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Articles About metric system

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1 Viewpoint (November/December 1990)

Dear Editor: Your article on the ITC's Report to the President on the condition of the U.S. gear industry (Sept./Oct. issue) was most interesting. I am wondering if the total report neglected to mention that some of our inability to export gears is due to our reluctance to provide metric countries with the metric module-based gears that overseas customers demand.

2 S1 Units Measurements and Equivalencies (September/October 1987)

Throughout the history of civilization attempts have been made to limit the number of the measuring systems in use with the result that today only two systems, English and metric, are practiced in the industrial nations. Globally, the metric system has been gaining ground, and the English system has been losing it. As of 1986, only the United States, Burma and Brunei remain uncommitted to metric conversion in the sense that no government controlled deadlines for the conversion have been established.

3 Product News (August 2014)

The complete Product News section from the August 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

4 Off-Highway Gears (June/July 2013)

Market needs push in 2013, but will it get one? The construction/off-highway industries have been here before. New equipment, technologies and innovations during an economic standstill that some have been dealing with since 2007.

5 Industry News (January/February 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the January/February 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

6 Stock Distribution Optimization in Fixed Setting Hypoid Pinions (July/August 2001)

Face-milled hypoid pinions produced by the three-cut, Fixed Setting system - where roughing is done on one machine and finishing for the concave-OB and convex-IB tooth flanks is done on separate machines with different setups - are still in widespread use today.

7 Analysis and Optimization of Contact Ratio of Asymmetric Gears (March/April 2017)

This article presents an analysis of asymmetric tooth gears considering the effective contact ratio that is also affected by bending and contact tooth deflections. The goal is to find an optimal solution for high performance gear drives, which would combine high load capacity and efficiency, as well as low transmission error (which affects gear noise and vibration).

8 Industry News (July 2014)

The complete Industry News section from the July 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

9 Getting the Right Tools (September/October 2014)

So there is little chance that they need the same software to assist with their work. Gone are the days when companies wrote their own code and process engineers thumbed the same tattered reference book.

10 Tooth Fillet Profile Optimization for Gears with Symmetric and Asymmetric Teeth (September/October 2009)

The gear tooth fillet is an area of maximum bending stress concentration. However, its profile is typically less specified in the gear drawing and hardly controlled during gear inspection in comparison with the gear tooth flanks. This paper presents a fillet profile optimization technique for gears with symmetric and asymmetric teeth based on FEA and a random search method. It allows achieving substantial bending stress reduction in comparison with traditionally designed gears. This bending stress reduction can be traded for higher load capacity, longer lifetime, lower noise and vibration and cost reduction.

11 Product News (July 2016)

News about the Latest Products

12 Product News (January/February 2016)

Latest news about the Latest Products

13 Updating Modern Production Processes (August 2016)

Gear Technology interviews Scott Yoders of Liebherr about the latest gear machining technologies of relevance to automotive manufacturers.

14 Fabrication of Directly Designed Gears with Symmetric and Asymmetric Teeth (November/December 2014)

When compared with the traditional gear design approach — based on pre-selected, typically standard generating rack parameters — the alternative Direct Gear Design method provides certain advantages for custom, high-performance gear drives.

15 Analysis and Testing of Gears with Asymmetric Involute Tooth Form and Optimized Fillet Form for Potential Application in Helicopter Main Drives (June/July 2011)

Gears with an asymmetric involute gear tooth form were analyzed to determine their bending and contact stresses relative to symmetric involute gear tooth designs, which are representative of helicopter main-drive gears.

16 Measurement of Directly Designed Gears with Symmetric and Asymmetric Teeth (January/February 2011)

In comparison with the traditional gear design approach based on preselected, typically standard generating rack parameters, the Direct Gear Design method provides certain advantages for custom high-performance gear drives that include: increased load capacity, efficiency and lifetime; reduced size, weight, noise, vibrations, cost, etc. However, manufacturing such directly designed gears requires not only custom tooling, but also customization of the gear measurement methodology. This paper presents definitions of main inspection dimensions and parameters for directly designed spur and helical, external and internal gears with symmetric and asymmetric teeth.

17 Area of Existence of Involute Gears (January/February 2010)

This paper presents a unique approach and methodology to define the limits of selection for gear parameters. The area within those limits is called the “area of existence of involute gears” (Ref. 1). This paper presents the definition and construction of areas of existence of both external and internal gears. The isograms of the constant operating pressure angles, contact ratios and the maximum mesh efficiency (minimum sliding) isograms, as well as the interference isograms and other parameters are defined. An area of existence allows the location of gear pairs with certain characteristics. Its practical purpose is to define the gear pair parameters that satisfy specific performance requirements before detailed design and calculations. An area of existence of gears with asymmetric teeth is also considered.

18 Gear Transmission Density Maximization (November/December 2011)

This paper presents an approach that provides optimization of both gearbox kinematic arrangement and gear tooth geometry to achieve a high-density gear transmission. It introduces dimensionless gearbox volume functions that can be minimized by the internal gear ratio optimization. Different gearbox arrangements are analyzed to define a minimum of the volume functions. Application of asymmetric gear tooth profiles for power density maximization is also considered.

19 Asymmetric Gears: Parameter Selection Approach (June/July 2012)

In many gear transmissions, a tooth load on one flank is significantly higher and is applied for longer periods of time than for the opposite one; an asymmetric tooth shape reflects this functional difference. This paper describes an approach that rationalizes the degree of asymmetry (or asymmetry factor K) selection to meet a variety of operating conditions and requirements for custom gear drives.

20 Asymmetric Teeth: Bending Stress Calculation (March/April 2007)

This article includes a brief summary of the characteristics of involute asymmetric teeth and the problems connected with the related bending tests.

21 Structural Analysis of Asymmetrical Teeth: Reduction of Size and Weight (September/October 1997)

The present article contains a preliminary description of studies carried out by the authors with a view toward developing asymmetrical gear teeth. Then a comparison between numerous symmetrical and asymmetrical tooth stress fields under the same modular conditions follows. This leads to the formulation of a rule for similar modules governing variations of stress fields, depending on the pressure angle of the nonactive side. Finally a procedure allowing for calculations for percentage reductions of asymmetrical tooth modules with respect to corresponding symmetrical teeth, maximum ideal stress being equal, is proposed. Then the consequent reductions in size and weight of asymmetrical teeth are assessed.

22 Structural Analysis of Teeth With Asymmetrical Profiles (July/August 1997)

This article illustrates a structural analysis of asymmetrical teeth. This study was carried out because of the impossibility of applying traditional calculations to procedures involved in the specific case. In particular, software for the automatic generation of meshes was devised because existing software does not produce results suitable for the new geometrical model required. Having carried out the structural calculations, a comparative study of the stress fields of symmetrical and asymmetrical teeth was carried out. The structural advantages of the latter type of teeth emerged.

23 Application of Gears with Asymmetric Teeth in Turboprop Engine Gearbox (January/February 2008)

This paper describes the research and development of the first production gearbox with asymmetric tooth profiles for the TV7-117S turboprop engine. The paper also presents numerical design data related to development of this gearbox.