than 300 individuals responded to the online survey, answering questions about their manufacturing operations and current challenges facing their businesses.
As an indicator of what’s up-and-coming in the manufacturing technology world, Hannover Messe 2009 reflects the prominence of alternative energy and efficiency.
Sales are up and it's time to hire some additional gear manufacturing personnel. Let's see--what qualities are wee looking for in the ideal candidates?
Lack of skilled workers mirrors U.S. manufacturing's decline.
Despite the many things being done to promote manufacturing nationwide, there still remains an acute need for gear-specific training, remedial or otherwise.
There are great advantages in dry hobbing, not only for friendliness toward the environment, but also for increasing productivity and for decreasing manufacturing cost. Dry hobbing, however, often causes failures in hob cutting edges or problems with the surface quality of gear tooth flanks. These difficulties are not present when hobbing with cutting oil. Pinching and crushing of generated chips between the hob cutting edge and the work gear tooth flank is considered a major cause of those problems.
Custom Gear and Machine, Inc., of Roscoe, IL, recently purchased a Reishauer RZ400 gear grinder and, on one job, has seen the cycle time drop from 40 minutes to six minutes, according to Tim Rose, vice president of manufacturing, who runs the business with co-owners Dave Patterson and Mike Rasmann.
At its location in Roscoe, IL, the Forest City Gear facility is surrounded by wildlife splendor. Fruit trees, nature walks and the occasional cute and furry animal sighting create an unlikely landscape for a manufacturing site. Of course, cavorting with the cute and furry does have its drawbacks.
When gears are case-hardened, it is known that some growth and redistribution of stresses that result in geometric distortion will occur. Aerospace gears require post case-hardening grinding of the gear teeth to achieve necessary accuracy. Tempering of the case-hardened surface, commonly known as grinding burn, occurs in the manufacturing process when control of the heat generation at the surface is lost.
Since the design of involute splines and their manufacture requires considerable knowledge, not only of the basic properties of the involute profile, but also of various other elements which affect the spline fit and the sometimes complex principles underlying manufacturing and checking equipment, the question is frequently raised as to why the involute profile is given preference in designing splines over the seemingly simpler straight sided tooth profile.
Gear metrology is a revolving door of software packages and system upgrades. It has to be in order to keep up with the productivity and development processes of the machines on the manufacturing floor. Temperature compensation, faster inspection times and improved software packages are just a few of the advancements currently in play as companies prepare for new opportunities in areas like alternative energy, automotive and aerospace/defense.
An American renaissance in manufacturing is needed—and long overdue.
In this study, limiting values for the load-carrying-capacity of fine-module gears within the module range 0.3–1.0 mm were determined and evaluated by comprehensive, experimental investigations that employed technical, manufacturing and material influence parameters.
The press release on my desk this morning said, "The (precision metal working) industry cannot attract enough qualified applicants. As many as 1,500 jobs a year (in the Chicago are alone) are going unfilled." So what else is new? That's just hard proof confirming the suspicion many of us have had for some time. Some of the best, most qualified and experienced people in our shops are reaching retirement age, and there's no one around to fill their spots. And, if the situation is bad in the metal working trades in general, it's even more critical in the gearing industry. Being small and highly specialized, gear manufacturing attracts even less attention and finds recruitment harder than the other precision metal trades.
The turbines are still spinning. They’re spinning on large wind farms in the Great Plains, offshore in the Atlantic and even underwater where strong tidal currents offer new energy solutions. These turbines spin regularly while politicians and policy makers— tied up in discussions on tax incentives, economic recovery and a lot of finger pointing—sit idle. Much like the auto and aerospace industries of years past, renewable energy is coping with its own set of growing pains. Analysts still feel confident that clean energy will play a significant role in the future of manufacturing—it’s just not going to play the role envisioned four to five years ago.
In November, Gear Technology conducted an anonymous survey of gear manufacturers. Invitations were sent by e-mail to thousands of individuals around the world. More than 300 individuals responded to the online survey, answering questions about their manufacturing operations and current challenges facing their businesses.
Six years ago this month, the very first issue of Gear Technology, the Journal of Gear Manufacturing, went to press. The reason for starting the publication was a straightforward one: to provide a forum for the presentation of the best technical articles on gear-related subjects from around the world. We wanted to give our readers the information they need to solve specific problems, understanding new technologies, and to be informed about the latest applications in gear design and manufacturing. The premise behind Gear Technology was also a straightforward one: the better informed our readers were about the technology, the more competitive they and their companies would be int he world gear market.
Profitable hard machining of tooth flanks in mass production has now become possible thanks to a number of newly developed production methods. As used so far, the advantages of hard machining over green shaving or rolling are the elaborately modified tooth flanks are produced with a scatter of close manufacturing tolerances. Apart from an increase of load capacity, the chief aim is to solve the complex problem of reducing the noise generation by load-conditioned kinematic modifications of the tooth mesh. In Part II, we shall deal with operating sequences and machining results and with gear noise problems.
In 1985 a new tooling concept for high volume gear production was introduced to the gear manufacturing industry. Since then this tool, the wafer shaper cutter, has proven itself in scores of applications as a cost-effective, consistent producer of superior quality parts. This report examines the first high-production installation at the plant of a major automotive supplies, where a line of twenty shapers is producing timing chain sprockets.
Could the tip chamfer that manufacturing people usually use on the tips of gear teeth be the cause of vibration in the gear set? The set in question is spur, of 2.25 DP, with 20 degrees pressure angle. The pinion has 14 teeth and the mating gear, 63 teeth. The pinion turns at 535 rpm maximum. Could a chamfer a little over 1/64" cause a vibration problem?
The load carrying behavior of gears is strongly influenced by local stress concentrations in the tooth root and by Hertzian pressure peaks in the tooth flanks produced by geometric deviations associated with manufacturing, assembly and deformation processes. The dynamic effects within the mesh are essentially determined by the engagement shock, the parametric excitation and also by the deviant tooth geometry.
Prior to the introduction of titanium nitride to the cutting tool industry in the early 1980s, there was very little progress in the general application of hobbing in the gear cutting industry. The productivity gains realized with this new type of coating initiated a very active time of advancement in the gear manufacturing process.
Cutter Sharpening Cutter sharpening is very important both during manufacturing and subsequently in resharpening after dulling. Not only does this process affect cutter "over cutting edge" quality and the quality of the part cut, but it can also affect the manner in which chip flow takes place on the cutter face if the surface finished is too rough or rippled.
The biggest industrial trade show in the world this year - and the manufacturing machinery industry's most important marketplace - will be at McCormick Place in Chicago September 7 - 15.
