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Articles About plastic bending stress design wear FEA


1 Tooth-Bending Effects in Plastic Spur Gears (September/October 2007)

This paper describes the investigation of a steel-and-plastic gear transmission and presents a new hypothesis on the governing mechanism in the wear of plastic gears.

2 Tooth Root Optimization of Powder Metal Gears - Reducing Stress from Bending and Transient Loads (June/July 2013)

This paper will provide examples of stress levels from conventional root design using a hob and stress levels using an optimized root design that is now possible with PM manufacturing. The paper will also investigate how PM can reduce stresses in the root from transient loads generated by abusive driving.

3 A Rational Procedure for Designing Minimum-Weight Gears (November/December 1991)

A simple, closed-form procedure is presented for designing minimum-weight spur and helical gearsets. The procedure includes methods for optimizing addendum modification for maximum pitting and wear resistance, bending strength, or scuffing resistance.

4 True Bending Stress in Spur Gears (August 2007)

In this paper, an accurate FEM analysis has been done of the “true” stress at tooth root of spur gears in the function of the gear geometry. The obtained results confirm the importance of these differences.

5 Dynamic Analysis of Straight and Involute Tooth Form (July/August 1985)

The effect of load speed on straight and involute tooth forms is studied using several finite-element models.

6 New Developments in TCA and Loaded TCA (May 2007)

How the latest techniques and software enable faster spiral bevel and hypoid design and development.

7 Analysis and Testing of Gears with Asymmetric Involute Tooth Form and Optimized Fillet Form for Potential Application in Helicopter Main Drives (June/July 2011)

Gears with an asymmetric involute gear tooth form were analyzed to determine their bending and contact stresses relative to symmetric involute gear tooth designs, which are representative of helicopter main-drive gears.

8 Endurance Limit for Contact Stress in Gears (October/November 1984)

With the publishing of various ISO draft standards relating to gear rating procedures, there has been much discussion in technical papers concerning the various load modification factors. One of the most basic of parameters affecting the rating of gears, namely the endurance limit for either contact or bending stress, has not, however, attracted a great deal of attention.

9 Comparing Surface Failure Modes in Bearings and Gears: Appearances vs. Mechanisms (July/August 1992)

In the 1960's and early 1970's, considerable work was done to identify the various modes of damage that ended the lives of rolling element bearings. A simple summary of all the damage modes that could lead to failure is given in Table 1. In bearing applications that have insufficient or improper lubricant, or have contaminants (water, solid particles) or poor sealing, failure, such as excessive wear or vibration or corrosion, may occur, rather than contact fatigue. Usually other components in the overall system besides bearings also suffer. Over the years, builders of transmissions, axles, and gear boxes that comprise such systems have understood the need to improve the operating environment within such units, so that some system life improvements have taken place.

10 Effect of Web & Flange Thickness on Nonmetallic Gear Performance (November/December 1995)

Gears are manufactured with thin rims for several reasons. Steel gears are manufactured with thin rims and webs where low weight is important. Nonmetallic gears, manufactured by injection molding, are designed with thin rims as part of the general design rule to maintain uniform thickness to ensure even post-mold cooling. When a thin-rimmed gear fails, the fracture is thought the root of the gear, as shown in Fig. 1a, rather than the usual fillet failure shown in Fig. 1b.

11 An Investigation of the Influence of Shaft Misalignment on Bending Stresses of Helical Gears with Lead Crown (November/December 2008)

In this study, the combined influence of shaft misalignments and gear lead crown on load distribution and tooth bending stresses is investigated. Upon conclusion, the experimental results are correlated with predictions of a gear load distribution model, and recommendations are provided for optimal lead crown in a given misalignment condition.

12 Plastic Gear Design Basics (July/August 1996)

Plastic gears are serious alternatives to traditional metal gears in a wide variety of applications. The use of plastic gears has expanded from low-power, precision motion transmission into more demanding power transmission applications. As designers push the limits of acceptable plastic gear applications, more is learned about the behavior of plastics in gearing and how to take advantage of their unique characteristics.

13 Asymmetric Teeth: Bending Stress Calculation (March/April 2007)

This article includes a brief summary of the characteristics of involute asymmetric teeth and the problems connected with the related bending tests.

14 The Efficiency Experts (September/October 2010)

Bradley University and Winzeler Gear collaborate on the design and development of an urban light vehicle.

15 Generating Interchangeable 20-Degree Spur Gear Sets with Circular Fillets to Increase Load Carrying Capacity (July/August 2006)

This article presents a new spur gear 20-degree design that works interchangeably with the standard 20-degree system and achieves increased tooth bending strength and hence load carrying capacity.

16 Tooth Strength Study of Spur Planet Gears (September/October 1986)

In the design of any new gear drive, the performance of previous similar designs is very carefully considered. In the course of evaluating one such new design, the authors were faced with the task of comparing it with two similar existing systems, both of which were operating quite successfully. A problem arose, however, when it was realized that the bending stress levels of the two baselines differed substantially. In order to investigate these differences and realistically compare them to the proposed new design, a three-dimensional finite-element method (FEM) approach was applied to all three gears.

17 The Design and Manufacture of Machined Plastic Gears (May/June 1985)

The use of plastic gearing is increasing steadily in new products. This is due in part to the availability of recent design data. Fatigue stress of plastic gears as a function of diametral pitch, pressure angle, pitch line velocity, lubrication and life cycles are described based on test information. Design procedures for plastic gears are presented.

18 Point-Surface-Origin Macropitting Caused by Geometric Stress Concentration (January/February 2011)

Point-surface-origin (PSO) macropitting occurs at sites of geometric stress concentration (GSC) such as discontinuities in the gear tooth profile caused by micropitting, cusps at the intersection of the involute profile and the trochoidal root fillet, and at edges of prior tooth damage, such as tip-to-root interference. When the profile modifications in the form of tip relief, root relief, or both, are inadequate to compensate for deflection of the gear mesh, tip-to-root interference occurs. The interference can occur at either end of the path of contact, but the damage is usually more severe near the start-of-active-profile (SAP) of the driving gear.

19 The Design and Manufacture of Plastic Gears Part II (July/August 1985)

Advancements in machining and assembly techniques of thermoplastic gearing along with new design data has lead to increased useage of polymeric materials. information on state of the art methods in fabrication of plastic gearing is presented and the importance of a proper backlash allowance at installation is discussed. Under controlled conditions, cast nylon gears show 8-14 dBA. lower noise level than three other gear materials tested.

20 Crowning Techniques in Aerospace Actuation Gearing (August 2010)

One of the most effective methods in solving the edge loading problem due to excess misalignment and deflection in aerospace actuation gearing is to localize tooth-bearing contact by crowning the teeth. Irrespective of the applied load, if the misalignment and/or deflection are large enough to cause the contact area to reduce to zero, the stress becomes large enough to cause failure. The edge loading could cause the teeth to break or pit, but too much crowning may also cause the teeth to pit due to concentrated loading. In this paper, a proposed method to localize the contact bearing area and calculate the contact stress with crowning is presented and demonstrated on some real-life examples in aerospace actuation systems.

21 Allowable Contact Stresses in Jacking Gear Units Used in the Offshore Industry (May 2010)

An offshore jack-up drilling rig is a barge upon which a drilling platform is placed. The barge has legs that can be lowered to the sea floor to support the rig. Then the barge can be “jacked up” out of the water, providing a stable work platform from which to drill for oil and gas. Jack-up drilling rigs were first introduced in the late 1950s. Rack-and- pinion-type jack-up units were introduced soon after that and have dominated the industry ever since.

