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1 Industry News (June 2021)

The latest news from Nordex, Gleason, Solar Atmospheres, and more.

2 Industry News (August 2021)

The latest news AGMA Foundation, DVS Technology Group, Mitutoyo and more.

3 Industry News (November/December 2021)

he complete Industry News section from the November/December 2021 issue of Gear Technology.

4 Product news (August 2016)

News about the latest products in the industry.

5 Product News (July 2016)

News about the Latest Products

6 Product News (March/April 2016)

News about the latest products in the industry.

7 Product News (September/October 2014)

The complete product news section from the September / October 2014 Issue Gear Technology.

8 Industry News (August 2014)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

9 Product News (January/February 2013)

The complete Product News section from the January/February 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

10 Industry News (January/February 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the January/February 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

11 The Wafer Shaper Cutter (March/April 1989)

In 1985 a new tooling concept for high volume gear production was introduced to the gear manufacturing industry. Since then this tool, the wafer shaper cutter, has proven itself in scores of applications as a cost-effective, consistent producer of superior quality parts. This report examines the first high-production installation at the plant of a major automotive supplies, where a line of twenty shapers is producing timing chain sprockets.

12 Industry News (June 2017)

The complete Industry News section from the June 2017 issue of Gear Technology.

13 A Proposed Pre-Finish Cylindrical Gear Quality Standard (September/October 2016)

This proposed standard would not make any recommendations regarding the required quality for any application. The intent is to establish standard pre-finish quality classes for typical finishing operations, which only include the inspection elements that are important to properly evaluate pre-finish gear quality as it applies to the finishing operation. It would be the responsibility of the manufacturing/process engineer, quality engineer, or other responsible individual to establish the required pre-finish quality class for their application.

14 AGMA Standards Committees Keep Industry in Business (November/December 2016)

More than 100 years ago, gear manufacturers were facing a significant challenge from industry. The incredible advances in industrialization and transportation that occurred at the turn of the 20th century resulted in incredible growth for gear makers, but there were significant technical issues. "The lack of process and product standardization was a continuing problem in all U.S. industry. The lack of industry-wide gear standards meant there were no standard gear tooth sizes, ratings, quality definition or consistent manufacturing methods" (Celebrating 100 Years of Gearing, pg. 22).

15 Product News (November/December 2016)

News about new Products in the Industry

16 Industry News (January/February 2017)

News from around the Gear Industry

17 Gear Design Deconstructed (May 2017)

How difficult is it to design a gear? It depends upon whom you ask.

18 Gear Teeth as Bearing Surfaces (May 2017)

A reader wonders about gears where the tops of the teeth are the bearing surface, as used in spur gear differentials. Do they require any special construction or processing?

19 Product News (June 2017)

The complete Product News section from the June 2017 issue of Gear Technology, featuring the latest from Liebherr, Heller, Sandvik Coromant, Mahr and more.

20 Industry News (July 2017)

AGMA adds two new committees, Star Cutter Celebrates 90 years, plus other news from around the industry.

21 Industry News (July 2016)

Latest News from around the industry

22 Rating of Helical Asymmetric Tooth Gears (November/December 2017)

Although gear geometry and the design of asymmetric tooth gears are well known and published, they are not covered by modern national or international gear design and rating standards. This limits their broad implementation for various gear applications, despite substantial performance advantages in comparison to symmetric tooth gears for mostly unidirectional drives. In some industries — like aerospace, that are accustomed to using gears with non-standard tooth shapes — the rating of these gears is established by comprehensive testing. However, such testing programs are not affordable for many other gear drive applications that could also benefit from asymmetric tooth gears.

23 Skiving is Thriving on a Global Scale (January/February 2018)

Call it new wine in old bottles, or old wine in new bottles, but gear skiving has certainly aged well over time. Gear skiving's evolution, perhaps gaining momentum most dramatically since around 2004, has ultimately led to rather dramatic technological advancement and cost saving in the manufacture of certain gears.

24 Industry News (March/April 2018)

Germany adopts ISO 1328 standard for the measurement of gears, plus other news and announcements from around the industry.

25 Predicting Life on Through Hardened Steel Rack and Pinion for Jacking Applications in the Offshore Industry (June 2018)

Designing and sizing a rack-and-pinion system, per AGMA and ISO gear calculation.

26 Product News (August 2018)

The complete Product News section from the August 2018 issue of Gear Technology.

27 Industry News (August 2018)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2018 issue of Gear Technology.

28 Chamfering-Deburring Still a Player - Now More than Ever (September/October 2018)

Chamfering and deburring have been described as "unloved," a "necessary evil" and, in fact - "dead." After all, manual deburring is still common in many shops.

29 The Quick-Change Advantage (March/April 2019)

Workholding Systems Continue to Focus on Speed and Efficiency to Improve Machining Operations

30 Reinvesting in New Equipment Pays Dividends (November/December 2007)

Recently, I was approached by a colleague who is a manufacturer outside the gear industry...

31 Crowning: A Cheap Fix for Noise and Misalignment Problems (March/April 2010)

Fred Young, CEO of Forest City Gear, talks about sophisticated gear manufacturing methods and how they can help solve common gear-related problems.

32 Industry News (May 2019)

The complete Industry News section from the May 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

33 Generating and Checking Involute Gear Teeth (May/June 1986)

It has previously been demonstrated that one gear of an interchangeable series will rotate with another gear of the same series with proper tooth action. It is, therefore, evident that a tooth curve driven in unison with a mating blank, will "generate" in the latter the proper tooth curve to mesh with itself.