Exporting. It's one of the hot strategies for helping boost businesses of all kinds, gear manufacturing among them. With domestic markets tight and new markets opening up overseas, exporting seems like a reasonable tactic. But while the pressure is on to sell overseas, there is equal, justifiable concern about whether the move is a good one. Horror stories abound about foreign restrictions, bureaucratic snafus, carloads of paperwork, and the complications and nuances of doing business in other languages and with other cultures.
ISO 9000 is the latest hot topic in marketing and manufacturing circles. Everyone seems to be talking about it, but few seem to understand it completely. depending on whom one talks to, it's either the greatest thing to hit industry since the assembly line, another cash cow for slick consultants, a conspiracy on the part of Europeans to dominate global markets, or the next necessary step to compete in the global economy of the twenty-first century. It may be all of the above.
This article discusses briefly some common manufacturing problems relating to coarse pitch gears and their suggested solutions. Most of the discussion will be limited to a low-quality production environment using universal machine tools.
Not long ago, many manufacturing managers thought sensitivity to environmental protection standards meant additional expenses, decreased productivity, and a plethora of headaches and hassles.
8 Gear Technology advertisers will have booths at IMTS 92, the largest trade show in the Western Hemisphere. The show opens in Chicago on Sept. 9 and runs through the 17th. More than 800 companies from around the world will cover some 931,000 sq. ft. of exhibit space to show the latest manufacturing technology - everything from forming and fabrication products to environmental and plant safety equipment.
October is the time. Detroit is the place. AGMA Gear Expo '91 is the event. Cobo Center in downtown Detroit is where you will want to be in October if you have any interest in gear products, manufacturing, or research.
Metrology is a vital component of gear manufacturing. Recent changes in this area, due in large part to the advent of computers, are highlighted in this article by comparison with more traditional methods.
"More than half our young people leave school without the knowledge or foundation required to find and hold a job." according to a 1991 report from the U.S. Dept. of Labor. A huge gap exists between the needs of employers (especially in manufacturing) and the training received by most high school students.
Modern manufacturing processes have become an ally of the product designer in producing higher quality, higher performing components in the transportation industry. This is particularly true in grinding systems where the physical properties of CBN abrasives have been applied to improving cycle times, dimensional consistency, surface integrity and overall costs. Of these four factors, surface integrity offers the greatest potential for influencing the actual design of highly stressed, hardened steel components.
The purpose of this article is to discuss ISO 4156/ANSI B92.2M-1980 and to compare it with other, older standards still in use. In our experience designing and manufacturing spline gauges and other spline measuring or holding devices for splined component manufacturers throughout the world, we are constantly surprised that so many standards have been produced covering what is quite a small subject. Many of the standards are international standards; others are company standards, which are usually based on international standards. Almost all have similarities; that is, they all deal with splines that have involute flanks of 30 degrees, 37.5 degrees or 45 degrees pressure angle and are for the most part flank-fitting or occasionally major-diameter-fitting.
A research program, conducted in conjunction with a U.S. Army contract, has resulted in the development of manufacturing technology to produce a multi-metal composite gear/shaft representing a substantial weight savings compared to a solid steel component. Inertia welding is used to join a steel outer ring to a light-weight titanium alloy web and/or shaft through the use of a suitable interlayer material such as aluminum.
Arrow Gear Company of Downers Grove, IL, has implemented a computer system that fully integrates exchange between all of its computer applications. The ELIMS (Electronic Linkage of Information Management Systems) project has increased manufacturing productivity and reduced lead times.
Traditionally, a worm or a multi-stage gear box has been used when a large speed ratio is required. However, such boxes will become obsolete as size and efficiency become increasingly important considerations for a modern transmission. The single-enveloped worm gear has a maximum speed ratio of only 40 to 60. Its efficiency is only 30 to 60 per cent. The necessity of using bronze for the worm gear and grinding nitoalloy steel for the worm drives up material and manufacturing costs.
Helical gears can drive either nonparallel or parallel shafts. When these gears are used with nonparallel shafts, the contact is a point, and the design and manufacturing requirements are less critical than for gears driving parallel shafts.
A recent U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command project, conducted by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories. successfully developed the methodology of CAD/CAM procedures for manufacturing dies (via EDM) for forging spiral bevel gears. Further, it demonstrated that precision forging of spiral bevel gears is a practical production technique. Although no detailed economic evaluation was made in this study, it is expected that precision forging offers an attractive alternative to the costly gear cutting operations for producing spiral bevel gears.
Near-net gear forging today is producing longer life gears at significantly lower costs than traditional manufacturing techniques. Advances in forging equipment, controls and die-making capability have been combined to produce commercially viable near-net-shape gears in diameters up to 17" with minimum stock allowances. These forged gears require only minimal finishing to meet part tolerance specifications.
Faithful Addendum readers are accustomed to finding upbeat, whimsical and oddball stories about gears in this space. What follows is not about gears, exactly. Rather, it is, as opposed to the usual bleak news about America losing its manufacturing mojo—a look at a positive, hopeful development in that regard.
You're already a veteran of the computer revolution. Only you and your controller know how much money you've spent and only your spouse knows how many sleepless nights you've had in the last ten years trying to carve out a place in the brave new world of computerized gear manufacturing. PC's, CNCs, CAD, CAM, DNC, SPC, CMM: You've got a whole bowl of alphabet soup out there on the shop floor. Overall these machines have lived up to their promises. Production time is down, quality is up. You have fewer scrapped parts and better, more efficient machine usage.
At the present time, technology seems to be moving faster than our ability to educate people in its utilization. this is particularly true of the manufacturing engineering profession.
NC and CNC machines are at the heart of manufacturing today. They are the state-of-the-art equipment everybody has (or is soon going to get) that promise to lower costs, increase production and turn manufacturers into competitive powerhouses. Like many other high tech devices (such as microwaves and VCRs), lots of people have and use them - even successfully - without really knowing much about how they operate. But upgrading to CNC costs a lot of money, so it's crucial to separate the hype from the reality.
In robot configurations it is desirable to be able to obtain an arbitrary orientation of the output element or end-effector. This implies a minimum of two independent rotations about two (generally perpendicular) intersecting axes. If, in addition, the out element performs a mechanical task such as in manufacturing or assembly (e.g., drilling, turning, boring, etc.) it may be necessary for the end-effector to rotate about its axis. If such a motion is to be realized with gearing, this necessitates a three-degree-of-freedom, three-dimensional gear train, which provides a mechanical drive of gyroscopic complexity; i.e., a drive with independently controlled inputs about three axes corresponding to azimuth, nutation, and spin.