22 Investigation of the Strength of Gear Teeth (November/December 1992)

To mechanical engineers, the strength of gear teeth is a question of constant recurrence, and although the problem to be solved is quite elementary in character, probably no other question could be raised upon which such a diversity of opinion exists, and in support of which such an array of rules and authorities might be quoted. In 1879, Mr. John H. Cooper, the author of a well-known work on "Belting," made an examination of the subject and found there were then in existence about forty-eight well-established rules for horsepower and working strength, sanctioned by some twenty-four authorities, and differing from each other in extreme causes of 500%. Since then, a number of new rules have been added, but as no rules have been given which take account of the actual tooth forms in common use, and as no attempt has been made to include in any formula the working stress on the material so that the engineer may see at once upon what assumption a given result is based, I trust I may be pardoned for suggesting that a further investigation is necessary or desirable.

23 The Use of Boundary Elements For The Determination of the AGMA Geometry Factor (January/February 1988)

The geometry factor, which is a fundamental part of the AGMA strength rating of gears, is currently computed using the Lewis parabola which allows computation of the Lewis form factor.(1) The geometry factor is obtained from this Lewis factor and load sharing ratio. This method, which originally required graphical construction methods and more recently has been computerized, works reasonably well for external gears with thick rims.(2-6) However, when thin rims are encountered or when evaluating the strength of internal gears, the AGMA method cannot be used.

24 Calculation of Optimum Tooth Flank Corrections for Helical Gears (September/October 1988)

The load carrying behavior of gears is strongly influenced by local stress concentrations in the tooth root and by Hertzian pressure peaks in the tooth flanks produced by geometric deviations associated with manufacturing, assembly and deformation processes. The dynamic effects within the mesh are essentially determined by the engagement shock, the parametric excitation and also by the deviant tooth geometry.

25 Contact Analysis of Gears Using a Combined Finite Element and Surface Integral Method (July/August 1993)

The complete and accurate solution t the contact problem of three-dimensional gears has been, for the past several decades, one of the more sought after, albeit elusive goals in the engineering community. Even the arrival on the scene in the mid-seventies of finite element techniques failed to produce the solution to any but the most simple gear contact problems.

26 High Technology Hobs (January/February 1993)

Today's high technology hobs are visible different from their predecessors. Gear hobs have taken on a different appearance and function with present day technology and tool and material development. This article shows the newer products being offered today and the reasons for investigating their potential for use in today's modern gear hobbers, where cost reduction and higher productivity are wanted.

27 Application Analysis (January/February 1993)

Questions: I have heard the terms "safety factor," "service factor," and "application factor" used in discussing gear design. what are these factors an dhow do they differ from one another? Why are they important?

28 Maximum Life Spiral Bevel Reduction Design (September/October 1993)

Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ration under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque and power. Significant parameters in the design are the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near-optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.

29 The European Rack Shift Coefficient 'X' for Americans (July/August 1993)

The use of dimensionless factors to describe gear tooth geometry seems to have a strong appeal to gear engineers. The stress factors I and J, for instance, are well established in AGMA literature. The use of the rack shift coefficient "x" to describe nonstandard gear proportions is common in Europe, but is not as commonly used in the United States. When it is encountered in the European literature or in the operating manuals for imported machine tools, it can be a source of confusion to the American engineer.

30 Design Guidelines for High-Capacity Bevel Gear Systems (January/February 1992)

The design of any gearing system is a difficult, multifaceted process. When the system includes bevel gearing, the process is further complicated by the complex nature of the bevel gears themselves. In most cases, the design is based on an evaluation of the ratio required for the gear set, the overall envelope geometry, and the calculation of bending and contact stresses for the gear set to determine its load capacity. There are, however, a great many other parameters which must be addressed if the resultant gear system is to be truly optimum. A considerable body of data related to the optimal design of bevel gears has been developed by the aerospace gear design community in general and by the helicopter community in particular. This article provides a summary of just a few design guidelines based on these data in an effort to provide some guidance in the design of bevel gearing so that maximum capacity may be obtained. The following factors, which may not normally be considered in the usual design practice, are presented and discussed in outline form: Integrated gear/shaft/bearing systems Effects of rim thickness on gear tooth stresses Resonant response

31 Designing Hardened & Ground Spur Gears to Operate With Minimum Noise (May/June 1994)

When designing hardened and ground spur gears to operate with minimum noise, what are the parameters to be considered? should tip and/or root relief be applied to both wheel and pinion or only to one member? When pinions are enlarged and he wheel reduced, should tip relief be applied? What are the effects on strength, wear and noise? For given ratios with enlarged pinions and reduced wheels, how can the gear set sized be checked or adjusted to ensure that the best combination has been achieved?

32 Initial Design of Gears Using an Artificial Neural Net (May/June 1993)

Many CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems have been developed and implemented to produce a superior quality design and to increase the design productivity in the gear industry. In general, it is true that a major portion of design tasks can be performed by CAD systems currently available. However, they can only address the computational aspects of gear design that typically require decision-making as well. In most industrial gear design practices, the initial design is the critical task that significantly effects the final results. However, the decisions about estimating or changing gear size parameters must be made by a gear design expert.

33 Hob Basics Part II (November/December 1993)

This is Part II of a two-part series on the basics of gear hobbing. Part I discussed selection of the correct type of hobbing operation, the design features of hobs and hob accuracy. This part will cover sharpening errors and finish hob design considerations.

34 The Involute Helicoid and The Universal Gear (November/December 1990)

A universal gear is one generated by a common rack on a cylindrical, conical, or planar surface, and whose teeth can be oriented parallel or skewed, centered, or offset, with respect to its axes. Mating gear axes can be parallel or crossed, non-intersecting or intersecting, skewed or parallel, and can have any angular orientation (See Fig.1) The taper gear is a universal gear. It provides unique geometric properties and a range of applications unmatched by any other motion transmission element. (See Fig.2) The taper gear can be produced by any rack-type tool generator or hobbing machine which has a means of tilting the cutter or work axis and/or coordinating simultaneous traverse and infeed motions.

35 Helical Gear Mathematics Formulas and Examples (May/June 1988)

The following excerpt is from the Revised Manual of Gear Design, Section III, covering helical and spiral gears. This section on helical gear mathematics shows the detailed solutions to many general helical gearing problems. In each case, a definite example has been worked out to illustrate the solution. All equations are arranged in their most effective form for use on a computer or calculating machine.

36 Helical Gear Mathematics, Formulas and Examples Part II (July/August 1988)

The following excerpt is from the Revised Manual of Gear Design, Section III, covering helical and spiral gears. This section on helical gear mathematics shows the detailed solutions to many general helical gearing problems. In each case, a definite example has been worked out to illustrate the solution. All equations are arranged in their most effective form for use on a computer or calculating machine.

37 Involutometry (September/October 1988)

Involute Curve Fundamentals. Over the years many different curves have been considered for the profile of a gear tooth. Today nearly every gear tooth uses as involute profile. The involute curve may be described as the curve generated by the end of a string that is unwrapped from a cylinder. (See Fig. 1) The circumference of the cylinder is called the base circle.

38 The Elementary Theory for the Synthesis of Constant Direction Pointing Chariots (or Rotation Neutralizers) (November/December 1988)

The south-pointing chariot exhibited at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., (circa 2600 BC)is shown in Fig. 1. Although the mechanism is ancient, it is by no means either primitive or simplistic. The pin-tooth gears drive a complex system, wherein the monk on the top of the chariot continues to point in a preset direction, no matter what direction the vehicle in moved, without a slip of the wheels.(1)

39 KHV Planetary Gearing - Part II (January/February 1988)

Consisting of only a ring gear b meshing with one or two planets a, a carrier H and an equal velocity mechanism V, a KHV gearing(Fig. 1) is compact in structure, small in size and capable of providing a large speed ratio. For a single stage, its speed ratio can reach up to 200, and its size is approximately 1/4 that of a conventional multi-stage gear box.