34 Product News (October 2013)

The complete Product News section from the October 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

35 Gear Standards and ISO GPS (October 2013)

In today’s globalized manufacturing, all industrial products having dimensional constraints must undergo conformity specifications assessments on a regular basis. Consequently, (standardization) associated with GD&T (geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing) should be un-ambiguous and based on common, accepted rules. Of course gears - and their mechanical assemblies - are special items, widely present in industrial applications where energy conversion and power transmission are involved.

36 Planet Carrier Design (January/February 2014)

With all the advantages of building float into a planetary gear system, what advantages are there to using a carrier in the first place, rather than simply having your planets float in the system?

37 GT Extras (June 2014)

The latest video from Koepfer America, Sandvik's Gear Up event and IMTS product previews

38 Application and Improvement of Face Load Factor Determination Based on AGMA 927 (May 2014)

The face load factor is one of the most important items for a gear strength calculation. Current standards propose formulae for face load factor, but they are not always appropriate. AGMA 927 proposes a simpler and quicker algorithm that doesn't require a contact analysis calculation. This paper explains how this algorithm can be applied for gear rating procedures.

39 IMTS 2014 Product Preview (August 2014)

An in-depth look at the major booths with the latest technology used in gear manufacturing.

40 First International Involute Gear Comparison (August 2014)

Measurement institutions of seven different countries — China, Germany, Japan, Thailand, Ukraine, United Kingdom and the U.S. — participated in the implementation of the first international comparison of involute gear measurement standards. The German metrology institute Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) was chosen as the pilot laboratory as well as the organizer. Three typical involute gear measurement standards provided by the PTB were deployed for this comparison: a profile, a helix and a pitch measurement standard. In the final analysis, of the results obtained from all participants, the weighted mean was evaluated as reference value for all 28 measured parameters. However, besides the measurement standards, the measured parameters, and, most importantly, some of the comparison results from all participants are anonymously presented. Furthermore, mishandling of the measurement standards as occurred during the comparison will be illustrated.

41 The Competitive Edge (November/December 1986)

Now that the new tax bill has been passed, the time has come to begin evaluating how it will affect investment strategies in the machine tool business. Your first reaction may be to think that any motivation to invest in capital improvements in your company is gone, because both the investment tax credit and the accelerated depreciation on capital investment have been removed from the tax law. After all, if Uncle Sam is not going to help us out through some short term tax gains, why should we bother? Can we afford to bother?

42 Making it in Mobile (November/December 2014)

"If it's broken, bring it on in." That's the advice offered by Roy Parker, president and owner of Jones Welding Company Inc.

43 Industry News (May 2016)

Lastest news from around the industry.

44 Industry News (March/April 2015)

The complete Industry News section from the March/April 2015 issue of Gear Technology.

45 Industry News (June 2015)

News from Around the Gear Industry

46 Off-Highway or Off-Press, Andantex Focuses on Precision (June 2015)

Andantex USA is a part of the worldwide Redex group, a longtime provider of high-precision motion control components and systems

47 Industry News (July 2015)

News from the Gear Industry

48 Product News (September/October 2015)

News about New Products

49 Product News (January/February 2016)

Latest news about the Latest Products

50 Industry News (January/February 2016)

Latest new from the Gear Industry

51 CNC Gear Shaping (March/April 1986)

Two major processes used for cutting gears, hobbing and shaping. This article describes advanced machine design and cutter materials for gear shaping.

52 Application Factors (May 2019)

A reader asks: I'd like to know about the different approaches and factors considered while determining the value of Ka in regards to the DIN 3990 and AGMA standards.

53 Knowledge is the Best Insurance (July 2019)

If you were offered an opportunity to spend quality time with leading experts in your field, where in-depth discussions and dialogues occurred on subjects that directly impacted your business, would you do it?

54 Industry News (September 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the September 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

55 Product News (March/April 2019)

The complete Product News section from the March/April 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

56 Product News (August 2015)

News about the newest products from the Gear Industry

57 Industry News (August 2016)

News from around the Industry

58 Product News (September/October 2016)

News on the latest products in the industry.

59 Product News (March/April 2017)

The latest in machine tools, cutting tools, inspection equipment, shop floor gages and other products for the gear industry.

60 Product News (May 2017)

The latest from Liebherr, Gleason, Klingelnberg and more.

61 Product News (March/April 2018)

New machining fluids for automotive, jaw boring rings, virtual machine simulation and coordinate measuring software are highlighted in the March/April 2018 issue of Gear Technology.

62 Product News (September/October 2018)

See the latest gear industry products from Marposs, GWJ Technology, Norton|Saint Gobain, Mitutoyo, C&B Machinery, DMG Mori, Gear Motions and LK Metrology.

63 Product News (January/February 2019)

The complete Product News section from the January/February issue of Gear Technology.

64 Measurement Management (July 2019)

The secret to meeting today's inspection demands is influenced by the technology and those in charge of operating it.

65 Product News (August 2013)

The complete Product News Section from the August 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

66 Product News (September/October 2019)

The complete Product News section from the September/October 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

67 Product News (November/December 2019)

The complete Product News section from the November/December 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

68 Industry News (November/December 2019)

The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

69 Product News (May 2020)

The complete Product News section from the May 2020 issue of Gear Technology.

70 CMM for Gear Inspection (June 2020)

Gear inspection has long been a highly specialized costly investment and an overall challenging part of the gear manufacturing process. Given that complicated gages, testers, and CNC equipment all go into creating high quality gears, companies may want to invest in a CMM to streamline inspection.

71 Product News (September/October 2020)

The complete Product News section from the September/October 2020 issue of Gear Technology.

