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It is very common for those working in the gear manufacturing industry to have only a limited understanding of the fundamental principals of involute helicoid gear metrology, the tendency being to leave the topic to specialists in the gear lab. It is well known that quiet, reliable gears can only be made using the information gleaned from proper gear metrology.
Gear metrology is a revolving door of software packages and system upgrades. It has to be in order to keep up with the productivity and development processes of the machines on the manufacturing floor. Temperature compensation, faster inspection times and improved software packages are just a few of the advancements currently in play as companies prepare for new opportunities in areas like alternative energy, automotive and aerospace/defense.
I noted with interest the beginning of Gear Technology's three-part series on ISO 9000 certification. I also recently attended Brown & Sharpe's/Leitz gear metrology seminar. Both events caused me to smile and reflect.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) announced at Gear Expo '95 that a national service for the calibration of involute artifacts is now available at the Department of Energy's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN.
In 1993, M & M Precision Systems was awarded a three-year, partial grant from the Advanced Technology Program of the Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Working with Pennsylvania State University, M&M embarked on a technology development project to advance gear measurement capabilities to levels of accuracy never before achieved.
In the last section, we discussed gear inspection; the types of errors found by single and double flank composite and analytical tests; involute geometry; the involute cam and the causes and symptoms of profile errors. In this section, we go into tooth alignment and line of contact issues including lead, helix angles, pitch, pitchline runout, testing and errors in pitch and alignment.
What does it mean to make "better" gears? Better gears more closely resemble the intended design parameters.
In recent years, gear inspection requirements have changed considerably, but inspection methods have barely kept pace. The gap is especially noticeable in bevel gears, whose geometry has always made testing them a complicated, expensive and time-consuming process. Present roll test methods for determining flank form and quality of gear sets are hardly applicable to bevel gears at all, and the time, expense and sophistication required for coordinate measurement has limited its use to gear development, with only sampling occurring during production.
Metrology is a vital component of gear manufacturing. Recent changes in this area, due in large part to the advent of computers, are highlighted in this article by comparison with more traditional methods.
Measurement institutions of seven different countries — China, Germany, Japan, Thailand, Ukraine, United Kingdom and the U.S. — participated in the implementation of the first international comparison of involute gear measurement standards. The German metrology institute Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) was chosen as the pilot laboratory as well as the organizer. Three typical involute gear measurement standards provided by the PTB were deployed for this comparison: a profile, a helix and a pitch measurement standard. In the final analysis, of the results obtained from all participants, the weighted mean was evaluated as reference value for all 28 measured parameters. However, besides the measurement standards, the measured parameters, and, most importantly, some of the comparison results from all participants are anonymously presented. Furthermore, mishandling of the measurement standards as occurred during the comparison will be illustrated.
The complete Product News section from the July 2014 issue of Gear Technology.
The complete Industry News section from the September / October 2014 issue of Gear Technology.
Part I of this paper, which appeared in the January/February issue of Gear Technology, described the theory behind double-flank composite inspection. It detailed the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. The concluding Part II presents a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection -- especially for large-volume operations. It also addresses statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.
Compact, custom and portable solutions are gaining more attention in manufacturing today as companies seek out the tools that offer the greatest productivity gains on the shop floor. Gear inspection seems to be following suit.
The complete product news section from the September / October 2014 Issue Gear Technology.
An in-depth look at the major booths with the latest technology used in gear manufacturing.
GT Videos featuring R&P Metrology, the latest from our Twitter and LinkedIn feeds and an introduction to gearboxfailure.com
The complete Product News section from the August 2014 issue of Gear Technology.
The complete Product News Section from the August 2013 issue of Gear Technology.
A reader clarifies technology presented in the March/April 2011 issue.
The complete Product News section from the January/February 2014 issue of Gear Technology.
It may not be widely recognized that most of the inspection data supplied by inspection equipment, following the practices of AGMA Standard 2015 and similar standards, are not of elemental accuracy deviations but of some form of composite deviations. This paper demonstrates the validity of this “composite” label by first defining the nature of a true elemental deviation and then, by referring to earlier literature, demonstrating how the common inspection practices for involute, lead (on helical gears), pitch, and, in some cases, total accumulated pitch, constitute composite measurements.
The purpose of gear inspection is to: Assure required accuracy and quality, Lower overall cost of manufacture by controlling rejects and scrap, Control machines and machining practices and maintain produced accuracy as machines and tools wear, Determine hear treat distortions to make necessary corrections.
When parts you manufacture pass through numerous processes such as deep hole drilling, machining, hobbing and grinding, a CMM is essential when your customers require 100 percent in-process and final inspection.
The complete Product News section from the June/July 2013 issue of Gear Technology.
Video from Hexagon Metrology, Back-to-Basics archive, e-mail newsletter updates and what's happening on LinkedIn
The complete Product News section from the October 2012 issue of Gear Technology.
The status on traceability of gear artifacts in the United States.
This section is dedicated to what's new and what's happening in the world of gear inspection and metrology. Here you will find news about products, companies and organizations, services and events affecting the gear inspection and metrology industry.
The trend toward moving coordinate measuring machines to the shop floor to become an integral part of the manufacturing operations brings real time process control within the reach of many companies. Putting measuring machines on the shop floor, however, subjects them to harsh environmental conditions. Like any measuring system, CMMs are sensitive to any ambient condition that deviates from the "perfect" conditions of the metrology lab.
