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Articles About metrology
It is very common for those working in the gear manufacturing industry to have only a limited understanding of the fundamental principals of involute helicoid gear metrology, the tendency being to leave the topic to specialists in the gear lab. It is well known that quiet, reliable gears can only be made using the information gleaned from proper gear metrology.
Gear metrology is a revolving door of software packages and system upgrades. It has to be in order to keep up with the productivity and development processes of the machines on the manufacturing floor. Temperature compensation, faster inspection times and improved software packages are just a few of the advancements currently in play as companies prepare for new opportunities in areas like alternative energy, automotive and aerospace/defense.
I noted with interest the beginning of Gear Technology's three-part series on ISO 9000 certification. I also recently attended Brown & Sharpe's/Leitz gear metrology seminar. Both events caused me to smile and reflect.
In recent years, gear inspection requirements have changed considerably, but inspection methods have barely kept pace. The gap is especially noticeable in bevel gears, whose geometry has always made testing them a complicated, expensive and time-consuming process. Present roll test methods for determining flank form and quality of gear sets are hardly applicable to bevel gears at all, and the time, expense and sophistication required for coordinate measurement has limited its use to gear development, with only sampling occurring during production.
What does it mean to make "better" gears? Better gears more closely resemble the intended design parameters.
In 1993, M & M Precision Systems was awarded a three-year, partial grant from the Advanced Technology Program of the Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Working with Pennsylvania State University, M&M embarked on a technology development project to advance gear measurement capabilities to levels of accuracy never before achieved.
In the last section, we discussed gear inspection; the types of errors found by single and double flank composite and analytical tests; involute geometry; the involute cam and the causes and symptoms of profile errors. In this section, we go into tooth alignment and line of contact issues including lead, helix angles, pitch, pitchline runout, testing and errors in pitch and alignment.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) announced at Gear Expo '95 that a national service for the calibration of involute artifacts is now available at the Department of Energy's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN.
Metrology is a vital component of gear manufacturing. Recent changes in this area, due in large part to the advent of computers, are highlighted in this article by comparison with more traditional methods.
The purpose of gear inspection is to: Assure required accuracy and quality, Lower overall cost of manufacture by controlling rejects and scrap, Control machines and machining practices and maintain produced accuracy as machines and tools wear, Determine hear treat distortions to make necessary corrections.
It may not be widely recognized that most of the inspection data supplied by inspection equipment, following the practices of AGMA Standard 2015 and similar standards, are not of elemental accuracy deviations but of some form of composite deviations. This paper demonstrates the validity of this “composite” label by first defining the nature of a true elemental deviation and then, by referring to earlier literature, demonstrating how the common inspection practices for involute, lead (on helical gears), pitch, and, in some cases, total accumulated pitch, constitute composite measurements.
The complete Product News section from the October 2012 issue of Gear Technology.
A reader clarifies technology presented in the March/April 2011 issue.
When parts you manufacture pass through numerous processes such as deep hole drilling, machining, hobbing and grinding, a CMM is essential when your customers require 100 percent in-process and final inspection.
The status on traceability of gear artifacts in the United States.
This section is dedicated to what's new and what's happening in the world of gear inspection and metrology. Here you will find news about products, companies and organizations, services and events affecting the gear inspection and metrology industry.
The trend toward moving coordinate measuring machines to the shop floor to become an integral part of the manufacturing operations brings real time process control within the reach of many companies. Putting measuring machines on the shop floor, however, subjects them to harsh environmental conditions. Like any measuring system, CMMs are sensitive to any ambient condition that deviates from the "perfect" conditions of the metrology lab.
The working surfaces of gear teeth are often the result of several machining operations. The surface texture imparted by the manufacturing process affects many of the gear's functional characteristics. To ensure proper operation of the final assembly, a gear's surface texture characteristics, such as waviness and roughness, can be evaluated with modern metrology instruments.
I support Clem Miller (Viewpoint May/June) in his skepticism of ISO 9000. The metrology of gears is important, but in the present state of the art, manufacture is more accurate than design.
The German National Metrology Institute has developed a novel calibration concept that allows for highly accurate calibration of product-like artifacts.
News Items About metrology
1 Milwaukee Machine Works Purchases Hexagon Metrology CMM (March 7, 2011)
Hexagon Metrology, Inc. has announced that precision component manufacturer Milwaukee Machine Works has purchased a Leitz PMM-G ultra-acc... Read News
2 IPTEX 2012 Preview: Trimos Metrology (January 30, 2012)
Trimos Metrology is engaged in the marketing and servicing of precision measuring instruments and systems used for quality assurance with... Read News
3 Gleason Introduces Gleason Metrology Systems (September 10, 2010)
Gleason Corporation recently announced that it has changed the name of its subsidiary in West Carrollton, Ohio from Gleason M&M Preci... Read News
4 Veeco to Display Surface Metrology System at IMTS (September 8, 2010)
In booth# E-5439, Veeco Instruments Inc. will display its NPFLEX 3-D Metrology System for characterizing surfaces previously too difficul... Read News
5 Hexagon Metrology Debuts CNC Measuring Arm at Fabtech (January 19, 2005)
Hexagon Metrology introduced a new CNC articulated measuring arm at Fabtech that president and CEO William Gruber calls ?our version of a... Read News
6 Mahr Federal Displays Metrology Systems at Mfg 4 (April 5, 2012)
Mahr Federal will be featuring the addition of an economical and powerful new skidless surface evaluation system to its MarSurf line of m... Read News
7 IMTS Preview: Nikon Metrology (June 22, 2012)
Nikon Metrology CMMs leverage the productivity gains offered by Renishaw's five-axis REVO probe system. REVO is a dynamic probe syste... Read News
8 Hexagon Metrology Releases PC-DMIS Gear (February 26, 2013)
Hexagon Metrology announces the release of PC-DMIS Gear 2.5, a sophisticated software module, designed for basic and advanced gear meas... Read News
9 Carl Zeiss Appoints Kirchner President of Industrial Metrology Group (January 10, 2013)
Carl Zeiss announces the appointment of Michael Kirchner as the new president for the Industrial Metrology group in North America effecti... Read News
10 Heidenhain Offers Metrology Software (August 24, 2012)
Heidenhain announces the latest version of their PC-based Quadra-Chek Metrology software providing advanced functionality for inspection ... Read News
11 IMTS Preview: Hexagon Metrology (June 27, 2012)
Hexagon Metrology Inc. will feature innovations in measurement automation at IMTS (International Manufacturing Technology Show) 2012 bein... Read News
12 Kapp Named North American Distributor for R&P Metrology (March 15, 2013)
Kapp Technologies has announced it will be the distributor of Rauth-Pumm Metrology Equipment (R&P) for North America. Rauth-Pumm Metr... Read News