72 Industry News (September/October 2020)

The complete Industry News section from the September/October 2020 issue of Gear Technology.

73 Mitutoyo Examines Modern Gear Measurement (June 2021)

When it comes to modern gear measurement, there are still essentially two primary tools that shops use. The first is a machine dedicated solely to measuring gears, which had been the primary method for many years, until recently.

74 Industry News (November/December 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

75 CMM Gear Inspection (January/February 2013)

Mitutoyo offers capable, affordable and flexible gear inspection option via coordinate measuring machines and gear inspection software.

76 Product News (August 2019)

The complete Product News section from the August 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

77 Navigating without a Road Map (June 2020)

Often in life we're forced to make decisions with too little information. Phone's dead and you don't have access to GPS? Lost the instructions for assembling that new gas grill? Don't have the recipe for your favorite dessert? “No problem," I often tell my wife or my kids, "I'll just use the Force."

78 Microgear Measurement Standards: Comparing Tactile, Optical and Computed Tomography Measurements (August 2019)

PTB's two microgear measurement standards and their analyses using seven measurement methods which are then presented, evaluated and compared with each other.

79 Industry News (August 2019)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

80 The Application of Geometrical Product Specification (GPS) - Compatible Strategies for Measurement of Involute Gears (November/December 2019)

During the revision of ISO 1328-1:2013 Cylindrical gears — ISO system of flank tolerance classification, ISO Technical Committee TC 60 WG2 delegates discussed proposals that the standard should be modified to ensure that it is compatible with the ISO Geometrical Product Specification (GPS) series of standards (Refs. 1-3). This seems sensible because the gears are geometrical components, but after reviewing the implications, it was rejected because ISO TC 60 WG2 did not think the gear manufacturing industry was ready for such a radical change in measurement strategy. The feasibility of the implementation of gears into the GPS matrix of standards has been carried out and the results conclude that this is practical, provided some key issues related to measurement uncertainty and establishing appropriate KPIs are addressed.

81 Keeping Things Moving (March/April 2020)

Over the past month, everything about our world has changed. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought most aspects of our lives to a grinding halt. We can’t go out to eat. We can’t travel. We can’t even go to church. A lot of businesses are struggling. But at the same time, there are a lot of people who are busier than ever. In some cases, frighteningly so.

82 Developing Certainty in Uncertain Times (March/April 2020)

AGMA President Matt Croson explains how the association is here for members and the gear industry at large, providing information, resources, education and training -- even during the crisis.

83 Shaft Positioning Tolerances for Bevel Gears (March/April 2020)

We know that for cylindrical gears we have the standard DIN 3964 for defining deviations of shaft center distance and shaft position tolerances of casings. And for bevel gears? Is there some specific standard for defining deviations of center distance and shaft position tolerances of casings (orthogonal shafts), as DIN 3964 do?

84 Staying Connected (May 2020)

With much of America still under stay-at-home orders, it's very difficult for many of us to stay connected. In our personal lives, we're celebrating birthdays with a drive-by and a wave, we're attending religious service on our laptops and talking with loved ones via video chat. If you're allowed to go to work, you're expected to wear a mask and keep your distance. And if you're working from home, your only connection to co-workers, employers, suppliers and vendors is via virtual meetings and conference calls.

85 Parenting in the Pandemic (May 2020)

uncertainty is still an everyday experience. Given the wealth of sometimes confusing and contradictory information we are spoon fed by Washington, we are left to our own devices to decipher announcements, e.g. — Do I wear a mask or not wear a mask? Do I still need to practice social distancing (a classic oxymoron: what is sociable about keeping distances between each other)? And so on.

86 Supply Chain Management Users Guide (July 2020)

We asked a few industry suppliers to provide some insight into gear manufacturers' supply chain challenges during the pandemic.

87 Product News (November/December 2021)

The complete Product News section from the November/December 2021 issue of Gear Technology.

88 Anticipating 2021 (August 2020)

The number 21 is usually good, right? In blackjack, 21 means you win. In life, 21 means you’re officially adult enough to buy alcohol, gamble in a casino or purchase a handgun (In the United States, at least). In military ceremonies, a 21-gun salute is an honor reserved for dignitaries or heads of state.

89 IMTS Future Tech (August 2020)

The Digital Manufacturing Revolution Evolves in 2020

90 Keeping In Touch - From a Distance (September/October 2020)

I've been tuning in to a lot of information in new ways, lately. Chances are, you have, too. The pandemic has restructured all of our lives in ways we couldn’t have imagined just a year ago. From work to school to family, video chat and teleconference have replaced warm hugs and handshakes. There's no kibitzing around the water cooler.

91 AGMA Standards Committees Keep the Industry “In Gear” for 2021 (January/February 2021)

A comprehensive look at latest standards development efforts.

92 Industry News (March/April 2021)

The latest news from AGMA, EMAG Group, Star Cutter, MHI and more.

93 Product News (May 2021)

Gear-related new technology from Liquidtool Manager, Marposs, EDM Intelligent Solutions, Helios Gear Products, Kapp Niles Metrology and more.

94 Industry News (September/October 2021)

The complete Industry News section from the September/October 2021 issue of Gear Technology

95 Calendar (November/December 2021)

Calendar of early 2022 events

96 The Devil Is in the Details (October 2013)

A response to the September 2013 Voices piece on how gear standards are written, from one who's been there.

97 New Standards for Large Ring Gears for Mills, Kilns (September 2013)

Methods of examining large ring gear teeth to detect surface breaking discontinuities have often been time-consuming and limited in terms of data collected. Methods such as visual and magnetic particle inspection can miss critical discontinuities. However, a new ASTM international standard provides a more effective method for gear examination using eddy current array, a technology that has been widely used but, until now, not standardized.