40 Describing Nonstandard Gears - An Alternative to the Rack Shift Coefficient (January/February 1988)

The use of dimensionless factors to describe gear tooth geometry seems to have a strong appeal to gear engineers. The stress factors I and J, for instance, are well established in AGMA literature. The use of the rack shift coefficient "x" to describe nonstandard gear proportions is common in Europe, but is not as commonly used in the United States. When it is encountered in the European literature or in the operating manuals for imported machine tools, it can be a source of confusion to the American engineer.

41 Design of Involute Gear Teeth (October/November 1984)

In designing involute gear teeth, it is essential that the fundamental properties of the involute curve be clearly understood. A review of "the Fundamental Laws of the Involute Curve" found in last issue will help in this respect. It has previously been shown that the involute curve has its origin at the base circle. Its length, however, may be anything from zero at the origin or starting point on to infinity. The problem, therefore, in designing gear teeth, is to select that portion of the involute, which will best meet all requirements.

42 A Logical Procedure To Determine Initial Gear Size (November/December 1986)

When a gear set is to be designed for a new application, the minimum size gears with the required capacity are desired. These gears must be capable of meeting the power, speed, ratio, life, and reliability requirements.

43 Gear Design Options (May/June 1987)

When specifying a complete gear design, the novice designer is confronted with an overwhelming and frequently confusing group of options which must be specified. This array of specifications range from the rather vague to the very specific.

44 KHV Planetary Gearing (November/December 1987)

Traditionally, a worm or a multi-stage gear box has been used when a large speed ratio is required. However, such boxes will become obsolete as size and efficiency become increasingly important considerations for a modern transmission. The single-enveloped worm gear has a maximum speed ratio of only 40 to 60. Its efficiency is only 30 to 60 per cent. The necessity of using bronze for the worm gear and grinding nitoalloy steel for the worm drives up material and manufacturing costs.

45 Basic Spur Gear Design (November/December 1988)

Primitive gears were known and used well over 2,000 years ago, and gears have taken their place as one of the basic machine mechanisms; yet, our knowledge and understanding of gearing principles is by no means complete. We see the development of faster and more reliable gear quality assessment and new, more productive manufacture of gears in higher materials hardness states. We have also seen improvement in gear applications and design, lubricants, coolants, finishes and noise and vibration control. All these advances push development in the direction of smaller, more compact applications, better material utilization and improved quietness, smoothness of operation and gear life. At the same time, we try to improve manufacturing cost-effectiveness, making use of highly repetitive and efficient gear manufacturing methods.

46 Involutometry Illustrations (November/December 1988)

In our last issue, the labels on the drawings illustrating "Involutometry" by Harlan Van Gerpan and C. Kent Reece were inadvertently omitted. For your convenience we have reproduced the corrected illustrations here. We regret any inconvenience this may have caused our readers.

47 Minimizing Backlash in Spur Gears (May/June 1994)

simplified equations for backlash and roll test center distance are derived. Unknown errors in measured tooth thickness are investigate. Master gear design is outlined, and an alternative to the master gear method is described. Defects in the test radius method are enumerated. Procedures for calculating backlash and for preventing significant errors in measurement are presented.

48 The Lubrication of Gears - Part 1 (March/April 1991)

This is a three-part article explaining the principles of gear lubrication. It reviews current knowledge of the field of gear tribology and is intended for both gear designers and gear operators. Part 1 classifies gear tooth failures into five modes and explains the factors that a gear designer and operator must consider to avoid gear failures. It defines the nomenclature and gives a list of references for those interested in further research. It also contains an in-depth discussion of the gear tooth failure modes that are influenced by lubrication and gives methods for preventing gear tooth failures.

49 The Lubrication of Gears - Part II (May/June 1991)

What follows is Part 2 of a three-part article covering the principles of gear lubrication. Part 2 gives an equation for calculating the lubricant film thickness, which determines whether the gears operate in the boundary, elastohydrodynamic, or full-film lubrication regime. An equation for Blok's flash temperature, which is used for predicting the risk of scuffing, is also given.

50 The Lubrication of Gears - Part III (July/August 1991)

This is the final part of a three-part series on the basics of gear lubrication. It covers selection of lubricant types and viscosities, the application of lubricants, and a case history

51 Involute Splines (September/October 1990)

Engineering design requires many different types of gears and splines. Although these components are rather expensive, subject to direct wear, and difficult to replace, transmissions with gears and splines are required for two very simple reasons: 1) Motors have an unfavorable (disadvantageous) relation of torque to number of revolutions. 2)Power is usually required to be transmitted along a shaft.

52 Shaper Cutters - Design & Application - Part 2 (May/June 1990)

Cutter Sharpening Cutter sharpening is very important both during manufacturing and subsequently in resharpening after dulling. Not only does this process affect cutter "over cutting edge" quality and the quality of the part cut, but it can also affect the manner in which chip flow takes place on the cutter face if the surface finished is too rough or rippled.

53 Gear Tooth Profile Determination From Arbitrary Rack Geometry (November/December 1988)

This article describes a method of obtaining gear tooth profiles from the geometry of the rack (or hob) that is used to generate the gear. This method works for arbitrary rack geometries, including the case when only a numerical description of the rack is available. Examples of a simple rack, rack with protuberances and a hob with root chamfer are described. The application of this technique to the generation of boundary element meshes for gear tooth strength calculation and the generation of finite element models for the frictional contact analysis of gear pairs is also described.

54 Shaper Cutters-Design & Applications Part 1 (March/April 1990)

Gear shaping is one of the most popular production choices in gear manufacturing. While the gear shaping process is really the most versatile of all the gear manufacturing methods and can cut a wide variety of gears, certain types of gears can only be cut by this process. These are gears closely adjacent to shoulders; gears adjacent to other gears, such as on countershafts; internal gears, either open or blind ended; crown or face gears; herringbone gears of the solid configuration of with a small center groove; rack; parts with filled-in spaces or teeth, such as are used in some clutches.

55 Asymmetric Gears: Parameter Selection Approach (June/July 2012)

In many gear transmissions, a tooth load on one flank is significantly higher and is applied for longer periods of time than for the opposite one; an asymmetric tooth shape reflects this functional difference. This paper describes an approach that rationalizes the degree of asymmetry (or asymmetry factor K) selection to meet a variety of operating conditions and requirements for custom gear drives.

56 The Geometric Design of Internal Gear Pairs (May/June 1990)

The paper describes a procedure for the design of internal gear pairs, which is a generalized form of the long and short addendum system. The procedure includes checks for interference, tip interference, undercutting, tip interference during cutting, and rubbing during cutting.

57 Basic Gear Generation Designing the Teeth (September/October 1991)

The finished gear engineer, the man who is prepared for all emergencies, must first of all know the basic design principles. Next he must be well versed in all sorts of calculations which come under the heading of "involute trigonometry."

58 Gear Teeth With Byte (January/February 1998)

Computers are everywhere. It's gotten so that it's hard to find an employee who isn't using one in the course of his or her day - whether he be CEO or salesman, engineer or machinist. Everywhere you look, you find the familiar neutral-colored boxes and bright glowing screens. And despite the gear industry's traditional reluctance to embrace new technology, more and moe of what you find on those screens are gears.

59 Effects of Gear Surface Parameters on Flank Wear (January/February 2009)

Non-uniform gear wear changes gear topology and affects the noise performance of a hypoid gear set. The aggregate results under certain vehicle driving conditions could potentially result in unacceptable vehicle noise performance in a short period of time. This paper presents the effects of gear surface parameters on gear wear and the measurement/testing methods used to quantify the flank wear in laboratory tests.

60 Calculation of Slow Speed Wear of Lubricated Gears (November/December 1985)

On gear drives running with pitch line velocities below 0.5 m/s so called slow speed wear is often observed. To solve some problems, extensive laboratory test work was started 10 years ago. A total of circ. 300,000 h running time on FZG back-to-back test rigs have been run in this speed range.