NC and CNC metal cutting machines are among the most popular machine tools in the business today, There is also a strong trend toward using flexible machining centers and flexible manufacturing systems. The same trend is apparent in gear cutting. Currently the trend toward CNC tools has increased, and sophisticated controls and peripheral equipment for gear cutting machines are now available; however, the investment in a CNC gear machine has to be justified on the basis of economic facts as well as technical advantages.
Gear manufacturing schedules that provide both quality and economy are dependent on efficient quality control techniques with reliable measuring equipment. Given the multitude of possible gear deviations, which can be found only by systematic and detailed measuring of the gear teeth, adequate quality control systems are needed. This is especially true for large gears, on which remachining or rejected workpieces create very high costs. First, observation of the gears allows adjustment of the settings on the equipment right at the beginning of the process and helps to avoid unproductive working cycles. Second, the knowledge of deviations produced on the workpiece helps disclose chance inadequacies on the production side: e.g., faults in the machines and tools used, and provides an opportunity to remedy them.
A change has taken place within the industry that is going to have an enormous effect on the marketing, sales, and purchasing of gear manufacturing and related equipment. This change was the American Gear Manufacturers' Association, first biennial combination technical conference and machine tool minishow.
Quality gear inspection means doing the "right" inspections "right." A lot of time and money can be spent doing the wrong types of inspections related to function and doing them incorrectly. As we will discover later, such things as runout can creep into the manufacturing and inspection process and completely ruin any piece of data that is taken. this is one of the most important problems to control for quality inspection.
A pair of spur gears generally has an effective lead error which is caused, not only by manufacturing and assembling errors, but also by the deformations of shafts, bearings and housings due to the transmitted load. The longitudinal load distribution on a contact line of the teeth of the gears is not uniform because of the effective lead error.
The International Manufacturing Technology Show provided one of the biggest ever marketplaces for buying and selling gear-making equipment, with 121601 attenders, making it the largest IMTS ever. The show took place September 4-11 at McCormick Place in Chicago, IL.
While the two have taught a variety of AGMA courses over the years, without question their most popular courses are Gear Failure Analysis (Errichello with longtime colleague Jane Muller) and Gearbox CSI: Forensic Analysis of Gear & Bearing Failures (Drago). Drago currently teaches Manufacturing & Inspection (with AGMA instructor Joseph W. Lenski, Jr.) and Gearbox System Design: The Rest of the Story… Everything but the Gears and Bearings (with AGMA instructor Steve Cymbala) as well.
Peter Eelman has been involved with the International Manufacturing Technology Show for more than 30 years. First as an exhibitor with Warner & Swasey Co.; later with Toyoda USA; later still as a consultant; and currently as vice president for exhibitions and business development, IMTS. He also serves on the board of directors of the exhibitor-appointed Contractor Association and is a former member of the board of directors for the Trade Show Exhibitors Association. Eelman is a speaker with the International Association of Exhibitions and Events and serves on the Metropolitan Chicago Pier & Exposition Authority Labor Council. As the head of IMTS, Eelman is the go-to, make-things-happen guy for the Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau, the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority, McCormick Place and the various vendors, service providers and trade unions involved in the complex trade show process. In addition to IMTS, Eelman is also prominently involved in shows with an international presence.
Manufacturing involute gears using form grinding or form milling wheels are beneficial to hobs in some special cases, such as small scale production and, the obvious, manufacture of internal gears. To manufacture involute gears correctly the form wheel must be purpose-designed, and in this paper the geometry of the form wheel is determined through inverse calculation. A mathematical model is presented where it is possible to determine the machined gear tooth surface in three dimensions, manufactured by this tool, taking the finite number of cutting edges into account. The model is validated by comparing calculated results with the observed results of a gear manufactured by an indexable insert milling cutter.
AGMA has an excellent Training School for Gear Manufacturing. It's a great product providing a great service to the gear industry. Thus far we've educated 117 employees from 71 companies; students range from new hires with no experience to company presidents. Essentially every class since December, 1992, has been sold out.
IMTS 94, the Association for Manufacturing Technology's biennial machine tool extravaganza opens September 7 at McCormick Place in Chicago. As always, the size of this show is astonishing. Over 100,000 visitors, enough to populate a medium-size town, will converge on Chicago's lakefront to visit more than 1,200 exhibits spread over the entire McCormick Place complex.
The GS:TE-LM thread grinder from Drake Manufacturing is fitted with a robot load/unload system that provides maximum throughput for high-volume production of ground threads.
The Society of Manufacturing Engineers is sponsoring an educational program on the "Fundamentals of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering," to be held January 28-30, 1986 at the Sheraton-Sand Key Resort in Clear-water Beach, Florida.
This issue of Gear Technology, The Journal of Gear Manufacturing, marks the end of our second year of publication. As we approach our third year, it is time to review our statement of purpose. Gear Technology's primary goal was and is to be a reference source and a forum for the American Gear industry, and to advance gear technology throughout the world.
Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies (ITAMCO) has released iBlue—the first handheld bluetooth transmitter that gathers crucial production data and sends it to bluetooth-enabled smartphones, tablets and computers.
Gear gashing is a gear machining process, very much like gear milling, utilizing the principle of cutting one or more tooth (or tooth space) at a time. The term "GASHING" today applies to the roughing, or roughing and finishing, of coarse diametral pitch gears and sprockets. Manufacturing these large coarse gears by conventional methods of rough and finish hobbing can lead to very long machining cycles and uneconomical machine utilization.
At a time when there are many pressures on the Gear Industry and its representative Association, the American Gear Manufacturers Association, it seems particularly appropriate that Gear Technology - The Journal of Gear Manufacturing appears. AGMA is particularly pleased to have the opportunity to write the first editorial for this magazine.
Student Summit Introduces Next Generation to Manufacturing The IMTS 2002 Show offers an opportunity for students, ranging from grade school to college, to take part in the exhibition.
The Addendum team was in Chicago in early March, for the National Manufacturing Week show, when it saw something unusual: a bicycle with gears. Real gears, Spiral bevel gears, in fact.
October 5-8, 1986 AGMA Fall technical Conference & Gearing Exhibit September 17-19, 1986 Ohio State University Gear Noise Seminar November 11-13, 1986 SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic November 19-21, 1986 Seminar: Gear System Design for Minimum Noise
Positive feedback regarding Gear Technology, the Journal of Gear Manufacturing, from some of its new readers.
IMTS-90 - the Western Hemisphere's largest trade show - is coming to Chicago September 5 -13, 1990. The event, sponsored by NMTBA - The Association For Manufacturing Technology - will be held at the McCormick Place Complex. Over 1200 exhibitors will display their products at this event.