98 Shaper Cutters-Design & Applications Part 1 (March/April 1990)

Gear shaping is one of the most popular production choices in gear manufacturing. While the gear shaping process is really the most versatile of all the gear manufacturing methods and can cut a wide variety of gears, certain types of gears can only be cut by this process. These are gears closely adjacent to shoulders; gears adjacent to other gears, such as on countershafts; internal gears, either open or blind ended; crown or face gears; herringbone gears of the solid configuration of with a small center groove; rack; parts with filled-in spaces or teeth, such as are used in some clutches.

99 Winds of Change in Profile Grinding (May/June 2004)

Recent breakthroughs in profile grinding software are helping Anderson Precision Gears and others meet wind power’s insatiable appetite for faster production of large, high-quality gears.

100 Computer Aided Design for Gear Shaper Cutters (November/December 1987)

Computer programs have been developed to completely design spur and helical gear shaper cutters starting from the specifications of the gear to be cut and the type of gear shaper to be used. The programs generate the working drawing of the cutter and, through the use of a precision plotter, generate enlarge scaled layouts of the gear as produced by the cutter and any other layouts needed for its manufacture.

101 Good Gears Start With Good Blanks (November/December 1987)

The quality of the finished gear is influenced by the very first machining operations of the blank. Since the gear tooth geometry is generated on a continuously rotating blank in hobbing or shaping, it is important that the timed relationship between the cutter and workpiece is correct. If this relationship is disturbed by eccentricities of the blank to its operating centerline, the generated gear teeth will not be of the correct geometry. During the blanking operations, the gear's centerline and locating surfaces are established and must be maintained as the same through the following operations that generate the gear teeth.

102 Nonstandard Tooth Proportions (June 2007)

With the right selection of nonstandard center distance and tool shifting, it may be possible to use standard tools to improve the gear set capacity with a considerable reduction in cost when compared to the use of special tools.

103 Comparison of Rating Trends in AGMA Versus ISO (May/June 2004)

As the international business community grows closer together, the need for understanding differences between national and international gear rating standards becomes increasingly important for U.S. gear manufacturers competing in the world market.

104 Non-Standard Cylindrical Gears (November/December 2004)

Curved face width (CFW) spur gears are not popular in the gear industry. But these non-metallic gears have advantages over standard spur gears: higher contact ratio, higher tooth stiffness, and lower contact and bending stresses.

105 Industry Forum (September/October 1985)

Your May/June issue contains a letter from Edward Ubert of Rockwell International with some serious questions about specifying and measuring tooth thickness.

106 Globalization Brings AGMA, ISO Standards Closer (May/June 2004)

“The gear marketplace is a global marketplace.” Bill Bradley says it easily, with no special emphasis. The vice president of AGMA’s technical division sees the statement as an obvious fact.

107 Industry Forum (July/August 1985)

In response to Ed Uberts letter, we have come a long way in gearing since WWII. The Europeans do use long addendum pinions in many cases. This modification does improve load capacity, sliding conditions and the working life of a gearset. When modifying a pinion tooth it is necessary to modify the gear tooth or adjust the center distance accordingly but we will leave that to the designers.

108 An International Wind Turbine Gearbox Standard (July 2009)

Industrial gear standards have been used to support reliability through the specification of requirements for design, manufacturing and verification. The consensus development of an international wind turbine gearbox standard is an example where gear products can be used in reliable mechanical systems today. This has been achieved through progressive changes in gear technology, gear design methods and the continual development and refinement of gearbox standards.

109 Rebuilding a Legacy (November/December 2020)

Bourn & Koch provides retrofit Fellows 10-4 machine for gear shaping.

110 Application of the First International Calculation Method for Micropitting (May 2012)

The first edition of the international calculation method for micropitting—ISO TR 15144–1:2010—was just published last December. It is the first and only official, international calculation method established for dealing with micropitting. Years ago, AGMA published a method for the calculation of oil film thickness containing some comments about micropitting, and the German FVA published a calculation method based on intensive research results. The FVA and the AGMA methods are close to the ISO TR, but the calculation of micropitting safety factors is new.

111 Industry Forum (May/June 1985)

This letter is in response to your article asking the readers where their interests lie. The division of Rockwell International where I work has engineering departments in Cicero.

112 New ANSI-AGMA Accuracy Standards for Gears (March/April 2004)

AGMA has started to replace its 2000-A88 standard for gear accuracy with a new series of documents based largely on ISO standards. The first of the replacement AGMA standards have been published with the remainder coming in about a year. After serving as a default accuracy specification for U.S. commerce in gear products for several decades, the material in AGMA 2000-A88 is now considered outdated and in need of comprehensive revision.

113 Industry News (March/April 2009)

The complete industry news section from the March/April 2009 issue of Gear Technology.

114 Plastic Gear Standards: A Balancing Act (March/April 2007)

Creating standards for plastic gears calls for a deft touch. The challenge is to set uniform guidelines, yet avoid limiting the creative solutions plastic offers gear designers.

115 Beachfront Gear Manufacturing (January/February 2007)

Lots of us became interested in gears while taking drafting classes in high school.

116 Future Demands Next Generation of Standards and Practices in Gear Industry (May 2010)

Gear manufacturers are moving into an era that will see changes in both engineering practices and industry standards as new end-products evolve. Within the traditional automotive industry, carbon emission reduction legislation will drive the need for higher levels of efficiency and growth in electric and hybrid vehicles. Meanwhile, the fast growing market of wind turbines is already opening up a whole new area of potential for gearbox manufacturers, but this industry is one that will demand reliability, high levels of engineering excellence and precision manufacturing.