61 Influence of Coatings and Surface Improvements on the Lifetime of Gears (July/August 2004)

Surface coatings or finishing processes are the future technologies for improving the load carrying capacity of case hardened gears. With the help of basic tests, the influence of different coatings and finishing processes on efficiency and resistance to wear, scuffing, micropitting, and macropitting is examined.

62 Software-Based Process Design in Gear Finish Hobbing (May 2010)

In this paper, the potential for geometrical cutting simulations—via penetration calculation to analyze and predict tool wear as well as to prolong tool life—is shown by means of gear finish hobbing. Typical profile angle deviations that occur with increasing tool wear are discussed. Finally, an approach is presented here to attain improved profile accuracy over the whole tool life of the finishing hob.

63 Application and Improvement of Face Load Factor Determination Based on AGMA 927 (May 2014)

The face load factor is one of the most important items for a gear strength calculation. Current standards propose formulae for face load factor, but they are not always appropriate. AGMA 927 proposes a simpler and quicker algorithm that doesn't require a contact analysis calculation. This paper explains how this algorithm can be applied for gear rating procedures.

64 Gear Ratio Epicyclic Drives Analysis (June 2014)

It has been documented that epicyclic gear stages provide high load capacity and compactness to gear drives. This paper will focus on analysis and design of epicyclic gear arrangements that provide extremely high gear ratios. Indeed, a special, two-stage planetary arrangement may utilize a gear ratio of over one hundred thousand to one. This paper presents an analysis of such uncommon gear drive arrangements and defines their major parameters, limitations, and gear ratio maximization approaches. It also demonstrates numerical examples, existing designs, and potential applications.

65 Light-Weight Design for Planetary Gear Transmissions (September 2013)

There is a great need for future powertrains in automotive and industrial applications to improve upon their efficiency and power density while reducing their dynamic vibration and noise initiation. It is accepted that planetary gear transmissions have several advantages in comparison to conventional transmissions, such as a high power density due to the power division using several planet gears. This paper presents planetary gear transmissions, optimized in terms of efficiency, weight and volume.

66 Design and Optimization of Planetary Gears Considering All Relevant Influences (November/December 2013)

Light-weight construction and consideration of available resources result in gearbox designs with high load capacity and power density. At the same time, expectations for gear reliability are high. Additionally, there is a diversity of planetary gears for different applications.

67 Planet Carrier Design (January/February 2014)

With all the advantages of building float into a planetary gear system, what advantages are there to using a carrier in the first place, rather than simply having your planets float in the system?

68 Size and Material Influence on the Tooth Root, Pitting, Scuffing and Wear Load-Carrying Capacity of Fine-Module Gears (September 2011)

In this study, limiting values for the load-carrying-capacity of fine-module gears within the module range 0.3–1.0 mm were determined and evaluated by comprehensive, experimental investigations that employed technical, manufacturing and material influence parameters.

69 Our Experts Discuss... (March/April 1991)

Question: I have just become involved with the inspection of gears in a production operation and wonder why the procedure specifies that four involute checks must be made on each side of the tooth of the gear being produced, where one tooth is checked and charted in each quadrant of the gear. Why is this done? These particular gears are checked in the pre-shaved, finish-shaved, and the after-heat-treat condition, so a lot of profile checking must be done.

70 Load Sharing Analysis of High-Contact-Ratio Spur Gears in Military Tracked Vehicle Applications (July 2010)

This paper deals with analysis of the load sharing percentage between teeth in mesh for different load conditions throughout the profile for both sun and planet gears of normal and HCR gearing—using finite element analysis. (FEA).

71 Identification and Correction of Damaging Resonances in Gear Drives (August/September 1984)

As a result of extensive research into the vibration characteristics of gear drives, a systematic approach has evolved, by which damaging resonances can be eliminated. The method combines finite element techniques with experimental signature and modal analyses. Implementation of the bulk of the method can be carried out early in the design stage. A step-by-step description of the approach, as it was applied to an existing accessory drive, is given in the text. It is shown how premature bearing failures were eliminated by detuning the torsional oscillations of a gearshaft. A dramatic reduction in vibration levels was achieved as a result of detuning the problem gear. The proposed approach can be extended to other types of rotating machines.

72 Meshing of a Spiral Bevel Gear Set With 3-D Finite Element Analysis (March/April 1997)

Recent advances in spiral bevel gear geometry and finite element technology make it practical to conduct a structural analysis and analytically roll the gear set through mesh. With the advent of user-specific programming linked to 3-D solid modelers and mesh generators, model generation has become greatly automated. Contact algorithms available in general purpose finite element codes eliminate the need for the use and alignment of gap elements. Once the gear set it placed in mesh, user subroutines attached to the FE code easily roll it through mesh. The method is described in detail. Preliminary result for a gear set segment showing the progression of the contact line load is given as the gears roll through mesh.

73 Worn Gear Contact Analysis (June/July 2013)

How does one perform a contact analysis for worn gears? Our expert responds.

74 Relationship Between Wear and Pitting Phenomena in Worm Gears (May/June 1998)

Worm gears display unique behavior of surfaces because of the presence of wear phenomena in addition to contact pressure phenomena.

75 Classification of Types of Gear Tooth Wear - Part I (November/December 1992)

The phenomena of deterioration of surfaces are generally very complex and depend on numerous conditions which include the operating conditions, the type of load applied, the relative speeds of surfaces in contact, the temperature, lubrication, surfaces hardness and roughness, and the compatibility and nature of materials.

76 Classification of Types of Gear Tooth Wear - Part II (January/February 1993)

The first part of this article included abrasive wear with two bodies, streaks and scoring, polishing, and hot and cold scuffing. This part will deal with three-body wear, scratches or grooves, and interference wear. Normal, moderate, and excessive wear will be defined, and a descriptive chart will be presented.

77 Gear Wear Caused By Contaminated Oils (September/October 1996)

The diagnosis and prevention of gear tooth and bearing wear requires the discovery and understanding of the particular mechanism of wear, which in turn indicates the best method of prevention. Because a gearbox is a tribologically dependent mechanism, some understanding of gear and bearing tribology is essential for this process. Tribology is the general term for the study and practice of lubrication, friction and wear. If tribology is neglected or considered insignificant, poor reliability and short life will result.

78 Automotive Transmission Design Using Full Potential of Powder Metal (August 2013)

For metal replacement with powder metal (PM) of an automotive transmission, PM gear design differs from its wrought counterpart. Indeed, complete reverse-engineering and re-design is required so to better understand and document the performance parameters of solid-steel vs. PM gears. Presented here is a re-design (re-building a 6-speed manual transmission for an Opel Insignia 4-cylinder, turbocharged 2-liter engine delivering 220 hp/320 N-m) showing that substituting a different microgeometry of the PM gear teeth -- coupled with lower Young’s modulus -- theoretically enhances performance when compared to the solid-steel design.

79 New Methods for the Calculation of the Load Capacity of Bevel and Hypoid Gears (June/July 2013)

Flank breakage is common in a number of cylindrical and bevel gear applications. This paper introduces a relevant, physically based calculation method to evaluate flank breakage risk vs. pitting risk. Verification of this new method through testing is demonstrably shown.

80 Determination of Gear Ratios (August/September 1984)

Selection of the number of teeth for each gear in a gear train such that the output to input angular velocity ratio is a specified value is a problem considered by relatively few published works on gear design.

81 Effects of Planetary Gear Ratio on Mean Service Life (July/August 1998)

Planetary gear transmissions are compact, high-power speed reducers that use parallel load paths. The range of possible reduction ratios is bounded from below and above by limits on the relative size of the planet gears. For a single-plane transmission, the planet gear has no size of the sun and ring. Which ratio is best for a planetary reduction can be resolved by studying a series of optimal designs. In this series, each design is obtained by maximizing the service life for a planetary transmission with a fixed size, gear ratio, input speed, power and materials. The planetary gear reduction service life is modeled as a function of the two-parameter Weibull distributed service lives of the bearings and gears in the reduction. Planet bearing life strongly influences the optimal reduction lives, which point to an optimal planetary reduction ratio in the neighborhood of four to five.