AGMA's Gear Expo '91, "The World of Gearing," opens October 20 and runs through October 23 at the Cobo Conference & Exhibition Center in "The Heart of the Manufacturing Industry," Detroit, MI. Gear Expo '91 is "the largest trade show ever specifically organized for the gear industry," according to Rich Norment, AGMA's Executive Director.
IMTS 92 - The International Manufacturing Technology Show - opens in Chicago September 9 and runs through September 17 at Chicago's McCormick Place. IMTS is the Western Hemisphere's larges trade show. Over 800 companies from all over the globe will be showing products in exhibits covering some 931,000 sq. ft. of space.
It’s that even-numbered-year time-of-the-year again. The International Manufacturing Technology Show, IMTS 2008, is right around the corner. This 27th installment of the biennial trade show is focusing on connecting global technology.
November 1-3. SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic, Sheraton Meridian, Indianapolis, IN. November 5-10. international Conference on Gearing, Zhengzhou, China
September 27-29. American Society for Metals 11th Annual Heat Treating Conference October 10-12. AGMA Fall Technical Meeting. Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, LA November 1-3. SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic, Sheraton Meridian, Indianapolis, IN
The International Manufacturing Technology Show has come a long way from the National Machine Tool Builders’ Exposition fi rst held in 1927.
This issue, our sixth, marks the 1st Anniversary of GEAR TECHNOLOGY, The Journal of Gear Manufacturing.
News Items About manufacturing
1 Preco Opens Contract Manufacturing Facility in China (February 14, 2006)
Preco Inc. opened a contract manufacturing facility located in Tianjin, China. ?The establishment of contract manufacturing services i... Read News
2 SME Annual Conference to Focus on Future of Manufacturing (May 24, 2013)
Sharing information, driving innovation in manufacturing and preparing an advanced manufacturing workforce will be the focus of the 2013 ... Read News
3 Manufacturing Technology Demand Strong (December 28, 2011)
The resurgence of manufacturing following the crash of 2008 is unprecedented. The most current U.S. manufacturing technology orders ... Read News
4 Manufacturing Technology Orders Continue to Climb (January 9, 2012)
November U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $430.17 million according to the American Machine Tool Distributors' Associatio... Read News
5 USMTO Report Highlights Manufacturing Surge (February 17, 2012)
December U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $519.98 million according to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT)&nbs... Read News
6 USMTO Reports Increase in Manufacturing Technology Orders (March 12, 2012)
January U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $401.69 million according to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT). Thi... Read News
7 MFG Meeting Hosts 750+ Manufacturing Executives (March 16, 2012)
More than 750 manufacturing executives attended the second edition of The MFG Meeting (Manufacturing for Growth), March 8-11, 2012, in Or... Read News
8 USMTO Reports Manufacturing Technology Consumption (December 12, 2011)
October U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $463.32 million according to the Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT) an... Read News
9 Manufacturing Survey Describes State of Skilled Workers Gap (October 18, 2011)
American manufacturing companies cannot fill as many as 600,000 skilled positions – even as unemployment number... Read News
10 Four Associations Chart Course for U.S. Manufacturing (January 10, 2011)
Four leading associations of small- and medium-sized manufacturing companies recently announced that they are combining resources to host... Read News
11 Manufacturing Technology Consumption up 85 percent in 2010 (February 14, 2011)
December U.S. manufacturing technology consumption totaled $446.76 million, according to The Association for Manufacturing Technology (AM... Read News
12 Manufacturing Technology Orders Up from June 2010 (August 11, 2011)
June U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $459.39 million according to The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT) an... Read News
13 Manufacturing Technology Orders Off to Best Start Since 1998 (April 17, 2012)
February U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $444.06 million according to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT).&nb... Read News
14 September Manufacturing Numbers Second Highest in 15 Years (November 14, 2011)
September U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $606.56 million according to the American Machine Tool Distributors’ Assoc... Read News
15 Renishaw Introduces Additive Manufacturing Systems (May 16, 2012)
Renishaw's new laser melting additive-metal manufacturing process is capable of producing fully dense metal parts direct from 3-D CAD... Read News
16 Manufacturing Institute Lauds Focus on Manufacturing and Skill Gap (February 15, 2013)
The Manufacturing Institute is pleased that manufacturing and the need for a skilled workforce took center stage in the State of the Unio... Read News
17 Solar Manufacturing Announces Expansion (March 6, 2013)
Solar Manufacturing Inc. announces the expansion of its office and manufacturing facilities with the addition of 22,000 square feet in a ... Read News
18 AMT Reports Manufacturing Technology Orders Up from January (April 16, 2013)
February U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $385.89 million according to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT). Th... Read News
19 Hainbuch Opens Wisconsin Manufacturing Facility (May 28, 2013)
Hainbuch America Corporation held a ribbon cutting ceremony recently for their new manufacturing facility in the Germantown Business Park... Read News
20 AMT Reports Strong Finish to 2012 Manufacturing Technology Orders (February 12, 2013)
December U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $499.43 million according to the Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT). Th... Read News
21 AMT Reports 2012 Manufacturing Technology Orders Up (November 20, 2012)
September U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $667.47 million according to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT). T... Read News
22 ITAMCO Creates New Manufacturing Apps (December 21, 2010)
Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies (ITAMCO) recently released two manufacturing apps to assist those involved in the gear ind... Read News
23 Ajax Rolled Ring Opens New Manufacturing Facility (September 28, 2012)
Ajax Rolled Ring & Machine is bringing new jobs to York County, South Carolina as it opens a new manufacturing facility at its York l... Read News
24 More Than 200 Companies Participate in First Annual Manufacturing Day (October 5, 2012)
Today more than 200 manufacturing companies participated in the first annual Manufacturing Day, a national event to highlight the importa... Read News
25 AMT Reports Manufacturing Technology Orders Up (October 8, 2012)
August U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $470.44 million according to the Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT). This... Read News