117 Allowable Contact Stresses in Jacking Gear Units Used in the Offshore Industry (May 2010)

An offshore jack-up drilling rig is a barge upon which a drilling platform is placed. The barge has legs that can be lowered to the sea floor to support the rig. Then the barge can be “jacked up” out of the water, providing a stable work platform from which to drill for oil and gas. Jack-up drilling rigs were first introduced in the late 1950s. Rack-and- pinion-type jack-up units were introduced soon after that and have dominated the industry ever since.

118 Big Gears: Seeing is Believing (November/December 2020)

This is the timely and relevant sequel to our Nov/Dec 2018 Addendum article, "Safety Guaranteed." In the original article will looked at some incredible gear applications from the safety of our desktop computers and smartphones. Who knew we would be spending most of 2020 doing the same exact thing?

119 Industry News (July 2020)

The latest gear industry news from Machine Tool Builders, Global Gear, EMAG, Bourn & Koch, Klingelnberg and others.

120 Writing the Standards (January/February 2011)

Gary A. Bish, director of product design technology for Horsburgh & Scott, discusses his role as chairman of the AGMA mill gearing committee.

121 Design Implications for Shaper Cutters (July/August 1996)

A gear shaper cutter is actually a gear with relieved cutting edges and increased addendum for providing clearance in the root of the gear being cut. The maximum outside diameter of such a cutter is limited to the diameter at which the teeth become pointed. The minimum diameter occurs when the outside diameter of the cutter and the base circle are the same. Those theoretical extremes, coupled with the side clearance, which is normally 2 degrees for coarse pitch cutters an d1.5 degrees for cutters approximately 24-pitch and finer, will determine the theoretical face width of a cutter.

122 Runout, Helix Accuracy and Shaper Cutters (June/July 2012)

Our experts discuss runout and helix accuracy, as well as the maximum number of teeth in a shaper cutter.

123 Shaper Cutters - Design & Application - Part 2 (May/June 1990)

Cutter Sharpening Cutter sharpening is very important both during manufacturing and subsequently in resharpening after dulling. Not only does this process affect cutter "over cutting edge" quality and the quality of the part cut, but it can also affect the manner in which chip flow takes place on the cutter face if the surface finished is too rough or rippled.

124 SPC Acceptance of Hobbing & Shaping Machines (September/October 1991)

Today, as part of filling a typical gear hobbing or shaping machine order, engineers are required to perform an SPC acceptance test. This SPC test, while it is contractually necessary for machine acceptance, is not a machine acceptance test. It is a process capability test. It is an acceptance of the machine, cutting tool, workholding fixture, and workpiece as integrated on the cutting machine, using a gear measuring machine, with its work arbor and evaluation software, to measure the acceptance elements of the workpiece.

125 New Cutting Tool Developments in Gear Shaping Technology (January/February 1993)

The advent of CNC technology as applied to gear shaping machines has, in the last 10 years, led to an astonishing improvement in both productivity and quality. As is usual when developments such as this take place, the technology of the machine tool suddenly jumps ahead of that of the cutting tool, and the machine is then capable of producing faster than the cutting tool can withstand.

126 Innovative CNC Gear Shaping (January/February 1994)

The Shaping Process - A Quick Review of the Working Principle. In the shaping process, cutter and workpiece represent a drive with parallel axes rotating in mesh (generating motion) according to the number of teeth in both cutter and workpiece (Fig. 1), while the cutter reciprocates for the metal removal action (cutting motion).

127 The Shape of Things to Come (July/August 1995)

An engineer's responsibility for verifying a new design or product concept as manufacturable early in the development cycle is a tough challenge. What appears to work on a blueprint or in a three-dimensional CAD file on a computer screen many not work on the factory floor; and the downstream impact on the manufacturing process of an undetected design flaw can be enormous. Costs can run into the millions.

128 New Concepts in CNC Gear Shaping (July/August 1995)

In today's economy, when purchasing a new state-of-the-art gear shaper means a significant capital investment, common sense alone dictates that you develop strategies to get the most for your money. One of the best ways to do this is to take advantage of the sophistication of the machine to make it more than just a single-purpose tool.

129 Avoiding Interference In Shaper-Cut Gears (January/February 1996)

In the process of developing gear trains, it occasionally occurs that the tip of one gear will drag in the fillet of the mating gear. The first reaction may be to assume that the outside diameter of the gear is too large. This article is intended to show that although the gear dimensions follow AGMA guidelines, if the gear is cut with a shaper, the cutting process may not provide sufficient relief in the fillet area and be the cause of the interference.

130 New Guideless CNC Shaper for Helical Gears (March/April 1998)

Product announcements so often trumpet minor, incremental advances with works like "revolutionary" and "unique" that even the best thesaurus can fail to offer a fresh alternative to alert the reader when something really innovative and important is introduced. In the case of Mitsubishi's new CNC gear shaper, the ST25CNC, both terms apply.

131 Beautiful on the Inside (January/February 2019)

Automotive gear manufacturers have implemented significant improvements in external planetary gear manufacturing yielding quieter gears. In addition, process stability has increased due to the post-heat treatment finishing processes employed. This article explains various complete solutions for cutting and finishing internal ring gears.

132 Reducing Production Costs in Cylindrical Gear Hobbing and Shaping (March/April 2000)

Increased productivity in roughing operations for gear cutting depends mainly on lower production costs in the hobbing process. In addition, certain gears can be manufactured by shaping, which also needs to be taken into account in the search for a more cost-effective form of production.