The working surfaces of gear teeth are often the result of several machining operations. The surface texture imparted by the manufacturing process affects many of the gear's functional characteristics. To ensure proper operation of the final assembly, a gear's surface texture characteristics, such as waviness and roughness, can be evaluated with modern metrology instruments.
I support Clem Miller (Viewpoint May/June) in his skepticism of ISO 9000. The metrology of gears is important, but in the present state of the art, manufacture is more accurate than design.
The German National Metrology Institute has developed a novel calibration concept that allows for highly accurate calibration of product-like artifacts.
News Items About metrology
1 R&P Metrology Offers Special Measuring System (March 7, 2014)
Responding to specific customer requirements, R&P Metrology GmbH announced a new model in their full line of custom metrology systems... Read News
2 R&P Metrology Announces 1600DS Measuring Machine (February 7, 2014)
R&P Metrology GmbH announced a new model in their full line of metrology systems, the RPG 1600DS. This system is designed for gears u... Read News
3 Mahr Federal Displays Metrology Systems at Mfg 4 (April 5, 2012)
Mahr Federal will be featuring the addition of an economical and powerful new skidless surface evaluation system to its MarSurf line of m... Read News
4 IMTS Preview: Hexagon Metrology (June 27, 2012)
Hexagon Metrology Inc. will feature innovations in measurement automation at IMTS (International Manufacturing Technology Show) 2012 bein... Read News
5 Heidenhain Offers Metrology Software (August 24, 2012)
Heidenhain announces the latest version of their PC-based Quadra-Chek Metrology software providing advanced functionality for inspection ... Read News
6 IMTS Preview: Nikon Metrology (June 22, 2012)
Nikon Metrology CMMs leverage the productivity gains offered by Renishaw's five-axis REVO probe system. REVO is a dynamic probe syste... Read News
7 IPTEX 2012 Preview: Trimos Metrology (January 30, 2012)
Trimos Metrology is engaged in the marketing and servicing of precision measuring instruments and systems used for quality assurance with... Read News
8 Hexagon Metrology Debuts CNC Measuring Arm at Fabtech (January 19, 2005)
Hexagon Metrology introduced a new CNC articulated measuring arm at Fabtech that president and CEO William Gruber calls ?our version of a... Read News
9 Veeco to Display Surface Metrology System at IMTS (September 8, 2010)
In booth# E-5439, Veeco Instruments Inc. will display its NPFLEX 3-D Metrology System for characterizing surfaces previously too difficul... Read News
10 Gleason Introduces Gleason Metrology Systems (September 10, 2010)
Gleason Corporation recently announced that it has changed the name of its subsidiary in West Carrollton, Ohio from Gleason M&M Preci... Read News
11 Milwaukee Machine Works Purchases Hexagon Metrology CMM (March 7, 2011)
Hexagon Metrology, Inc. has announced that precision component manufacturer Milwaukee Machine Works has purchased a Leitz PMM-G ultra-acc... Read News
12 Carl Zeiss Appoints Kirchner President of Industrial Metrology Group (January 10, 2013)
Carl Zeiss announces the appointment of Michael Kirchner as the new president for the Industrial Metrology group in North America effecti... Read News
13 Kapp Named North American Distributor for R&P Metrology (March 15, 2013)
Kapp Technologies has announced it will be the distributor of Rauth-Pumm Metrology Equipment (R&P) for North America. Rauth-Pumm Metr... Read News
14 R&P Metrology Announces RPC 700 (June 17, 2014)
R&P Metrology GmbH has announced the new RPC 700. The RPC 700 is a new, smaller development based on well?proven technologies, extend... Read News
15 Pentagear Products Acquires PECo ND Gear Metrology Division (June 30, 2014)
Pentagear Products LLC, an Ohio-based company, has acquired Process Equipment Company (PECo) ND Gear Metrology Division effective June 27... Read News
16 IMTS Preview: Hexagon Metrology (July 18, 2014)
Hexagon Metrology recently launched PC-DMIS 2014, a major release of its measurement software used for the collection, evaluation, manage... Read News
17 SMS Siemag Chooses R&P Metrology for Gear Inspection (June 10, 2014)
SMS Siemag AG understands that to be competitive in today’s global business requires state of the art equipment and technology. Tha... Read News
18 Hexagon Metrology Offers Next Generation of Romer Absolute Arm (April 8, 2014)
Hexagon Metrology recently announced the next generation of the Romer Absolute Arm. The enhanced portable measuring arm features optimized ergonomics... Read News
19 IMTS Preview: Zeiss Industrial Metrology (August 13, 2014)
Zeiss Industrial Metrology is introducing at IMTS (Booth #E-5504) the latest generation of the successful Zeiss Contura. This system prov... Read News
20 Mark Releases Book on Gear Metrology (August 1, 2013)
Performance-Based Gear Metrology: Kinematic-Transmission-Error Computation and Diagnosis, written by William Mark, Ph.D., is a mathematic... Read News
21 R&P Metrology Announces CMM Capabilities for Portable Gear Inspection (January 13, 2014)
R&P Metrology GmbH announced new measurement capabilities for the RPG PM 750/1250 Portable Gear Metrology machines. When the system i... Read News
22 Hexagon Metrology Releases PC-DMIS Gear (February 26, 2013)
Hexagon Metrology announces the release of PC-DMIS Gear 2.5, a sophisticated software module, designed for basic and advanced gear meas... Read News