26 Manufacturing Technology Orders Hint at Expansion (May 15, 2012)
March U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $495.97 million according to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT). ... Read News
27 Manufacturing Technology Consumption Up 62 Percent (November 4, 2010)
August U.S. manufacturing technology consumption totaled $246.42 million, according to The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT)... Read News
28 AMT Reports May Manufacturing Consumption Up 21 Percent (April 19, 2006)
Domestic manufacturing technology consumption totaled $319.4 million, according to the American Machine Tool Distributors' Associatio... Read News
29 ANCA Pty. Invests $4 Million in Australia and Opens Thai Manufacturing Facility (April 14, 2006)
ANCA Pty. will invest $4 million in Australia and officially opened its first overseas manufacturing facility, located in the Rayong pro... Read News
30 Paccar Announces Plans for $400 Million Engine Manufacturing Plant (January 16, 2007)
Paccar Inc. Inc unveiled plans for a new $400 million powertrain manufacturing and assembly facility in the southeast United States. ... Read News
31 Samputensili Invests 4.7 Million Euros in Ennvironmentaly Friendly Manufacturing Facility (March 9, 2007)
Samputensili S.p.A. announced an investment of 4.7 million euros for the building of a new manufacturing facility of Ortona (Chieti, Ital... Read News
32 August Manufacturing Technology Consumption Up 26.6 Percent (October 31, 2007)
According to the Association for Manufacturing Technology and the American Machine Tool Distributor’s Association, manufacturing te... Read News
33 Star SU Acquires Marketing and Manufacturing Rights for Bencere Products (April 12, 2006)
Winco Industries has acquired the marketing and manufacturing rights to a patented series of padded adjustable reamers and fine boring to... Read News
34 NUMs Graphical and Conversational Software Compatible with Gear Manufacturing (April 11, 2006)
NUMs control systems will be displayed at IMTS and are suitable for use in gear manufacturing. The embedded machining cycles for ge... Read News
35 New Director of Manufacturing at Ikona Gear (January 5, 2005)
George Stefan was hired by Ikona Gear as director of manufacturing, a newly created position. According to the companys press... Read News
36 AMT Reports Manufacturing Technology Consumption on Best Pace Since 2000 (January 14, 2006)
September U.S. manufacturing technology consumption totaled $407.21 million, according to the American Machine Tool Distributors' ... Read News
37 AMT Reports Manufacturing Technology Consumption on Best Pace Since 2000 (January 14, 2006)
September U.S. manufacturing technology consumption totaled $407.21 million, according to AMTDA, the American Machine Tool Distributors... Read News
38 QuEST Expands Into Aerospace Manufacturing (April 3, 2006)
QuEST, a Bangladore-based provider of engineering services, today announced the expansion into aerospace manufacturing through a fully ow... Read News
39 Manufacturing Economist Disagrees with Federal Reserve Report (November 9, 2007)
A recent report from the Federal Reserve that stated manufacturing production showed no change in September of 2007 is not accurate, acco... Read News
40 Manufacturing Technology Consumption Increased From 2007 (August 19, 2008)
U.S. manufacturing technology consumption totaled $341 million in May, reports the American Machine Tool Distributors’ Association... Read News
41 Heller Introduces Gear Manufacturing on Five-Axis Milling Machines (August 2, 2010)
Manufacturers of gear components and bevel gears have been looking for alternatives to traditional manufacturing processes for larger gea... Read News
42 Spain Manufacturing Technology Represented at IMTS (September 8, 2010)
Despite a challenging economy, Spain continues to demonstrate commitment across all growth industries, including manufacturing technology... Read News
43 Moventas Expands Global Manufacturing Reach (September 22, 2010)
With an investment in Portland, Oregon, Moventas is taking a significant step to expand its global manufacturing and assembly offerings f... Read News
44 Manufacturing Technology Consumption up 62.4 Percent in 2010 (October 21, 2010)
August U.S. manufacturing technology consumption totaled $246.42 million, according to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT)... Read News
45 Manufacturing Technology Consumption Up 52.9 Percent (July 14, 2010)
U.S. manufacturing technology consumption (USMTC) in May totaled $178.34 million, according to the American Machine Tool Distributors... Read News
46 Manufacturing Technology Consumption Up 50.6 Percent Year-to-Date (June 17, 2010)
April U.S. manufacturing technology consumption totaled $222.36 million, according to AMT- the Association for Manufacturing Technology (... Read News
47 Manufacturing Technology Consumption Stumbles in July (October 21, 2008)
U.S manufacturing technology consumption dropped 21.5 percent from June to July according to the American Machine Tool Distributors'... Read News
48 Hainbuch Opens Manufacturing Facility (December 28, 2009)
Mequon, WI is the new home to Hainbuch America. The German workholding company moved into the facility in November, and manufacturing is ... Read News
49 SME Invests in Manufacturing Education Centers for High Schools (March 8, 2010)
Tomorrow's global leaders will have to be tech-savvy and ready for advanced manufacturing jobs requiring skills in electronics... Read News
50 Quebec-Area Manufacturing Increases (May 10, 2010)
In the midst of the recent recession, recovery for the manufacturing sector in Quebec was expected to be long and slow, but the momentum ... Read News
51 Mazak Manufacturing Plant Gets MTConnect (July 18, 2013)
As a first in the machine tool OEM industry, Mazak Corporation is converting its Florence, Kentucky, manufacturing plant over to the MTCo... Read News
52 Manufacturing Technology Orders Up in 2012 (August 16, 2012)
June U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $462.95 million according to the Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT). This t... Read News
53 Manufacturing Tech Orders Total $506.89 Million in December (March 5, 2015)
December U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $506.89 million according to The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT). Th... Read News
54 Drake Manufacturing Receives Weatherhead 100 Award (March 3, 2015)
Drake Manufacturing Services Co., LLC, a Warren, Ohio, precision CNC manufacturing systems builder, was recently honored as a first-time ... Read News
55 SKF Opens Expanded Manufacturing Facility in Czech Republic (December 11, 2014)
SKF recently opened its expanded lubrication systems manufacturing facility in the Czech Republic. The expanded factory has been designed... Read News
56 2014 Manufacturing Technology Orders Up 5.2 percent (November 12, 2014)
September U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $647.63 million according to The Association For Manufacturing Technology. This to... Read News
57 Gleason Launches New Manufacturing Facility in India (March 17, 2015)
Gleason Corporation recently announced that it broke ground for a new manufacturing facility in the Bengalaru Aerospace Park Industrial A... Read News