133 Dry Machining for Gear Shaping (November/December 2001)

Economic production is one of the main concerns of any manufacturing facility. In recent years, cost increases and tougher statutory requirements have increasingly made cutting fluids a problematic manufacturing and cost factor in metalworking. Depending on the cutting fluid, production process and supply unit, cutting-fluid costs may account for up to 16% of workpiece cost. In some cases, they exceed tool cost by many times (Ref. 1). The response by manufacturers is to demand techniques for dry machining (Ref. 2).

134 My Gear Is Bigger than Your Gear (March/April 2013)

Industry battles it out for World's Largest Gear title.

135 Where Did All the Displaced Manufacturing Workers Go (August 2013)

Following is a report from The Manufacturers Alliance for Productivity and Innovation (MAPI). Founded in 1933, the alliance contributes to the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturing by providing economic research, professional development, and an independent, expert source of manufacturing information.

136 Leading the Way in Lead Crown Correction and Inspection (August 2013)

Forest City Gear applies advanced gear shaping and inspection technologies to help solve difficult lead crown correction challenges half a world away. But these solutions can also benefit customers much closer to home, the company says. Here's how…

137 Super-Sized Quality Control (January/February 2014)

It's not easy being big. Maybe that's not exactly how the phrase goes, but it's applicable, particularly when discussing the quality requirements of large gears. The size alone promises unique engineering challenges. BONUS Online Exclusive: Big or Small - Inspection is Key to Success.

138 Looming Large (January/February 2016)

Let's talk about large gears. Not the size or scope or inspection process, but the forecast and market potential in areas that utilize these massive components. We'll examine key industry segments like energy and mining and tap IHS Economics for a forecast for 2016 and 2017 (spoiler alert: it's not great). Additionally, we'll discuss some of the critical factors influencing global big gear manufacturers Ferry-Capitain and Hofmann Engineering.

139 A Comparison of Current AGMA, ISO and API Gear Rating Methods (July 2018)

There are many different gear rating methods in use today, and they can give substantially different results for any given gearset. This paper will make it easy to understand the choices and the impact the choices have on gearbox design. Eight standards are included - AGMA 2001; AGMA 6011; AGMA 6013; ISO 6336; API 613; API 617; API 672; and API 677. (Click HERE for the Appendix to this article).

140 Raising the Standards (August 2010)

Dr. Phil Terry, chairman of the AGMA Technical Division Executive Committee, talks about the standards-making process.

141 Standards Development: Enclosed Drives (March/April 2011)

Chairman Todd Praneis of Cotta Transmission describes the activities of AGMA's Enclosed Drives technical committee.

142 How Gear Standards are Written (September 2013)

The new chairman of the AGMA Technical Division Executive Committee explains what's involved in the process of developing technical standards at the AGMA.

143 Direct Gear Design for Spur and Helical Involute Gears (September/October 2002)

Modern gear design is generally based on standard tools. This makes gear design quite simple (almost like selecting fasteners), economical, and available for everyone, reducing tooling expenses and inventory. At the same time, it is well known that universal standard tools provide gears with less than optimum performance and - in some cases - do not allow for finding acceptable gear solutions. Application specifies, including low noise and vibration, high density of power transmission (lighter weight, smaller size) and others, require gears with nonstandard parameters. That's why, for example, aviation gear transmissions use tool profiles with custom proportions, such as pressure angle, addendum, and whole depth. The following considerations make application of nonstandard gears suitable and cost-efficient:

144 Standard Issues (November/December 1996)

Standards are unlike gears themselves: mundane, but complex, ubiquitous and absolutely vital. Standards are a lingua franca, providing a common language with reference points for evaluating product reliability and performance for manufacturers and users. The standards development process provides a scientific forum for discussion of product design, materials and applications, which can lead to product improvement. Standards can also be a powerful marketing tool for either penetrating new markets or protecting established ones.

145 The Gear Standards Challenge (September/October 1997)

Who wants or needs technical details about gearing? Who cares about it? Three out of every four people who are reading this magazine make up at least 75% of those who have an interest in the subject. The members of AGMA, EUROTRANS, JGMA and JSIM have an interest. All the people attending the Gear Expo in Detroit have an interest. Clearly, however, the people with the most pressing interest in our industry are our customers, the end users of gear products. The unfortunate reality, though, is that in many cases, these customers don't even know that's what they want.

146 New Guidelines For Wind Turbine Gearboxes (May/June 1998)

The wind turbine industry has been plagued with gearbox failures, which cause repair costs, legal expenses, lost energy production and environmental pollution.

147 AGMA and ISO Accuracy Standards (May/June 1998)

The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to write all U.S. standards on gearing. However, in response to the growing interest in a global marketplace, AGMA became involved with the International Standards Organization (ISO) several years ago, first as an observer in the late 1970s and then as a participant, starting in the early 1980s. In 1993, AGMA became Secretariat (or administrator) for Technical Committee 60 of ISO, which administers ISO gear standards development.

148 Introduction to ISO 6336 What Gear Manufacturers Need to Know (July/August 1998)

ISO 6336 Calculation of Load Capacity of Spur and Helical Gears was published in 1997 after 50 years of effort by an international committee of experts whose work spanned three generations of gear technology development. It was a difficult compromise between the existing national standards to get a single standard published which will be the basis for future work. Many of the compromises added complication to the 1987 edition of DIN 3990, which was the basic document.

149 Comparing Standards (September/October 1998)

One of the best ways to learn the ISO 6336 gear rating system is to recalculate the capacity of a few existing designs and to compare the ISO 6336 calculated capacity to your experience with those designs and to other rating methods. For these articles, I'll assume that you have a copy of ISO 6336, you have chosen a design for which you have manufacturing drawings and an existing gear capacity calculation according to AGMA 2001 or another method. I'll also assume that you have converted dimensions, loads, etc. into the SI system of measurement.

