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Carburized gears have higher strengths and longer lives compared with induction-hardened or quench-tempered gears. But in big module gears, carburizing heat-treatment becomes time-consuming and expensive and sometimes cannot achieve good hardness due to the big mass-effect. Also, it is not easy to reduce distortion of gears during heat treatment.
Large, multi-segmented girth gears do not behave like the relatively compact, rigid, monolithic structures we typically envision when discussing gear manufacturing. Girth gears are very large, non-rigid structures that require special care during the machining of individual mating segments as well as the assembled gear blank itself.
Methods of examining large ring gear teeth to detect surface breaking discontinuities have often been time-consuming and limited in terms of data collected. Methods such as visual and magnetic particle inspection can miss critical discontinuities. However, a new ASTM international standard provides a more effective method for gear examination using eddy current array, a technology that has been widely used but, until now, not standardized.
Video from C&B Machinery; Introducing the Gear Technology Blog, featuring technical editor Charles D. Schultz; plus an online-exclusive article on big gear inspection.
It's not easy being big. Maybe that's not exactly how the phrase goes, but it's applicable, particularly when discussing the quality requirements of large gears. The size alone promises unique engineering challenges. BONUS Online Exclusive: Big or Small - Inspection is Key to Success.
Much of the existing guidelines for making large, high-performance gears for wind turbine gearboxes exhibit a need for improvement. Consider: the large grinding stock used to compensate for heat treatment distortion can significantly reduce manufacturing productivity; and, materials and manufacturing processes are two other promising avenues to improvement. The work presented here investigates quenchable alloy steels that, combined with specifically developed Case-hardening and heat treatment processes, exhibits reduced distortion and, in turn, requires a smaller grinding stock.
Environmentally friendly, highly efficient and lasting a product's lifetime. With characteristics like this, Pulsed-Plasma Diffusion (PPD) technology from Oerlikon Balzers has established itself as an industry standard for the treatment of large automotive press tooling. Now the technology specialists are targeting new applications with this advanced process, offering an alternative to traditional hard-chrome processes.
Faith â€” paraphrasing the gospels of Matthew and Mark â€” can move mountains. But it helps if you have precision geared equipment.
Let's talk about large gears. Not the size or scope or inspection process, but the forecast and market potential in areas that utilize these massive components. We'll examine key industry segments like energy and mining and tap IHS Economics for a forecast for 2016 and 2017 (spoiler alert: it's not great). Additionally, we'll discuss some of the critical factors influencing global big gear manufacturers Ferry-Capitain and Hofmann Engineering.
Latest news about upcoming products
At first sight the appearance of 5-axis milling for bevel gears opens new possibilities in flank form design. Since in comparison to existing machining methods applying cutter heads no kinematic restrictions exist for 5-axis milling technology, any flank form can be machined. Nevertheless the basic requirements for bevel gears did not change. Specifications and functional requirements like load carrying capacity and running behavior are still increasing demands for design and manufacturing. This paper describes the demands for gear design and gives an overview about different design principles in the context of the surrounding periphery of the gear set.
Multiple possibilities are available to increase the transmissible power of girth gears. These solutions include: using a larger module, increasing of the gear diameter through the number of teeth, enlarging the face width, and increasing the hardness of the base material. The first three parameters are mostly limited by cutting machine capability. Module, outside diameter, and face width (for a cast gear) can theoretically be increased to infinity, but not the cutting machine dimensions. There are also practical limits with respect to the installation of very large diameter/large face width gears.
This paper presents a new approach to repair industrial gears by showing a case study where pressure angle modification is also considered, differently from the past repairing procedures that dealt only with the modification of the profile shift coefficient. A computer program has been developed to automatically determine the repair alternatives under two goals: minimize the stock removal or maximize gear tooth strength.
Business is finally starting to get back to usual in the big gear world, which offers us a chance to look back at the greatest lesson on how to survive an economic downturn. Includes the sidebar: "Brass Tacks with Klingelnberg."
When a customer needed gears delivered in three weeks, hereâ€™s how Brevini Wind got it done.
For this yearâ€™s exercise in large gears, weâ€™re not going to dwell on size range or length, merely look at the fundamental challenges and latest technologies required to manufacture large parts in the gear industry. This could be a gearbox assembly for the construction, mining or oil and gas industries or simply a large standalone gear pinion set for a custom application. Whatever the industry or application, large gears require more preparation, planning and precision than other areas of gear manufacturing.