58 AMT Reports Manufacturing Technology Orders Down in February (April 27, 2015)
February U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $304.74 million according to The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT). Th... Read News
59 Dana Plans Gear Manufacturing Facility in Europe (September 15, 2016)
Dana Incorporated has announced that it plans to construct a state-of-the-art gear manufacturing facility in Europe. The estab... Read News
60 USMTO October Report Shows Manufacturing Down 17.4 percent from 2014 (December 17, 2015)
The latest U.S. Manufacturing Technology Orders (USMTO) report showed that orders for manufacturing technology in October 2015 were down ... Read News
61 AMT Announces May Manufacturing Technology Orders Down 7.9 Percent from Last Year (July 30, 2015)
May U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $336.98 million, according to AMT. This total, as reported by companies participating in... Read News
62 AMT Reports on Manufacturing Technology Orders (July 18, 2014)
May U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $351.93 million according to AMT – The Association For Manufacturing Technology. T... Read News
63 Timken Opens State-of-the-Art Gear Drive Manufacturing Facility in Houston (April 24, 2015)
The Timken Company recently announced the opening of a new, 27,000-square-foot gear drive manufacturing facility in Houston, TX. An... Read News
64 USMTO Reports Manufacturing Orders Down from 2012 (September 12, 2013)
July U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $351.21 million according to the Association For Manufacturing Te... Read News
65 Okuma Highlights Manufacturing Success Story (October 15, 2013)
Okuma America Corporation has launched a campaign featuring the success story of family-run manufacturing customer, Lumar Machining &... Read News
66 KISSsoft Offers Configurable Manufacturing Drawings (August 28, 2013)
For all cylindrical gears, custom configurable manufacturing drawings are now available in KISSsoft (module ZPK). The toothing data and a... Read News
67 August Manufacturing Tech Orders Up Nearly Five Percent (October 14, 2013)
August U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $371.97 million according to the Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT).This ... Read News
68 Manufacturing Technology Consumption Up 6.7 Percent Through September (November 26, 2007)
According to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT) and the American Machine Tool Distributors’ Association (AMTDA), te... Read News
69 Solar Manufacturing Fills Two Senior-Level Engineering Positions (July 24, 2008)
John Barron was named vice president of engineering, and Robert Wilson is now the senior mechanical engineer for Solar Manufacturing. ... Read News
70 SME Releases Latest Video in Manufacturing Insights Series (December 19, 2007)
The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) recently announced the release of Minimum Quantity Lubrication, an addition to the SME Manuf... Read News
71 Ultrasonic Tanks Aim to Clean-Up Industrial Manufacturing (December 7, 2007)
Ultrasonic tanks by Omegasonics assist in the process of toxic parts cleaning in all industrial machining applications. According to the ... Read News
72 Maynards to Auction Surplus Equipment from Abundant Manufacturing, Inc. (April 14, 2016)
Plans are now gearing up for an auction of surplus assets from Abundant Manufacturing, Inc. and RP Machine Enterprises, Inc. This top qua... Read News
73 Drake Manufacturing Buys Wenzel Gear Checker (July 23, 2007)
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE For further information, Contact: Jim VosmikPhone... Read News
74 Acme Manufacturing Opens Shanghai Office (August 30, 2007)
Acme Manufacturing Co. announced the opening of an office in Shanghai, China and the hiring of Ling Yun to manage the new office. Accordi... Read News
75 Dillon Manufacturing Reversible Hard Jaws Suitable for Both ID and OD Workholding (April 20, 2016)
Reversible hard jaws from Dillon Manufacturing, Inc., which are suitable for ID and OD workholding, can decrease the time and cost of too... Read News
76 DMDII Announces First 2016 Project Call for Advanced Manufacturing Enterprise and Intelligent Machines (March 29, 2016)
The Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation Institute (DMDII), a UI LABS collaboration, today announced the release of its first 2016... Read News
77 Sumitomo Acquires Norton Manufacturing Company (November 24, 2008)
Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. and Sumitomo Corporation have completed the acquisition of Norton Manufacturing Company, a manufacturer... Read News
78 Solar Manufacturing Hires Midwest Regional Sales Manager (December 29, 2015)
Solar Manufacturing, Inc. announces that Adam Jones has accepted the position of Midwest region sales manager. Jones will maintain and pr... Read News
79 Kurt Manufacturing Signs Agreement with Leader Chuck Systems (March 8, 2010)
Kurt Manufacturing Company, located in Minneapolis, MN, recently signed an exclusive agreement with Leader Chuck Systems Ltd. in B... Read News
80 Solar Manufacturing, Inc. Adds Sales Support in Pacific Northwest (April 5, 2010)
Solar Manufacturing, Inc. recently formed an agreement with Kelly LeBard, owner of Hartley Sales Corporation, to provide sales representa... Read News
81 Sandvik Coromant Sponsors Manufacturing Contest (May 18, 2010)
Sandvik Coromant recently sponsored a contest at Vincennes University in Vincennes, Indiana where 21 students from the school's Advan... Read News
82 Global restructuring of SAMP manufacturing locations (February 1, 2010)
Star SU partner SAMP S.p.a announced that it will consolidate, restructure and relocate its Chemnitz, Germany and Ortona, Italy manufactu... Read News
83 Dillon Manufacturing Jaw Force Gauges Measure Force of Individual Chuck Jaws (January 13, 2016)
New Jaw Force Gauges from Dillon Manufacturing allow users to accurately measure the force applied to each chuck jaw independently, so th... Read News
84 Northstar Aerospace Announces Executive Appointments to Accelerate Manufacturing Ramp-Up (May 24, 2007)
Northstar Aerospace announced several executive management changes in accordance with the company's plans to drastically accelerate i... Read News
85 Solar Manufacturing Names President (December 2, 2008)
James M. Nagy has been appointed president of Solar Manufacturing, Inc. He became vice president of operations in 2002 after joining the ... Read News
86 Skills Certification System Targets High Unemployment, Unfilled Manufacturing Jobs (April 2, 2009)
The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) is partnering with the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) and The Manufacturing Ins... Read News
87 Solar Manufacturing Announces John Oakes as Sales Representative for Northeastern U.S. (February 23, 2016)
Solar Manufacturing has announced the appointment of John Oakes as their new sales representative for the Northeast U.S. region. Mr. Oake... Read News
88 Solar Atmospheres and Solar Manufacturing Approach Finish Line for World’s Largest Vacuum Furnace (June 10, 2016)
Solar Atmospheres of Western Pennsylvania and Solar Manufacturing, Inc. have been building the largest vacuum furnace in the world and ar... Read News
89 IMTS 2016: Solar Manufacturing (N-6358) (September 9, 2016)
