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Metalworking technology specialists will be front and center for six days at EMO Hannover 2011 (September 19â€“24). More than 2,000 companies from 38 countries will be on-hand to show off products and services, spotlighting their performance capabilities.
EMO is arguably the most important trade show when it comes to the introduction of machine tool technology, and this year's show - taking place from September 18-23 in Hannover, Germany - promises not to disappoint. We've talked to a number of gear manufacturing technology providers to give you a sneak peak of what you can expect to see if you attend this year.
Some gear-related highlights from the recent EMO show in Hannover, Germany.
EMO 2007, September 17-22 at the Hannover Fairgrounds in Hannover, Germany.
Whether you spent time at Gear Expo in Indianapolis or EMO in Hannover, there was certainly new technology attracting attention. Machine tools are faster, more efficient and can integrate numerous functions in a single setup. Grinding technology is turning science upside down and inside out with high-speed removal rates and increased throughput.
Preview of some of the exhibits relevant to gear manufacturing at the upcoming EMO 2013.
Loyal Gear Technology reader and Interstate Castings vice president Greg Bierck came across â€śHigh Gearâ€ť at a vintage toy store in Indianapolis, IN.
It is with regret we report that Donald R. McVittie passed away January 20, 2008.
Generating gear grinding is one of the most important finishing processes for small and medium-sized gears, its process design often determined by practical knowledge. Therefore a manufacturing simulation with the capability to calculate key values for the process â€” such as the specific material removal rate â€” is developed here. Indeed, this paper presents first results of a model for a local analysis of the value. Additionally, an empirical formula â€” based on a multiple regression model for a global value describing the process â€” is provided.
A recent visit to the Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation, located in Dearborn, Michigan, helped remind this editor how different the manufacturing floor looked when the Ford Model-T was first being produced in the early 1900s.
A reflection by Michael Goldstein, Publisher & Editor-in-Chief.
Dollhouses may be toys for children, but an old-time working miniature machine shop is the ultimate toy for a self-proclaimed hobby machinist like Greg Bierck.
Advance coverage of EMO Milan 2009, plus our technical calendar.
Rolled out at EMO 2007, the Scudding process is a continuous cutting operation that uses a tool design similar to a helical shaper cutter. It can be used for a wide range of gear applications...
The complete Events section from July/August 2005, including coverage of EMO 2005.
I lost a good friend in Octoberâ€”one that many of you might know. Carlo Costi of Sogimex S.A.S. in Caponago (Milano), Italy, came out of the EMO show in Milan on October 28, caught a taxi and called his wife, Mariella, to tell her that he wasnâ€™t feeling well. He diedâ€”in the taxiâ€”on the phoneâ€”talking to his wife. He was 60 years old.
The configuration of flank corrections on bevel gears is subject to relatively narrow restrictions. As far as the gear set is concerned, the requirement is for the greatest possible contact zone to minimize flank compression. However, sufficient reserves in tooth depth and longitudinal direction for tooth contact displacement should be present. From the machine - and particularly from the tool - point of view, there are restrictions as to the type and magnitude of crowning that can be realized. Crowning is a circular correction. Different kinds of crowning are distinguished by their direction. Length crowning, for example, is a circular (or 2nd order) material removal, starting at a reference point and extending in tooth length or face width.
In the past, the blades of universal face hobbing cutters had to be resharpened on three faces. Those three faces formed the active part of the blade. In face hobbing, the effective cutting direction changes dramatically with respect to the shank of the blade. Depending on the individual ratio, it was found that optimal conditions for the chip removal action (side rake, side relief and hook angle) could just be established by adjusting all major parameters independently. This, in turn, results automatically in the need for the grinding or resharpening of the front face and the two relief surfaces in order to control side rake, hook angle and the relief and the relief angles of the cutting and clearance side.
In order to increase the load carrying capacity of hardened gears, the distortion of gear teeth caused by quenching must be removed by precision cutting (skiving) and/or grinding. In the case of large gears with large modules, skiving by a carbide hob is more economical than grinding when the highest accuracy is not required.
Carbon steels have primarily been used to manufacture aerospace gears due to the steels' mechanical characteristics. An alloyed low carbon steel is easily case-hardened to obtain a hard wear surface while maintaining the ductile core characteristics. The microstructure achieved will accept the heavy loading, shocks, and elevated temperatures that gears typically experience in applications. The carbon steel machinability allows for general machining practices to be employed when producing aerospace gears versus the more advanced metal removal processes required by stainless and nickel-based alloys.