Historically, gearbox original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and repair organizations have tended to offer their customers no-load, full speed (spin) tests as a standard performance test. If a load test was specified, the supplier would probably offer a locked torque back-to-back simulated load test, which requires a large investment in tooling to connect shafts of the test and slave gearboxes.
Large bevel gears drive the crushing machines used to process ores and minerals in the hard-rock mining and aggregates industries. This paper is intended to help the reader understand the unique aspects of these machines, and why crushing applications fall outside the traditional automotive paradigm for bevel gears.
A Conversation with Sabine Kreuzmayr of RĂĽbig
New turnkey, "off-the-shelf" Gleason 2700AR system automates larger-gear load/unload to speed throughput, optimize process flow - and take the weight off the operator.
Kapp Niles celebrates young inventors, Solar Atmospheres expands, Klingelnberg increases training programs, Liebherr celebrates 50 years in the USA, Timken Expands Southeast regional repair facility and more news for the gear industry.
Gear-related new technology from FVA, EMAG, Marposs, PTG Holroyd, GWJ Technology and Big Kaiser
A visit to the HMC Gears plant in Indiana kicked off an extensive project which resulted in the creation of a unique solution for exceptional demands: With the LC 4000, Liebherr forges new paths in large-scale gear cutting production and unites diverse machining methods in one highly efficient machine for the American gear specialist.
Gears are a crucial part of many machines, and if they wear and corrode beyond repair it can then be a costly expense to replace them. Mark Meyer, Sales Manager, North America at SIFCO ASC, explains how brush plating can help prevent gears from being damaged and how the process can be used to restore worn or corroded gear components.
The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2020 issue of Gear Technology.
This is the timely and relevant sequel to our Nov/Dec 2018 Addendum article, "Safety Guaranteed." In the original article will looked at some incredible gear applications from the safety of our desktop computers and smartphones. Who knew we would be spending most of 2020 doing the same exact thing?
There is one dimension common to both members of a pair of properly mating spur gears - the base pitch (BP). This base pitch is equal to the circular pitch of the gear on the base circle (see Fig. 1). For a helical gear, the base pitch can be described in either the transverse or normal plane, and is called the transverse base pitch (TBP) or normal base pitch (NBP), respectively. For parallel axis helical gears, both the TBP and NBP must be the same on both mating gears. For skew axis helical gears, only the NBP must be common.
Readers respond to our "Job Shop Lean" column and the "My Gear is Bigger than Your Gear" article.
Readers respond regarding the article from March/April 2013.
This paper presents two new techniques for aligning and maintaining large ring gears. One technique uses lubricant temperature analysis, and the other uses stop action photography.
Gear gashing is a gear machining process, very much like gear milling, utilizing the principle of cutting one or more tooth (or tooth space) at a time. The term "GASHING" today applies to the roughing, or roughing and finishing, of coarse diametral pitch gears and sprockets. Manufacturing these large coarse gears by conventional methods of rough and finish hobbing can lead to very long machining cycles and uneconomical machine utilization.
Big gears and wind turbines go together like bees and honey, peas and carrots, bread and butter andâ€”well, you get the idea. Wind isnâ€™t just big right now, itâ€™s huge. The wind industry means tremendous things for the energy dependent world we live in and especially big things for gear manufacturers and other beleaguered American industries.
The complete product news section from the January/February 2009 issue of Gear Technology, featuring giant-sized David Brown girth gears, gear inspection up to 4.5 meters and the latest Gleason gear grinder.
Natural resourcesâ€”minerals, coal, oil, agricultural products, etc.â€”are the blessings that Mother Earth confers upon the nations of the world. But it takes unnaturally large gears to extract them.
Quality, materials and technology continue to challenge the big gear manufacturing market.
Gary A. Bish, director of product design technology for Horsburgh & Scott, discusses his role as chairman of the AGMA mill gearing committee.
Indexable carbide insert cutting tools for gears are nothing new. But big gears have recently become a very big business. The result is that there's been a renewed interest in carbide insert cutting tools.
Most research on micropitting is done on small-sized gears. This article examines whether those results are also applicable to larger gears.
Meeting the many challenges of large gear inspection.