Solar Manufacturing will be introducing a new, innovative and more thermally efficient hot zone design at IMTS 2016 in Chicago for the be... Read News
90 Hexagon Receives Innovation in Manufacturing Award (September 2, 2016)
Hexagon Manufacturing Intelligence North America has announced it has been awarded the 2016 Innovation in Manufacturing award by Providen... Read News
91 MakingChips Presents Manufacturing Leadership Series During IMTS (August 30, 2016)
The Make & Elevate Manufacturing Leadership Series will take place September 12-14 to coincide with IMTS (International Manufacturing... Read News
92 Drake Manufacturing and Sanwa Seiki Establish Sales Agreement for Japan (August 18, 2016)
Drake Manufacturing Services Co., LLC and Sanwa Seiki Co., Ltd. have formally established a sales agreement for Japan and for other desig... Read News
93 New Clamping Devices for Tool and Hob Manufacturing from Toolink (February 9, 2005)
The K?nigdorn hydraulic expansion mandrels from Toolink Enginering manually clamp hobs located between centers on the machine. The system... Read News
94 DMG-Mori Seiki Host Sustainability in Manufacturing Summit (August 15, 2013)
DMG/Mori Seiki USA served as the host for the annual Sustainable Manufacturing Partnership (SMP) meeting held earlier this summer. The SM... Read News
95 New Gear Catalog from Suhner Manufacturing (January 1, 2004)
Suhner Manufacturing has released its flexible shaft/bevel gear catalog. According to the companys press release, this new catal... Read News
96 Promotions at American Axle and Manufacturing (April 17, 2004)
American Axle has made numerous appointments at their executive level. Yogendra N.Rahangdale was named chairman of the operating comm... Read News
97 Manufacturing Association Elects New Board of Directors (April 17, 2004)
The Association for Manufacturing Technology has its elected new officers at their 2004 conference in Bonita Springs, FL. David J. Bu... Read News
98 Gear Motions Sam Haines Honored on Manufacturing Associations Wall of Fame (April 11, 2006)
Samuel Haines, president of Gear Motions, was named to the Manufacturers Association of Central New York Hall of Fame at the organi... Read News
99 IMTS Preview: Hexagon Manufacturing Intelligence (August 10, 2016)
Hexagon Manufacturing Intelligence North America announced that its Integrated Solutions Business group will unveil a new-to-the-market a... Read News
100 Manufacturing Technology Consumption Up 24.4 Percent in 2006 (April 22, 2006)
The latest figures available from the American Machine Tool Distributors' Association (AMTDA) and the Association for Manufacturi... Read News
101 Advent Tool & Manufacturing Debuts New Involute Spline Milling Solution (April 22, 2006)
Advent Tool & Manufacturing released its indexable form milling platform for involute splines, spur gears, "V" shaped gears, and various ... Read News
102 SECO/Warwick Provides Furnace for Precision Manufacturing Institute (May 1, 2006)
SECO/Warwick provided Meadville, PA-based Precision Manufacturing Institute with a Universal HPQ furnace for carburizing in a new state-o... Read News
103 Koepfer America 2016 Gear Technology Tour Gives North American Manufacturers Glimpse into European Manufacturing (June 14, 2016)
Following the 2014 tour, Koepfer America has sponsored a group of North American gear manufacturers for the 2016 Gear Technology Tour. Th... Read News
104 Drake Manufacturing and TECNO.team Establish Sales Agreement for Europe (July 14, 2016)
Drake Manufacturing Services Co., LLC and TECNO.team GmbH have formally established a sales agreement for Europe, specifically Austria, B... Read News
105 American Axle & Manufacturing Hires New Manager (April 18, 2006)
Daniel Carleton was hired as manager of global gear program for American Axle & Manufacturing. Carleton has been involved with the ge... Read News
106 HxGN Live 2016 Focuses on Smart Manufacturing (July 21, 2016)
The Manufacturing Intelligence Track at HxGN Live 2016 closed on Thursday, June 16 as attendees joined the final technical sessions after... Read News
107 Emuge Opens New Manufacturing Center (April 13, 2006)
Emuge Corp. moved to its new North American headquarters in West Boylston, MA. According to the company's press release, the new 2... Read News
108 AMT Reports April Manufacturing Technology Orders Down 16.6 Percent from 2015 (July 18, 2016)
Manufacturing technology orders for April 2016 were down 27.5 percent from the same month a year ago, according to the latest U.S. Manufa... Read News
109 ABB Robotics Receives Global Powertrain Manufacturing Excellence Award (December 16, 2015)
ABB Robotics received the Global Powertrain Manufacturing Excellence award from the Ford Motor Company at the Ford Powertrain Manufacturi... Read News
110 DMG-Mori Seiki Release Manufacturing Suite Post Processor (June 24, 2013)
DMG/Mori Seiki recently announced the release of a Mori-APT toolpath-based post processor, available September 2013. The new post process... Read News
111 EMAG Showcases Manufacturing Systems at Technology Days (June 3, 2014)
To celebrate their 20th anniversary, EMAG USA opened its doors to manufacturers and vendors to join them for their open house Technology ... Read News
112 U.S. Patent Office Publishes Solar Manufacturing Patent Application (May 20, 2014)
The management of Solar Manufacturing Inc. and affiliate company Solar Atmospheres Inc., recently announced that Solar Manufacturing inventors... Read News
113 IMTS Preview: Drake Manufacturing Services Co. (August 16, 2012)
In Booth N-6918 at IMTS this year, Drake Manufacturing Services Co. will showcase its latest model GS:TE-LM 200 Linear Motor External Thr... Read News
114 SMT Announces Formation of Smart Manufacturing Technology Japan Ltd. (September 20, 2016)
SMT is proud to announce the formation of Smart Manufacturing Technology Japan LTD. (SMTJ), a subsidiary of SMT. The new office in Japan ... Read News
115 AAM Joins Manufacturing Days as Gold Sponsor (June 4, 2014)
The Alliance for American Manufacturing (AAM) has joined Manufacturing Day 2014 as a Gold Sponsor, supplying the national initiative with... Read News
116 Solar Manufacturing Files for Patent (July 18, 2014)
Solar Manufacturing, Inc. has filed U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 14/120,389 for a High Temperature Vacuum Furnace Heating Element S... Read News
117 Mazak Targets Aerospace and Medical Manufacturing Technology (March 7, 2013)
In support of the growing aerospace and medical industries, Mazak Corporation is hosting a Discover More With Mazak event at its Northeas... Read News
118 IMTS Preview: Drake Manufacturing (August 26, 2014)
Drake Manufacturing (Booth N-6948) will feature demonstrations of automated worm grinding on the GS:TE 200 External Thread Grinder and th... Read News
119 AME to Sponsor Manufacturing Day (July 18, 2014)
The Association for Manufacturing Excellence (AME) is proud to announce that it will be a sponsor of this year's Manufacturing Day. C... Read News
120 Dillon Manufacturing Offers Hard Jaws (April 30, 2014)
Hard jaws from Dillon Manufacturing, Inc., feature diamond shaped serrations for increased pull down effect which reduce part slippage and push back from using a bar feeder... Read News
121 Solar Manufacturing Installs Compact Vacuum Furnace (April 25, 2014)