Traditionally, high-quality gears are cut to shape from forged blanks. Great accuracy can be obtained through shaving and grinding of tooth forms, enhancing the power capacity, life and quietness of geared power transmissions. In the 1950s, a process was developed for forging gears with teeth that requires little or no metal to be removed to achieve final geometry. The initial process development was undertaken in Germany for the manufacture of bevel gears for automobile differentials and was stimulated by the lack of available gear cutting equipment at that time. Later attention has turned to the forging of spur and helical gears, which are more difficult to form due to the radial disposition of their teeth compared with bevel gears. The main driver of these developments, in common with most component manufacturing, is cost. Forming gears rather than cutting them results in increased yield from raw material and also can increase productivity. Forging gears is therefore of greater advantage for large batch quantities, such as required by the automotive industry.
Does anyone know where we can find a gear-shaped fruitcake? It's the holiday season again, and the Addendum staff has many friends. We'd like to get each of them the perfect holiday gift, something the demonstrates thought, caring and good will. Of course, we're looking for gifts with meaning, and for us, that can only mean gears.
It's nice to have claim to fame. "We're probably the world's foremost authority on making gears out of ice," says Jeff Root of Virtual Engineering, Plymouth, MI.
Rodgers and Hammerstein produced some of America's most memorable and lasting songs in musical theater. Lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II once said of composer Richard Rodgers, "I hand him a lyric and get out of his way," Hammerstein knew what Rodgers was good at, and vice versa, and each trusted his partner. Their partnership was so successful that you can scarcely think of one man without the other.
This report presents some interim results from an ongoing project being performed by INFAC, the Instrumented Factory for Gears. The purposes of this initial phase of the project were to demonstrate the feasibility of robotic automated deburring of aerospace gears, and to develop a research agenda for future work in that area.
For eight days every other year, the sponsor of the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS), the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT), strives to turn Chicago's McCormick Place into a "productivity marketplace," the largest and most completer display and demonstration of manufacturing technology ever seen in the Americas. If the growth of the show is any indicator, that effort has been very successful indeed. With over 1.4 million square feet of exhibit space taking up all five levels and all three exhibit halls of McCormick Place, each level would rank as one of the nation's 200 largest trade shows. That wasn't always the size or scope of the show. Its inception, while impressive for the time, was humble by today's standards.
Normandy overwhelmed me when I first went there several years ago. I was sobered by the sea of white crosses in the cemeteries, I was inspired by the memorials and their tales of courageous soldiers battling impossible odds, and I was horrified by the visions of carnage that came to me as I stood on the scarred beaches of one of the most significant conflicts in human history.
Flank breakage is common in a number of cylindrical and bevel gear applications. This paper introduces a relevant, physically based calculation method to evaluate flank breakage risk vs. pitting risk. Verification of this new method through testing is demonstrably shown.
Gear noise associated with tooth surface topography is a fundamental problem in many applications. Operations such as shaving, gear grinding and gear honing are usually used to finish the gear surface. Often, gears have to be treated by a combination of these operations, e.g. grinding and honing. This is because gear honing operations do not remove enough stock although they do create a surface lay favorable for quiet operation. See Fig. 1 for typical honing process characteristics. Gear grinding processes, on the other hand, do remove stock efficiently but create a noisy surface lay.
Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process also improves tooth surface finish and eliminates by means of crowned tooth forms the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service.
Anyone even remotely involved with the gear industry knows that Gear Expo is B-I-G. Every two years, it is an invaluable opportunity for buyers, sellers and just-lookers to come together and glorify gearing.
It's nice to see old friends. It's also advantageous to make new ones. Gear Expo has always been a family reunion of sorts, but it's first and foremost an opportunity to show off the latest and greatest technologies that are impacting the gear industry today. With this in mind, Gear Technology recently spoke with those responsible for putting the Fall Technical Meeting (FTM) and Gear Expo 2013 together in Indianapolis.
It has long been known that the skiving process for machining internal gears is multiple times faster than shaping, and more flexible than broaching, due to skiving's continuous chip removal capability. However, skiving has always presented a challenge to machines and tools. With the relatively low dynamic stiffness in the gear trains of mechanical machines, as well as the fast wear of uncoated cutters, skiving of cylindrical gears never achieved acceptance in shaping or hobbing, until recently.
It has been documented that epicyclic gear stages provide high load capacity and compactness to gear drives. This paper will focus on analysis and design of epicyclic gear arrangements that provide extremely high gear ratios. Indeed, a special, two-stage planetary arrangement may utilize a gear ratio of over one hundred thousand to one. This paper presents an analysis of such uncommon gear drive arrangements and defines their major parameters, limitations, and gear ratio maximization approaches. It also demonstrates numerical examples, existing designs, and potential applications.
A finite elements-based contact model is developed to predict load distribution along the spline joint interfaces; effects of spline misalignment are investigated along with intentional lead crowning of the contacting surfaces. The effects of manufacturing tooth indexing error on spline load distributions are demonstrated by using the proposed model.