82 Designing Reliability Into Industrial Gear Drives (September/October 1998)

The primary objective in designing reliable gear drives is to avoid failure. Avoiding failure is just as important for the manufacturer and designer as it is for the end user. Many aspects should be considered in order to maximize the potential reliability and performance of installed gearing.

83 Influence of Gear Design on Gearbox Radiated Noise (January/February 1998)

A major source of helicopter cabin noise (which has been measured at over 100 decibels sound pressure level) is the gearbox. Reduction of this noise is a NASA and U.S. Army goal. A requirement for the Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission project was a 10 dB noise reduction compared to current designs.

84 Kish Method for Dermination of Hunting Mesh (May/June 1997)

When designing a gear set, engineers usually want the teeth of the gear (Ng) and the pinion (Np) in a "hunting" mesh. Such a mesh or combination is defined as one in which the pinion and the gear do not have any common divisor by a prime number. If a mesh is "hunting," then the pinion must make Np x Ng revolutions before the same pinion tooth meshes with the same gear space. It is often easy to determine if a mesh is hunting by first determining if both the pinion and the gear teeth are divisible by 2,3,5,7,etc. (prime numbers). However, in this age of computerization, how does one program the computer to check for hunting teeth? A simple algorithm is shown below.

85 Design Implications for Shaper Cutters (July/August 1996)

A gear shaper cutter is actually a gear with relieved cutting edges and increased addendum for providing clearance in the root of the gear being cut. The maximum outside diameter of such a cutter is limited to the diameter at which the teeth become pointed. The minimum diameter occurs when the outside diameter of the cutter and the base circle are the same. Those theoretical extremes, coupled with the side clearance, which is normally 2 degrees for coarse pitch cutters an d1.5 degrees for cutters approximately 24-pitch and finer, will determine the theoretical face width of a cutter.

86 Tooth Modification and Spur Gear Tooth Strain (September/October 1996)

A major source of helicopter cabin noise (which has been measured at over 100 decibels sound pressure level) is the gear box. Reduction of this noise is a NASA and U.S. Army goal.

87 Powder Metal Gear Design and Inspection (September/October 1996)

Powder metallurgy (P/M) is a precision metal forming technology for the manufacture of parts to net or near-net shape, and it is particularly well-suited to the production of gears. Spur, bevel and helical gears all may be made by made by powder metallurgy processing.

88 Stress of Planet Gears with Thin Rims (March/April 1994)

This article discusses the relationships among the fillet stress on a thin rim planet gear, the radial clearance between the gear rim and the gear shaft, the tooth load, the rim thickness, the radius of curvature of the center line of the rim, the face width and the module.

89 Profile Shift (August 2012)

Three experts tackle the question of profile shift in this issue's edition of "Ask the Expert."

90 DFM Crucial for Gear Industry Success (March/April 2013)

"Design for manufacturability" (DFM) is a well-established practice, essential to realizing the successful transformation of concepts into mass-produced gears and motion control devices. And yet, all too often issues that could have been avoided are identified very late in the process that impact production costs and schedules. This suggests that key DFM principles are often underutilized in practice and are not applied consistently - or to the degree necessary - to avoid these negative results.

91 Operating Pressure Angle (May 2013)

What is the difference between pressure angle and operating pressure angle?

92 Gear Design Optimization for Low Contact Temperature of a High Speed, Non Lubricated Spur Gear Pair (May 2013)

A gear design optimization approach applied to reduce tooth contact temperature and noise excitation of a high-speed spur gear pair running without lubricant. Optimum gear design search was done using the Run Many Cases software program. Thirty-one of over 480,000 possible gear designs were considered, based on low contact temperature and low transmission error. The best gear design was selected considering its manufacturability.

93 The Gear Gods Help Those That Help Themselves (January/February 2013)

"Gear Train" is a new Gear Technology section focusing on training and education in the gear industry. For the first installment, we've focused on AGMA's online and video training programs.

94 Romax Technology Launches Gearbox and Driveline Design Software Package (November/December 2012)

Romax Technology, the gearbox, bearing and driveline engineering specialist, has launched a new design software package that will increase speed, quality, creativity and innovation when designing gearboxes and drivelines. Called Concept, the new product delivers on the Romax vision of streamlining the end-to-end, planning-to-manufacture process with open, easy to use software solutions. It has been developed in close collaboration with engineers in the largest ground vehicle, wind energy and industrial equipment companies around the globe.

95 How Bearing Design Improves Gearbox Performance (September 2012)

Gearbox performance, reliability, total cost of ownership (energy cost), overall impact on the environment, and anticipation of additional future regulations are top-of-mind issues in the industry. Optimization of the bearing set can significantly improve gearbox performance.

96 How to Minimize Power Losses in Transmissions, Axles and Steering Systems (September 2012)

By increasing the number of gears and the transmission-ratio spread, the engine will run with better fuel efficiency and without loss of driving dynamics. Transmission efficiency itself can be improved by: using fuelefficient transmission oil; optimizing the lubrication systems and pumps; improving shifting strategies and optimizing gearings; and optimizing bearings and seals/gaskets.

97 Center Distance Variations for Internal Gears (October 2012)

While external involute gears are very tolerant of center distance variations, what are the center distance constraints for internal gears?

98 How Many Mice Does It Take to Design a Gear (January/February 1995)

Gear design has long been a "black art." The gear shop's modern alchemists often have to solve problems with a combination of knowledge, experience and luck. In many cases, trial and error are the only effective way to design gears. While years of experience have produced standard gearsets that work well for most situations, today's requirements for quieter, more accurate and more durable gears often force manufacturers to look for alternative designs.

99 Application of Gears with Asymmetric Teeth in Turboprop Engine Gearbox (January/February 2008)

This paper describes the research and development of the first production gearbox with asymmetric tooth profiles for the TV7-117S turboprop engine. The paper also presents numerical design data related to development of this gearbox.

100 Talking Truth to Power: Plastic Gears Taking Back Seat to No One (March/April 2013)

Automotive industry embraces proven yet evolving technology of plastic gears.

101 Deciding When to Go Plastic (July 2014)

Can my metal gear(s) be replaced with plastic gears?

102 Loaded Behavior of Gears Made of Fiber-Reinforced PA6 (July 2014)

This paper presents an original method for computing the loaded mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced polymer gears. Although thermoplastic gears are unsuitable for application transmitting high torque, adding fibers can significantly increase their performance. The particular case of polyamide 6 + 30% glass fibers is studied in this paper.

103 New Technology for Stronger Plastic Gears (August 2012)

Gleason-K2 Plastics eliminates weld lines with no machining.

104 Plastic: The Not-So-Alternative Technology (July/August 1998)

"We're taking over," says Art Milano. It's a bold statement from the engineering manager of Seitz Corporation, one of the largest manufacturers of injection molded plastic gears, but Milano has reason for his optimism. Plastic gears are big business-probably bigger than most gear industry "insiders" realize.

105 Lubricants and Lubrication of Plastic Gears (September/October 1993)

Surface measurement of any metal gear tooth contact surface will indicate some degree of peaks and valleys. When gears are placed in mesh, irregular contact surfaces are brought together in the typical combination of rolling and sliding motion. The surface peaks, or asperities, of one tooth randomly contact the asperities of the mating tooth. Under the right conditions, the asperities form momentary welds that are broken off as the gear tooth action continues. Increased friction and higher temperatures, plus wear debris introduced into the system are the result of this action.

106 Noise Reduction in Plastic & Powder Metal Gear Sets (July/August 1996)

The data discussed in this article was taken from an upright vacuum cleaner. This was a prototype cleaner that was self-propelled by a geared transmission. It was the first time that the manufacturer had used a geared transmission in this application.