150 Calculating Spur and Helical Gear Capacity with ISO 6336 (November/December 1998)

This is the third article in a series exploring the new ISO 6336 gear rating standard and its methods of calculation. The opinions expressed herein are htose of the author as an individual. They do not represent the opinions of any organization of which he is a member.

151 Gear Measurement Traceability and Uncertainty (July/August 2000)

Until recently, there was a void in the quality control of gear manufacturing in this country (Ref. 1). Gear measurements were not traceable to the international standard of length through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The U.S. military requirement for traceability was clearly specified in the military standard MIL-STD-45662A (Ref. 2). This standard has now been replaced by commercial sector standards including ISO 9001:1994 (Ref. 3), ISO/IEC Guide 25 (Ref, 4), and the U.S. equivalent of ISO/IEC Guide 25 - ANSI/NCSL Z540-2-1997 (Ref. 5). The draft replacement to ISO/IEC Guide 25 - ISO 17025 states that measurements must either be traceable to SI units or reference to a natural constant. The implications of traceability to the U.S. gear industry are significant. In order to meet the standards, gear manufacturers must either have calibrated artifacts or establish their own traceability to SI units.

152 Profile Shift (August 2012)

Three experts tackle the question of profile shift in this issue's edition of "Ask the Expert."

153 Gears Around the World (Wide Web) (July/August 1996)

More Gears in Cyberspace Dial in to the web site of Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry for an online version of the museum's Gears from the Century of Progress exhibit.

154 GT Extras (October 2012)

Our up-front column highlighting what's online this issue.

155 Industry News (November/December 2012)

The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2012 issue of Gear Technology.

156 Progress in Gear Milling (January/February 2013)

Sandvik presents the latest in gear milling technologies.

157 Gear Manufacturing Methods - Forming the Teeth (January/February 1987)

The forming of gear teeth has traditionally been a time-consuming heavy stock removal operation in which close tooth size, shape, runout and spacing accuracy are required. This is true whether the teeth are finished by a second forming operation or a shaving operation.

158 Gear Shaping Machines CNC Developement (November/December 1985)

Up until approximately 1968-69, pinion cutter-type gear shaping machines had changed very little since their conception in the early 1900's.

159 Product News (March/April 2013)

The complete Product News section from the March/April 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

160 Product News (May 2013)

The complete Product News section from the May 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

161 EMO 2013 - Intelligence in Production (August 2013)

Preview of some of the exhibits relevant to gear manufacturing at the upcoming EMO 2013.

162 AGMA & MPIF Develop Standards, Information Sheet for Powder Metal Gears (September/October 1996)

AGMA and members of the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) are three years into a joint project to develop specifications and an information sheet on rating powder metal gears. According to committee vice chairman Glen A. Moore of Burgess-Norton Mfg. Co., the first phase of the project, the publication of AGMA Standard "6009-AXX, Specifications for Powder Metallurgy Gears," should be completed in late 1996 or early 1997.

163 Other People's Footsteps (May/June 1996)

Earlier this year, a relative of mine, Sidney Mandell, tragically passed away. I had the good fortune to serve with Sidney on the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the Machinery Dealers National Association (MDNA). Though he started before me, his MDNA career and mine overlapped for about 2 years. As I think back on the many things I learned form him, one of his favorite phrases keeps come to mind: "We walk in the footsteps of those who have gone before us."

164 Carl Zeiss CMM Guides Andrew Tool with Complex Mars Rover Project (March/April 2011)

At Andrew Tool, CMMs have been an integral part of their manufacturing processes for years, but they had never faced a project with such intricate measurements, tight tolerances, heat treatments and a very short time frame requirement.

165 AGMA Responds to Gear Standards Article (January/February 1991)

The authors of last issue's article comparing AGMA, ISO and BS methods for Pitting Resistance Ratings are commended. Trying to compare various methods of rating gears is like hitting a moving target in a thick forest. The use of different symbols, presentations, terminology, and definitions in these standards makes it very difficult. But the greatest problem lies with the authors' use of older versions of these documents. ISO drafts and AGMA standards have evolved at the same time their work was accomplished and edited.

166 Wind Standard Closer to Completion (March/April 2011)

Faithful Gear Technology readers may recall that our July 2009 issue contained an update of the deliberations provided by Bill Bradley. Now, almost two years later, there is an ISO/IEC wind turbine gearbox standard out for draft international standard ballot (ballot closes 2011-05-17).

167 Developing Flexible Couplings Standards (May 2011)

AGMA Flexible Couplings committee chairman Glenn C. Pokrandt gives an update about standards and other documents under development.

168 Minimum Setup Time, Maximum Machining Capability (November/December 2011)

Hainbuch offers workholding solutions for United Gear.

169 Gear Generating Using Rack Cutters (October/November 1984)

Universal machines capable of cutting both spur and helical gears were developed in 1910, followed later by machines capable of cutting double helical gears with continuous teeth. Following the initial success, the machines were further developed both in England and France under the name Sunderland, and later in Switzerland under the name Maag.

170 ...And from the Industry (October/November 1984)

Industry News from October/November 1984 Gear Technology.

171 Describing Nonstandard Gears - An Alternative to the Rack Shift Coefficient (January/February 1988)

The use of dimensionless factors to describe gear tooth geometry seems to have a strong appeal to gear engineers. The stress factors I and J, for instance, are well established in AGMA literature. The use of the rack shift coefficient "x" to describe nonstandard gear proportions is common in Europe, but is not as commonly used in the United States. When it is encountered in the European literature or in the operating manuals for imported machine tools, it can be a source of confusion to the American engineer.