Contact fatigue and bending fatigue are two main failure modes of steel gears, while surface pitting and spalling are two common contact fatigue failures -- caused by alternating subsurface shear stresses from the contact load between two gear mates. And when a gear is in service under cyclic load, concentrated bending stresses exist at the root fillet -- the main driver of bending fatigue failures. Induction hardening is becoming an increasingly popular response to these problems, due to its process consistency, reduced energy consumption, clean environment and improved product quality -- but not without issues of its own (irregular residual stresses and bending fatigue). Thus a new approach is proposed here that flexibly controls the magnitude of residual stress in the regions of root fillet and tooth flank by pre-heating prior to induction hardening. Using an external spur gear made of AISI 4340 as an example, this new concept/process is demonstrated using finite element modeling and DANTE commercial software.
When Dr. Hermann J. Stadtfeld speaks, people tend to listen. Considered one of the worldâ€™s foremost experts on bevel gears, Stadtfeld, the vice president of bevel gear technology at Gleason, recently revealed several cutting-edge advancements that the company has been working on.
Prior to receiving airworthiness certification, extensive testing is required during the development of rotary wing aircraft drive systems. Many of these tests are conducted to demonstrate the drive systemâ€™s ability to operate at extreme conditions, i.e. â€” beyond that called for in the normal to maximum power operating range.
I sat down to write this editorial about my father, Harold Goldstein, as he approached his 80th birthday in October. I had meant it to be a celebration of his nearly 65 years in the machine tool business. Unfortunately, on August 26, as I was working on it, my father passed away after a long battle with emphysema. This editorial has now become a memorial as well as a celebration.
This article is the fourth installment in Gear Technology's series of excerpts from Dr. Hermann J. Stadtfeld's book, Gleason Bevel Gear Technology. The first three excerpts can be found in our June, July and August 2015 issues. In the previous chapter, we demonstrated the development of a face-milled spiral bevel gearset. In this section, an analogue face-hobbed bevel gearset is derived.
In the previous sections, the development of conjugate bevel gearsets via hand calculations was demonstrated. The goal of this exercise was to encourage the reader to gain a basic understanding of the theory of bevel gears. This knowledge will help gear engineers to better judge bevel gear design and their manufacturing methods. In order to make the basis of this learning experience even more realistic, this chapter will convert a conjugate bevel gearset into a gearset that is suitable in a real-world application. Length and profile crowning will be applied to the conjugate flank surfaces. Just as in the previous chapter, all computations are demonstrated as manual hand calculations. This also shows that bevel gear theory is not as complicated as commonly assumed.
Chapter 2, Continued In the previous sections, development of conjugate, face milled as well as face hobbed bevel gearsets - including the application of profile and length crowning - was demonstrated. It was mentioned during that demonstration that in order to optimize the common surface area, where pinion and gear flanks have meshing contact (common flank working area), a profile shift must be introduced. This concluding section of chapter 2 explains the principle of profile shift; i.e. - how it is applied to bevel and hypoid gears and then expands on profile side shift, and the frequently used root angle correction which - from its gear theoretical understanding - is a variable profile shift that changes the shift factor along the face width. The end of this section elaborates on five different possibilities to tilt the face cutter head relative to the generating gear, in order to achieve interesting effects on the bevel gear flank form. This installment concludes chapter 2 of the Bevel Gear Technology book that lays the foundation of the following chapters, some of which also will be covered in this series.
The cutting process consists of either a roll only (only generating motion), a plunge only or a combination of plunging and rolling. The material removal and flank forming due to a pure generating motion is demonstrated in the simplified sketch in Figure 1 in four steps. In the start roll position (step 1), the cutter profile has not yet contacted the work. A rotation of the work around its axis (indicated by the rotation arrow) is coupled with a rotation of the cutter around the axis of the generating gear (indicated by the vertical arrow) and initiates a generating motion between the not-yet-existing tooth slot of the work and the cutter head (which symbolizes one tooth of the generating gear).
This paper demonstrates an application of the tooth interior fatigue fracture (TIFF) analysis method, as implemented in SMT's MASTA software, in which loaded tooth contact analysis (LTCA) results from a specialized 3-D contact model have been utilized to determine the load boundary conditions for analysis of tooth flank fracture (TFF).
In a capitalist society, the way things usually work is that government and academia focus on research and development, while industry focuses on commercialization. The result is an increasingly wide disconnect in the applied research sector, which deals primarily with technology development and demonstration.
This paper presents a new approach to repair industrial gears by showing a case study where pressure angle modification is also considered, differently from the past repairing procedures that dealt only with the modification of the profile shift coefficient. A computer program has been developed to automatically determine the repair alternatives under two goals: minimize the stock removal or maximize gear tooth strength.