107 Hoechst Technical Polymers to Gather Plastic Gear Materials Data (July/August 1997)

Hoechst Technical Polymers has expanded its interests in plastic gears with the introduction of the new Plastic Gear Evaluation and Research machine P-Gear. The machine is the centerpiece of the company's continuing efforts to promote and develop the use of plastic gears in higher-powered applications.

108 Bending Fatigue Tests of Helicopter Case Carburized Gears: Influence on Material, Design and Manufacturing Parameters (November/December 2009)

A single tooth bending (STB) test procedure has been developed to optimally map gear design parameters. Also, a test program on case-carburized, aerospace standard gears has been conceived and performed in order to appreciate the influence of various technological parameters on fatigue resistance and to draw the curve shape up to the gigacycle region.

109 Evaluation of Bending Strength of Carburized Gears (May/June 2004)

The aim of our research is to clearly show the influence of defects on the bending fatigue strength of gear teeth. Carburized gears have many types of defects, such as non-martensitic layers, inclusions, tool marks, etc. It is well known that high strength gear teeth break from defects in their materials, so it’s important to know which defect limits the strength of a gear.

110 Computer-Aided Design of the Stress Analysis of an Internal Spur Gear (May/June 1988)

Although there is plenty of information and data on the determination of geometry factors and bending strength of external gear teeth, the computation methods regarding internal gear design are less accessible. most of today's designs adopt the formulas for external gears and incorporate some kind of correction factors for internal gears. However, this design method is only an approximation because of the differences between internal gears and external gears. Indeed, the tooth shape of internal gears is different from that of external gears. One has a concave curve, while the other has a convex curve.

111 1992 Marks Important Gear Design Milestone: Lewis Bending Strenth Equations Now 100 Years old (November/December 1992)

Columbus' first voyage to the Americas is not the only anniversary worthy of celebration this year. In 1892, on October 15, Wilfred Lewis gave an address to the Engineer's Club of Philadelphia, whose significance, while not as great as that of Columbus' voyage, had important results for the gearing community. In this address, Lewis first publicly outlined his formula for computing bending stress in gear teeth, a formula still in use today.

112 Gear Crack Propagation Investigations (November/December 1997)

A common design goal for gears in helicopter or turboprop power transmission is reduced weight. To help meet this goal, some gear designs use thin rims. Rims that are too thin, however, may lead to bending fatigue problems and cracks. The most common methods of gear design and analysis are based on standards published by the American Gear Manufacturers Association. Included in the standards are rating formulas for gear tooth bending to prevent crack initiation (Ref. 1). These standards can include the effect of rim thickness on tooth bending fatigue (Ref 2.). The standards, however, do not indicate the crack propagation path or the remaining life once a crack has started. Fracture mechanics has developed into a useful discipline for predicting strength and life of cracked structures.

113 Influence of Geometrical Parameters on the Gear Scuffing Criterion - Part I (March/April 1987)

The load capacity rating of gears had its beginning in the 18th century at Leiden University when Prof. Pieter van Musschenbroek systematically tested the wooden teeth of windmill gears, applying the bending strength formula published by Galilei one century earlier. In the next centuries several scientists improved or extended the formula, and recently a Draft International Standard could be presented.

114 Bending Fatigue, Impact and Pitting Resistance of Ausform-Finished PM Gears (June 2010)

The powder metal (P/M) process is making inroads in automotive transmission applications due to substantially lower costs of P/M-steel components for high-volume production, as compared to wrought or forged steel parts. Although P/M gears are increasingly used in powered hand tools, gear pumps and as accessory components in automotive transmissions, P/M-steel gears are currently in limited use in vehicle transmission applications. The primary objective of this project was to develop high-strength P/M-steel gears with bending fatigue, impact resistance and pitting fatigue performance equivalent to current wrought steel gears.

115 Systematic Investigations on the Influence of Case Depth on the Pitting and Bending Strength of Case Carburized Gears (July/August 2005)

The gear designer needs to know how to determine an appropriate case depth for a gear application in order to guarantee the required load capacity.

116 Methodology for Translating Single-Tooth Bending Fatigue Data to be Comparable to Running Gear Data (March/April 2008)

A method to extrapolate running gear bending strength data from STF results for comparing bending performance of different materials and processes.

117 Maximum Surface Temperature of the Thermoplastic Gear in a Non-Lubricated Plastic-Steel Gear Pair (August/September 1984)

One of the major problems of plastic gear design is the knowledge of their running temperature. Of special interest is the bulk temperature of the tooth to predict the fatigue life, and the peak temperature on the surface of the tooth to avert surface failure. This paper presents the results of an experimental method that uses an infrared radiometer to measure the temperature variation along the profile of a plastic gear tooth in operation. Measurements are made on 5.08, 3.17, 2.54, 2.12 mm module hob cut gears made from nylon 6-6, acetal and UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene). All the tests are made on a four square testing rig with thermoplastic/steel gear pairs where the plastic gear is the driver. Maximum temperature prediction curves obtained through statistical analysis of the results are presented and compared to data available from literature.

118 The Relative Performance of Spur Gears Manufactured from Steel and PEEK (March/April 2012)

This paper seeks to compare the data generated from test rig shaft encoders and torque transducers when using steel-steel, steel-plastic and plastic-plastic gear combinations in order to understand the differences in performance of steel and plastic gears.

119 Plastic Gears--A Growing Industry Still Seeking Respect (March/April 2007)

Forty years ago, the plastics industry was practically in its embryonic phase...

120 How to Achieve a Successful Molded Gear Transmission (July/August 2006)

Molded plastic gears have very little in common with machined gears other than the fact that both use the involute for conjugate action.

121 Gear Design: Multipoint Properties are Key to Selecting Thermoplastic Materials (November/December 2006)

The palette of thermoplastic materials for gears has grown rapidly, as have the applications themselves. Designers need to be aware of key properties and attributes in selecting the right material.

122 Plastic Gear Standards: A Balancing Act (March/April 2007)

Creating standards for plastic gears calls for a deft touch. The challenge is to set uniform guidelines, yet avoid limiting the creative solutions plastic offers gear designers.

123 Load Carrying Capacity of Screw Helical Gears with Steel Pinions and Plastic Wheels (July/August 2004)

There is an increasing significance of screw helical and worm gears that combine use of steel and plastics. This is shown by diverse and continuously rising use in the automotive and household appliance industries. The increasing requirements for such gears can be explained by the advantageous qualities of such a material combination in comparison with that of the traditional steel/bronze pairing.

124 Virtually No Gear Job Too Small for Precision Plastic Micro-Molder (March/April 2007)

The greenlighting of new product designs specifying micro-sized, plastic gear sets is often dependent upon existing technology and a company’s capabilities to manufacture those gears, and to do so cost-effectively

125 Pushing the Envelope with Plastic (June 2007)

We were delighted to see the plastic gear set pictured on the cover of your March/April issue. UFE played the lead role in its design and manufacture.

126 Non-Standard Cylindrical Gears (November/December 2004)

Curved face width (CFW) spur gears are not popular in the gear industry. But these non-metallic gears have advantages over standard spur gears: higher contact ratio, higher tooth stiffness, and lower contact and bending stresses.

127 Latest Generation of Quieter Plastic Gears Can Take the Heat (November/December 2005)

Ten years ago, most mainstream gear manufacturers didn't even consider plastics as an option, especially in higher power applications.

128 Injection Molded Innovation (June 2008)

Alternative business strategies from some alternative gear manufacturers.

129 Gear Material Risks and Rewards (August 2011)

Technology investments lead to product innovation at gear materials suppliers.

130 Load-Sharing Model for Polymer Cylindrical Gears (November/December 2011)

This paper presents an original method to compute the loaded mechanical behavior of polymer gears. Polymer gears can be used without lubricant, have quieter mesh, are more resistant to corrosion, and are lighter in weight. Therefore their application fields are continually increasing. Nevertheless, the mechanical behavior of polymer materials is very complex because it depends on time, history of displacement and temperature. In addition, for several polymers, humidity is another factor to be taken into account. The particular case of polyamide 6.6 is studied in this paper.