In this article, the authors calculated the numerical coordinates on the tooth surfaces of spiral bevel gears and then modeled the tooth profiles using a 3-D CAD system. They then manufactured the large-sized spiral bevel gears based on a CAM process using multi-axis control and multi-tasking machine tooling. The real tooth surfaces were measured using a coordinate measuring machine and the tooth flank form errors were detected using the measured coordinates. Moreover, the gears were meshed with each other and the tooth contact patterns were investigated. As a result, the validity of this manufacturing method was confirmed.
In the wide, wide world of moving parts, the gears required for the big jobsâ€”the really big jobsâ€”often experience big problems. Proper lubrication of these gears is paramount in industrial applications such as wind turbines, kilns, sugar mills, crushers, heavy construction, offshore drilling rigs, mining and quarrying.
The large gears found in mining, steel, construction, off-road, marine and energy applicationsâ€”massive and robust in natureâ€”need to tackle the greatest production demands. This, in turn, means that a special emphasis must be put on the heat treating methods used to increase the wear resistance and strength properties of gears this size.
This article discusses briefly some common manufacturing problems relating to coarse pitch gears and their suggested solutions. Most of the discussion will be limited to a low-quality production environment using universal machine tools.
Industry battles it out for World's Largest Gear title.
Sivyer Steel Corporation, Bettendorf, IA, an ISO-9002-certified casting specialist, is familiar with tackling tough jobs. The company has built an international reputation as a supplier of high-integrity castings, especially those which require engineering and/or full machining. Its not unusual for Sivyer's customers, especially those in the mining, recycling, power generation, valve and nuclear fields, to ask the foundry to produce a one-of-a-kind casting - often something revolutionary - but AnClyde Engineered Products' request was a special challenge, even for Sivyer.
The word gear, in various forms, has been in use since around A.D. 1200, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. Last issue we brought you Shakespearean gears. Now we'd like to show you some of the uses Americans have given our favorite word (from the Random House Dictionary of American Slang).
More Gears in Cyberspace Dial in to the web site of Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry for an online version of the museum's Gears from the Century of Progress exhibit.
In spite of being the "Second City," Chicago has always cultivated a reputation for bigness. We're known for big talk, big shoulders, big basketball players - and big gears. While not necessarily the biggest in the world (more about that late), some Chicago gears are among the hardest working.
The type of lubricant and the method of applying it to the tooth flanks of large open gears is very important from the point of view of lubrication technology and maintenance. When selecting the type of lubricant and the application method, it is important to check whether it is possible to feed the required lubricant quantity to the load-carrying tooth flanks, This is necessary to avoid deficient lubrication, damage to the gear and operational malfunctions. It is important to determine the type of lubricant, which may be fluid or grease-like. The consistency of the lubricant will have a direct impact on the ability of the lubrication system to feed adequately the lubricant to the gear. The interactions between the common types of lubricant and the lubrication application methods for open gear drives are shown in Fig. 1.
In our unceasing attempt to further educate our readers - and find new and creative ways to waste time at work - the Addendum staff has spent many long hours (and many dollars on popcorn) to bring you our latest research on gears in film.
Nondestructive examination (NDE) of ferrous and nonferrous materials has long proved an effective maintenance and anomaly characterization tool for many industries. Recent research has expanded its applicability to include the inspection of large, open gear drives. Difficulties inherent in other NDE methods make them time-consuming and labor-intensive. They also present the user with the environmental problem of the disposal of used oil. The eddy current method addresses these problems.
Welcome to Revolutions, the column that brings you the latest, most up-to-date and easy-to-read information about the people and technology of the gear industry.
This is the first article in an eight-part "reality" series on implementing continuous improvement at Hoerbiger Corporation. Throughout 2013, Dr. Shahrukh Irani will report on his progress applying the job shop lean strategies he developed during his time at Ohio State University.
An overview of nondestructive testing and its importance in the manufacture of big gears.
A road map is presented listing critical considerations and optimal use of materials and methods in the construction of large gears.
This paper introduces mandatory improvements in design, manufacturing and inspection - from material elaboration to final machining - with special focus on today's large and powerful gearing.
Gears with a diametral pitch 20 and greater, or a module 1.25 millimeters and lower, are called fine-pitch or low-module gears. The design of these gears has its own specifics.