Solar Manufacturing announces the installation of a new and compact vacuum furnace design located at its Solar Atmospheres of Western Pennsylvania heat treating affiliate company facility in Hermitage, PA... Read News
122 AMT Applauds New Manufacturing Hubs (March 5, 2014)
Speaking to the importance to expand innovation and create job opportunities for Americans, President Obama recently announced the next e... Read News
123 H-D Advanced Manufacturing Acquires Overton Chicago Gear (January 9, 2013)
Hicks Equity Partners and The Riverside Company recently announced that they have partnered with Christopher DiSantis to establish H-D Ad... Read News
124 Seco Tools Hosts Successful Manufacturing Event (January 17, 2013)
Seco Tools, two-time recipient of the National Association for Business Resources “Best and Brightest Companies to Work For” ... Read News
125 Mazak Midwest Event to Showcase Total Manufacturing Solutions (January 21, 2014)
Mazak invites manufacturers to its Discover More with Mazak Midwest event, taking place March 25 – 27 from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. at the ... Read News
126 DMG-Mori Seiki USA Marks Grand Opening of Mori Seiki Manufacturing (November 16, 2012)
On Wednesday, November 7, Dr. Masahiko Mori, president of Mori Seiki Co., Ltd. and a member of the Supervisory Board of Gildemeister AG, ... Read News
127 MTB Expands Manufacturing Facilities (November 9, 2012)
Centrally located near Rockford in Northern Illinois, Machine Tool Builders (MTB), a remanufacturer and recontroller of gear-cutting and ... Read News
128 Solar Manufacturing Issues Podcast on Heating Elements (April 7, 2014)
Solar Manufacturing published the latest podcast in its bimonthly series in cooperation with Industrial Heating called “Vacuum Heat Treat Minute."... Read News
129 The Manufacturing Institute Partners with PMPA on Machine Training Program (October 11, 2012)
The Manufacturing Institute has partnered with the Precision Machined Products Association, Right Skills Now, a fast-track machining trai... Read News
130 Dayton Progress Celebrates National Manufacturing Day (October 18, 2012)
Dayton Progress Corporation participated in National Manufacturing Day on October 5th by opening its doors and hosting educational open h... Read News
131 Dillon Manufacturing, Inc. Will Feature its Hard Jaws at Houstex (November 18, 2014)
Dillon Manufacturing, Inc. announced that it's hard jaws will be featured in Houstex booth #127. Hard jaws from Dillon Manufactu... Read News
132 H-D Advanced Manufacturing Acquires Intellifuse Technologies LLC (December 16, 2014)
H-D Advanced Manufacturing recently announced that it acquired Intellifuse Technologies LLC, the sixth acquisition completed by H-D in th... Read News
133 DMG-Mori Seiki Open Doors for Manufacturing Days Event (August 21, 2013)
DMG/Mori Seiki is pleased to announce registration is now open for its first Manufacturing Days event. The four-day, complimentary event ... Read News
134 Polygon Solutions Hosts National Manufacturing Day Event (October 8, 2013)
As part of their 2013 National Manufacturing Day event activities, rotary broach manufacturer Polygon Solutions Inc. had a plant tour, te... Read News
135 Fairfield Manufacturing Makes Commitment to Indiana (December 29, 2010)
Fairfield Manufacturing will make a $53.1 million capital investment over the next three years at its Lafayette plant. The announcement w... Read News
136 Drake Manufacturing Recognized with Nexteer Supplier Award (March 12, 2015)
Drake Manufacturing Services Co., LLC, was recently recognized during an awards presentation at the Nexteer 2014 Indirect Supplier Confer... Read News
137 AMT Applauds Manufacturing Legislation (October 4, 2010)
The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT) recently released a statement supporting President Obama's signing of the Small Bu... Read News
138 U.S. Speed Changer, Industrial High-Speed Drive, and Gear Manufacturing Industry Shipment (June 12, 2015)
This latest Speed Changer, Industrial High-Speed Drive, and Gear Manufacturing Industry report provides the most updated market research ... Read News
139 Klobuchar Outlines Revitalization in U.S. Manufacturing (December 23, 2013)
U.S. Senator Amy Klobuchar (D-MN), vice chair of the U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee, recently released a new report detailing the... Read News
140 Manufacturing Museum Must See at IMTS (August 16, 2010)
Artifacts on loan from the American Precision Museum, located in Windsor, Vermont, will entertain and engage visitors on the history of m... Read News
141 Riten Industries Now Capable of Repairing and Remanufacturing Tailstocks for Lathes and Grinders (July 23, 2015)
Riten Industries recently announced the capability to repair and remanufacture tailstocks for lathes and grinders from all manufacturers.... Read News
142 Mazak Honored for Manufacturing Investments (May 22, 2013)
In recognition of the expansions of its North American Headquarters campus in Florence, Kentucky, Mazak Corporation received the Cincinna... Read News
143 Interactive Manufacturing Experience Charts New Course for U.S. Manufacturing (February 28, 2011)
From some of the United States' largest industrial technology innovators to the heads of small machine shops and providers of workhol... Read News
144 Microprecision Opens Manufacturing Plant in India (May 14, 2013)
Driven by local demand, primarily in the burgeoning aerospace sector, specialist precision gear manufacturer Microprecision has officiall... Read News
145 PMA to Host Inaugural Women in Manufacturing Symposium (September 16, 2011)
More than 150 women executives, managers and supervisors will gather in Cleveland, Ohio, on October 25-26, 2011 for the first annual Wome... Read News
146 imX: A Formula for Manufacturing Success (October 5, 2011)
From September 12-14, the Las Vegas Convention Center looked nothing like your typical technology exhibition. The Interactive Manufacturi... Read News
147 Drake Manufacturing Enjoys Export Surge with Thread Grinder (May 23, 2011)
Drake Manufacturing Services Co. is enjoying a surge in exports to Chinese manufacturers, with orders in hand for more than 25 machines. ... Read News
148 Aerobraze Promotes Hetzer to Director of Manufacturing (March 14, 2011)
Aerobraze Engineered Technologies, a division of Wall Colmonoy, recently announced that Joe Hetzer has been promoted to general manager f... Read News
149 Manufacturing Summer Camps Entice America's Youth (March 2, 2011)
Nuts, Bolts and Thingamajigs (NBT) and the National Association for Community College Entrepreneurship (NACCE) have partnered togeth... Read News
150 Solar Atmospheres and Solar Manufacturing Release Reference Manual (March 3, 2011)
In a joint effort, Solar Atmospheres and Solar Manufacturing recently produced an updated booklet titled Critical Melting Points and Refe... Read News
151 SME Seeks Manufacturing Technologies (March 11, 2011)
"Innovations That Could Change the Way You Manufacture" is an SME member-driven program, which showcases new and emerging techn... Read News
152 NIMS Announces Two New Accreditations of High School Precision Manufacturing Programs (December 10, 2015)
NIMS is pleased to announce accreditation of the Precision Manufacturing Programs at South Elgin High School and Streamwood High School. ... Read News