131 The Plastic Gear Pay-Off (March/April 2012)

Eliminating noise, weight and wear proves valuable in 2012.

132 At the "PEEK" of the Polymer Food Chain (June 2010)

In the hypercompetitive race to increase automobile efficiency, Metaldyne has been developing its balance shaft module line with Victrex PEEK polymer in place of metal gears. The collaborative product development resulted in significant reductions in inertia, weight and power consumption, as well as improvement in noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance.

133 High-Temperature Testing of Stanyl Plastic Gears: A Comparison with Tensile Fatigue Data (March/April 2010)

This paper shows an experimental study on the fatigue lifetime of high-heat polyamide (Stanyl) gears running in oil at 140°C. Based on previous works (Refs. 1–2), an analysis is made correcting for tooth bending and calculating actual root stresses. A comparison with tensile bar fatigue data for the same materials at 140°C shows that a good correlation exists between gear fatigue data and tensile bar fatigue data. This insight provides a solid basis for gear designers to design plastic gears using actual material data.

134 Material Integrity in Molded Plastic Gears and its Dependence on Molding Practices (June 2008)

The quality of molded plastic gears is typically judged by dimensional feature measurements only. This practice overlooks potential deficiencies in the molding process.

135 Study of the Correlation Between Theoretical and Actual Gear Fatigue Test Data on a Polyamide (June 2008)

In the past two years DSM has been conducting fatigue tests on actual molded gears in order to provide design data.

136 Calculating Spur and Helical Gear Capacity with ISO 6336 (November/December 1998)

This is the third article in a series exploring the new ISO 6336 gear rating standard and its methods of calculation. The opinions expressed herein are htose of the author as an individual. They do not represent the opinions of any organization of which he is a member.

137 Influence of Relative Displacements Between Pinion and Gear on Tooth Root Stresses of Spiral Bevel Gears (July/August 1985)

The manufacturing quality of spiral bevel gears has achieved a very high standard. Nevertheless, the understanding of the real stress conditions and the influences. of certain parameters is not satisfactory.

138 Design Unit Evaluating New Software from SMT (January/February 2007)

MASTA 4.5.1 models complete transmissions and includes 3-D stress analysis.

139 Face Gears: Geometry and Strength (January/February 2007)

There are three distinct gear types in angle drives. The most commonly used are bevel and worm drives. Face gear drives are the third alternative.

140 Proposal for Tip Relief Modification to Reduce Noise and Sensitivity to Meshing Conditions in Spur Gears (March/April 2006)

In this article, a new tip relief profile modification for spur gears is presented. The topography proposed here is a classical linear profile modification with a parabolic fillet.

141 High Speed Gears for Extreme Applications in Industrial and Marine Fields (September/October 2007)

Above all, a gear is not just a mechanical transmission, but is developed to a system fulfilling multiple demands, such as clutch integration, selectable output speeds, and controls of highest electronic standards. This paper shows the basics for high-speed gear design and a selection of numerous applications in detailed design and operational needs.

142 The Effect of Start-Up Load Conditions on Gearbox Performance and Life Failure Analysis, With Supporting Case Study (June 2009)

If a gear system is run continuously for long periods of time—or if the starting loads are very low and within the normal operating spectrum—the effect of the start-up conditions may often be insignificant in the determination of the life of the gear system. Conversely, if the starting load is significantly higher than any of the normal operating conditions, and the gear system is started and stopped frequently, the start-up load may, depending on its magnitude and frequency, actually be the overriding, limiting design condition.

143 The Effect of Flexible Components on the Durability, Whine, Rattle and Efficiency of an Automotive Transaxle Geartrain System (November/December 2009)

Gear engineers have long recognized the importance of considering system factors when analyzing a single pair of gears in mesh. These factors include important considerations such as load sharing in multi-mesh geartrains and bearing clearances, in addition to the effects of flexible components such as housings, gear blanks, shafts and carriers for planetary geartrains. However, in recent years, transmission systems have become increasingly complex—with higher numbers of gears and components—while the quality requirements and expectations in terms of durability, gear whine, rattle and efficiency have increased accordingly.

144 Analyzing Gear Tooth Stress as a Function of Tooth Contact Pattern Shape and Position (January/February 1985)

The development of a new gear strength computer program based upon the finite element method, provides a better way to calculate stresses in bevel and hypoid gear teeth. The program incorporates tooth surface geometry and axle deflection data to establish a direct relationship between fillet bending stress, subsurface shear stress, and applied gear torque. Using existing software links to other gear analysis programs allows the gear engineer to evaluate the strength performance of existing and new gear designs as a function of tooth contact pattern shape, position and axle deflection characteristics. This approach provides a better understanding of how gears react under load to subtle changes in the appearance of the no load tooth contact pattern.

145 High Power Transmission with Case-hardened Gears and Internal Power Branching (January/February 1985)

In the field of large power transmission gear units for heavy machine industry, the following two development trends have been highly influential: use of case hardened gears and a branching of the power flow through two or more ways.

146 Detailed Computer Model of Gearbox Reduces Design Time (March/April 2006)

LMS International helped a Fiat subsidiary develop a new, dynamic vibro-acoustic prediction method to reduce design time and engineering costs through accurate prediction of gear noise in the design phase.

147 Robust Transmission Design Through Automated Optimization of Virtual Prototypes (January/February 2005)

Romax Technology is automating the design iteration process to allow companies to be faster to market with the highest quality, most robust gear products.

148 Measurement of Directly Designed Gears with Symmetric and Asymmetric Teeth (January/February 2011)

In comparison with the traditional gear design approach based on preselected, typically standard generating rack parameters, the Direct Gear Design method provides certain advantages for custom high-performance gear drives that include: increased load capacity, efficiency and lifetime; reduced size, weight, noise, vibrations, cost, etc. However, manufacturing such directly designed gears requires not only custom tooling, but also customization of the gear measurement methodology. This paper presents definitions of main inspection dimensions and parameters for directly designed spur and helical, external and internal gears with symmetric and asymmetric teeth.

149 Optimal Modifications of Gear Tooth Surfaces (March/April 2011)

In this paper a new method for the introduction of optimal modifications into gear tooth surfaces—based on the optimal corrections of the profile and diameter of the head cutter, and optimal variation of machine tool settings for pinion and gear finishing—is presented. The goal of these tooth modifications is the achievement of a more favorable load distribution and reduced transmission error. The method is applied to face milled and face hobbed hypoid gears.

150 Desktop Gear Engineering (May 2011)

An update on the latest gear design software from several vendors, plus what gear design engineers can expect next.

151 Engagement of Metal Debris into Gear Mesh (September/October 2010)

A series of bench-top experiments was conducted to determine the effects of metallic debris being dragged through meshing gear teeth. A test rig that is typically used to conduct contact fatigue experiments was used for these tests. Several sizes of drill material, shim stock and pieces of gear teeth were introduced and then driven through the meshing region. The level of torque required to drive the “chip” through the gear mesh was measured. From the data gathered, chip size sufficient to jam the mechanism can be determined.

152 Area of Existence of Involute Gears (January/February 2010)

This paper presents a unique approach and methodology to define the limits of selection for gear parameters. The area within those limits is called the “area of existence of involute gears” (Ref. 1). This paper presents the definition and construction of areas of existence of both external and internal gears. The isograms of the constant operating pressure angles, contact ratios and the maximum mesh efficiency (minimum sliding) isograms, as well as the interference isograms and other parameters are defined. An area of existence allows the location of gear pairs with certain characteristics. Its practical purpose is to define the gear pair parameters that satisfy specific performance requirements before detailed design and calculations. An area of existence of gears with asymmetric teeth is also considered.