172 Towards an Improved AGMA Accuracy Classification System on Double-Flank Composite Measurements (June/July 2012)

AGMA introduced ANSI/AGMA 2015–2–A06— Accuracy Classification System: Radial System for Cylindrical Gears, in 2006 as the first major rewrite of the double-flank accuracy standard in over 18 years. This document explains concerns related to the use of ANSI/AGMA 2015–2–A06 as an accuracy classification system and recommends a revised system that can be of more service to the gearing industry.

173 AGMA, ISO, and BS Gear Standards Part I - Pitting Resistance Ratings (November/December 1990)

A study of AGMA 218, the draft ISO standard 6336, and BS 436: 1986 methods for rating gear tooth strength and surface durability for metallic spur and helical gears is presented. A comparison of the standards mainly focuses on fundamental formula and influence factors, such as the load distribution factor, geometry factor, and others. No attempt is made to qualify or judge the standards other than to comment on the facilities or lack of them in each standard reviewed. In Part I a comparison of pitting resistance ratings is made, and in the subsequent issue, Part II will deal with bending stress ratings and comparisons of designs.

174 AGMA, ISO, and BS Gear Standards Part II - Pitting Resistance Ratings (January/February 1991)

In Part I differences in pitting ratings between AGMA 218, the draft ISO standard 6336, and BS 436:1986 were examined. In this part bending strength ratings are compared. All the standards base the bending strength on the Lewis equation; the ratings differ in the use and number of modification factors. A comprehensive design survey is carried out to examine practical differences between the rating methods presented in the standards, and the results are shown in graphical form.

175 The SERCOS Interface Standard (January/February 1996)

Today motion control systems are migrating from analog to digital technology at an ever increasing rate because digital technology at an ever-increasing rate because digital drives provide performance equal to or exceeding that of analog drives, plus information to run your machine more effectively and manage your quality program and your business. Most of this data is simply not available from analog drives.

176 Single Flank Measuring; Estimating Horsepower Capacity (September/October 1991)

Question: What is functional measurement and what is the best method for getting truthful answers?

177 ISO 9000: Global Market Salvation Or A Pig In A Poke (March/April 1994)

ISO 9000 is the latest hot topic in marketing and manufacturing circles. Everyone seems to be talking about it, but few seem to understand it completely. depending on whom one talks to, it's either the greatest thing to hit industry since the assembly line, another cash cow for slick consultants, a conspiracy on the part of Europeans to dominate global markets, or the next necessary step to compete in the global economy of the twenty-first century. It may be all of the above.

178 What is ISO 9000 and Why Should I Care (March/April 1994)

What follows is the first of three articles we will be running on ISO 9000 and what it means for the gear industry. This first article will cover what ISO 9000 is, what some of its benefits - and problems - are, and whether your company should be a candidate for this certification process. In our next issue, we will consider the important question of how, when, and if to hire an ISO 9000 consultant. The final article in this series will discuss ways to save money while streamlining the certification process in your company.

179 Gear Metrology Standards and ISO 9000 (May/June 1994)

I noted with interest the beginning of Gear Technology's three-part series on ISO 9000 certification. I also recently attended Brown & Sharpe's/Leitz gear metrology seminar. Both events caused me to smile and reflect.

180 Choosing An ISO 9000 Consultant: Why, When & How (May/June 1994)

On of the key questions confronting any company considering ISO 9000 certification is, how much is this going to cost? The up-front fees are only the beginning. Dissect the ISO 9000 certification procedure with an eye for hidden costs, and two segments of the process will leap out - the cost of consultants and the cost of making in-house improvements for the sake of passing certification. Most of these costs can be controlled by careful selection f the right consultant in the first place.

181 The Frugal Certification Process (July/August 1994)

Much about ISO 9000 is the subject of noisy debate. But on one thing almost everyone, true believers and critics alike, agrees: Getting ISO 9000 certification can be expensive. Companies can expect to spend at least $35,000 for basic certification and six-month checkup fees over a three-year period. These figures do not include hidden costs like time and money spent on internal improvements required to meet ISO 9000 certification. But the really big-ticket items in the process are employee time and the cost of bringing in outside consultants. Many ISO 9000 consultants charge upwards of $1,800 a day.

182 A Comparison of ISO 4156-ANSI B92.2M - 1980 With Older Imperial Standards (September/October 1994)

The purpose of this article is to discuss ISO 4156/ANSI B92.2M-1980 and to compare it with other, older standards still in use. In our experience designing and manufacturing spline gauges and other spline measuring or holding devices for splined component manufacturers throughout the world, we are constantly surprised that so many standards have been produced covering what is quite a small subject. Many of the standards are international standards; others are company standards, which are usually based on international standards. Almost all have similarities; that is, they all deal with splines that have involute flanks of 30 degrees, 37.5 degrees or 45 degrees pressure angle and are for the most part flank-fitting or occasionally major-diameter-fitting.

183 QS - 9000 Rules (November/December 1995)

Ready or not, QS-9000 is here. If you are a first-tier supplier to one of the Big Three automotive companies, you've already heard that compliance with this new quality standard is now an entry-level requirement for doing business with Ford, General Motors and Chrysler. If you're a second-or third-tier supplier, you can expect the ripple effect of this new standard to hit your company one way or another.

184 Product News (June 2021)

Gear-related new technology from Affolter Group, Liebherr, PTG Holroyd, BMW Motorrad and more.

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