153 New Approach to Computerized Design of Spur and Helical Gears (January/February 2005)

Applying "Dynamic Block Contours" allows the designer to predict gear quality at the earliest stage of the design process.

154 A Method for Obtaining Optimum Gear Tooth Microtopographies for Noise and Stress Minimization Over a Broad Operating Torque Range (July 2008)

A graphical procedure for selecting optimum combinations of profile and lead modifications.

155 Gear Tooth Scoring Design Considerations for Spur and Helical Gearing (May/June 1985)

High speed gearing, operating with low viscosity lubricants, is prone to a failure mode called scoring. In contrast to the classic failure modes, pitting and breakage, which generally take time to develop, scoring occurs early in the operation of a gear set and can be the limiting factor in the gear's power capability.

156 An Innovative Way of Designing Gear Hobbing Processes (May 2012)

In today’s manufacturing environment, shorter and more efficient product development has become the norm. It is therefore important to consider every detail of the development process, with a particular emphasis on design. For green machining of gears, the most productive and important process is hobbing. In order to analyze process design for this paper, a manufacturing simulation was developed capable of calculating chip geometries and process forces based on different models. As an important tool for manufacturing technology engineers, an economic feasibility analysis is implemented as well. The aim of this paper is to show how an efficient process design—as well as an efficient process—can be designed.

157 Controlling Gear Distortion and Residual Stresses During Induction Hardening (March/April 2012)

Induction hardening is widely used in both the automotive and aerospace gear industries to minimize heat treat distortion and obtain favorable compressive residual stresses for improved fatigue performance. The heating process during induction hardening has a significant effect on the quality of the heat-treated parts. However, the quenching process often receives less attention even though it is equally important.

158 Tooth Root Stresses of Spiral Bevel Gears (May/June 1988)

Service performance and load carrying capacity of bevel gears strongly depend on the size and position of the contact pattern. To provide an optimal contact pattern even under load, the gear design has to consider the relative displacements caused by deflections or thermal expansions expected under service conditions. That means that more or less lengthwise and heightwise crowning has to be applied on the bevel gear teeth.

159 No Compromising on Quality at Allison Transmission (July 2014)

Gleason 350GMS helps put higher quality, more reliable gears into its next-generation TC10 automatic transmission.

160 Evaluation of Methods for Calculating Effects of Tip Relief on Transmission Error, Noise and Stress in Loaded Spur Gears (January/February 2012)

The connection between transmission error, noise and vibration during operation has long been established. Calculation methods have been developed to describe the influence so that it is possible to evaluate the relative effect of applying a specific modification at the design stage. These calculations enable the designer to minimize the excitation from the gear pair engagement at a specific load. This paper explains the theory behind transmission error and the reasoning behind the method of applying the modifications through mapping surface profiles and determining load sharing.

161 Drive Line Analysis for Tooth Contact Optimization of High-Power Spiral Bevel Gears (June/July 2011)

In the majority of spiral bevel gears, spherical crowning is used. The contact pattern is set to the center of the active tooth flank and the extent of the crowning is determined by experience. Feedback from service, as well as from full-torque bench tests of complete gear drives, has shown that this conventional design practice leads to loaded contact patterns, which are rarely optimal in location and extent. Oversized reliefs lead to small contact area, increased stresses and noise, whereas undersized reliefs result in an overly sensitive tooth contact.

162 Grinding Induced Changes in Residual Stresses of Carburized Gears (March/April 2009)

This paper presents the results of a study performed to measure the change in residual stress that results from the finish grinding of carburized gears. Residual stresses were measured in five gears using the x-ray diffraction equipment in the Large Specimen Residual Stress Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

163 In-Situ Measurement of Stresses in Carburized Gears via Neutron Diffraction (May 2009)

This paper presents the results of research directed at measuring the total stress in a pair of statically loaded and carburized spur gears. Measurements were made to examine the change in total stress as a function of externally applied load and depth below the surface.

164 The Effect of Manufaturing Microgeometry Variations on the Load Distribution Factor and on Gear Contact and Root Stresses (July 2009)

Traditionally, gear rating procedures consider manufacturing accuracy in the application of the dynamic factor, but only indirectly through the load distribution are such errors in the calculation of stresses used in the durability and gear strength equations. This paper discusses how accuracy affects the calculation of stresses and then uses both statistical design of experiments and Monte Carlo simulation techniques to quantify the effects of different manufacturing and assembly errors on root and contact stresses.

165 Innovative Induction Hardening Process with Pre-heating for Improved Fatigue Performance of Gear Component (July 2014)

Contact fatigue and bending fatigue are two main failure modes of steel gears, while surface pitting and spalling are two common contact fatigue failures -- caused by alternating subsurface shear stresses from the contact load between two gear mates. And when a gear is in service under cyclic load, concentrated bending stresses exist at the root fillet -- the main driver of bending fatigue failures. Induction hardening is becoming an increasingly popular response to these problems, due to its process consistency, reduced energy consumption, clean environment and improved product quality -- but not without issues of its own (irregular residual stresses and bending fatigue). Thus a new approach is proposed here that flexibly controls the magnitude of residual stress in the regions of root fillet and tooth flank by pre-heating prior to induction hardening. Using an external spur gear made of AISI 4340 as an example, this new concept/process is demonstrated using finite element modeling and DANTE commercial software.

166 Low Loss Gears (June 2007)

In most transmission systems, one of the main power loss sources is the loaded gear mesh. In this article, the influences of gear geometry parameters on gear efficiency, load capacity, and excitation are shown.

167 Hob Tool Life Technology Update (March/April 2009)

The method of cutting teeth on a cylindrical gear by the hobbing process has been in existence since the late 1800s. Advances have been made over the years in both the machines and the cutting tools used in the process. This paper will examine hob tool life and the many variables that affect it. The paper will cover the state-of-the-art cutting tool materials and coatings, hob tool design characteristics, process speeds and feeds, hob shifting strategies, wear characteristics, etc. The paper will also discuss the use of a common denominator method for evaluating hob tool life in terms of meters (or inches) per hob tooth as an alternative to tool life expressed in parts per sharpening.

168 Calculation of Spur Gear Tooth Flexibility by the Complex Potential Method (September/October 1985)

Calculation of gear tooth flexibility is of interest for at least two reasons: (a) It controls, at least in part, the vibratory properties of a transmission system hence, fatigue resistance and noise: (b) it controls load sharing in multiple tooth contact.

169 Longitudinal Load Distribution Factor of Helical Gears (July/August 1985)

The contact lines of a pair of helical gears move diagonally on the engaged tooth faces and their lengths consequently vary with the rotation of the gears.

170 Software Bits (January/February 2004)

The latest software for gear design, engineering and manufacturing.

171 Understanding Fluid Flow to Improve Lubrication Efficiency (January/February 2004)

Excess lubricant supply in gearing contributes to power loss due to churning as well as the requirements of the lubrication system itself. Normally, a much larger amount of oil than required is used for cooling because so much of it is thrown away by centrifugal force. To lower the amount of lubricant required and reduce those losses, it is necessary to discover the ideal location of the supplying nozzle.

172 Nonstandard Tooth Proportions (June 2007)

With the right selection of nonstandard center distance and tool shifting, it may be possible to use standard tools to improve the gear set capacity with a considerable reduction in cost when compared to the use of special tools.

173 Experience with Large, High-Speed Load Gears (July 2007)

The main theme of this article is high-capacity, high-speed load gears in a power transmission range between 35 MW and 100 MW for generators and turbo-compressors driven by gas or steam turbines.

174 Gear Design (May/June 1984)

A gear can be defined as a toothed wheel which, when meshed with another toothed wheel with similar configuration, will transmit rotation from one shaft to another. Depending upon the type and accuracy of motion desired, the gears and the profiles of the gear teeth can be of almost any form.