We are all looking for ways to increase production without sacrificing quality. One of the most cost-effective ways is by improving the substrate material of your hob. Solid carbide hobs are widely used in many applications throughout the world. LMT-Fette was the first to demonstrate the use of solid carbide hobs in 1993 on modern high-speed carbide (HSC) hobbing machines. Since then the process of dry hobbing has been continuously improving through research and product testing. Dry hobbing is proving to be successful in the gear cutting industry as sales for dry hobbing machines have steadily been rising along with the dramatic increase in sales of solid carbide hobs.
The Shaping Process - A Quick Review of the Working Principle. In the shaping process, cutter and workpiece represent a drive with parallel axes rotating in mesh (generating motion) according to the number of teeth in both cutter and workpiece (Fig. 1), while the cutter reciprocates for the metal removal action (cutting motion).
Rotary gear honing is a crossed-axis, fine, hard finishing process that uses pressure and abrasive honing tools to remove material along the tooth flanks in order to improve the surface finish (.1-.3 um or 4-12u"Ra), to remove nicks and burrs and to change or correct the tooth geometry. Ultimately, the end results are quieter, stronger and longer lasting gears.
Now that the new tax bill has been passed, the time has come to begin evaluating how it will affect investment strategies in the machine tool business. Your first reaction may be to think that any motivation to invest in capital improvements in your company is gone, because both the investment tax credit and the accelerated depreciation on capital investment have been removed from the tax law. After all, if Uncle Sam is not going to help us out through some short term tax gains, why should we bother? Can we afford to bother?
This paper will present data from both laboratory and field testing demonstrating that superfinished components exhibit lower friction, operating temperature, wear and/ or higher horsepower, all of which translate directly into increased fuel economy.
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that transmission gears of rotary-wing aircraft, which are typically scrapped due to minor foreign object damage (FOD) and grey staining, can be repaired and re-used with signifi cant cost avoidance. The isotropic superfinishing (ISF) process is used to repair the gear by removing surface damage. It has been demonstrated in this project that this surface damage can be removed while maintaining OEM specifications on gear size, geometry and metallurgy. Further, scrap CH-46 mix box spur pinions, repaired by the ISF process, were subjected to gear tooth strength and durability testing, and their performance compared with or exceeded that of new spur pinions procured from an approved Navy vendor. This clearly demonstrates the feasibility of the repair and re-use of precision transmission gears.
This article describes a new technique for the size determination of external Involute splines by using a span measuring method. It provides application performance information demonstrating how this method and its measurements correlate with the traditional spline ring gage sizing method.
It may not be widely recognized that most of the inspection data supplied by inspection equipment, following the practices of AGMA Standard 2015 and similar standards, are not of elemental accuracy deviations but of some form of composite deviations. This paper demonstrates the validity of this â€ścompositeâ€ť label by first defining the nature of a true elemental deviation and then, by referring to earlier literature, demonstrating how the common inspection practices for involute, lead (on helical gears), pitch, and, in some cases, total accumulated pitch, constitute composite measurements.
This paper will demonstrate that, unlike commonly used low-contact-ratio spur gears, high-contact-ratio spur gears can provide higher power-to-weight ratio, and can also achieve smoother running with lower transmission error (TE) variations.
Getting rid of personal mementos is an arduous housekeeping ritual for some of us; every last gear has a memory. One manâ€™s trash is another manâ€™s gold, after all, or in some cases, one failed business is a forgotten piece of personal and mechanical genealogy. Such is the case of the Hill-Climber chainless bicycle, the remains of which were pulled from a family junk pile after nearly half a century.
One of the most effective methods in solving the edge loading problem due to excess misalignment and deflection in aerospace actuation gearing is to localize tooth-bearing contact by crowning the teeth. Irrespective of the applied load, if the misalignment and/or deflection are large enough to cause the contact area to reduce to zero, the stress becomes large enough to cause failure. The edge loading could cause the teeth to break or pit, but too much crowning may also cause the teeth to pit due to concentrated loading. In this paper, a proposed method to localize the contact bearing area and calculate the contact stress with crowning is presented and demonstrated on some real-life examples in aerospace actuation systems.
Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process can also improve tooth surface finish and eliminate, by crowned tooth forms, the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service. Shaving provides for form modifications that reduce gear noise. These modifications can also increase the gear's load carrying capacity, its factor of safety and its service life.
Gear shaving is a free cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.
This article describes some of the most important tests for prototypes conducted at Winergy AG during the product development process. It will demonstrate that the measurement results on the test rig for load distribution are in accordance with the turbine measurements.
I came back from Gear Expo in a pretty good mood, and judging by the smiles on the faces of exhibitors I saw, I'm not alone. In fact, the mood at Gear Expo 2011 was the best I've seen in recent memory.
A recent U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command project, conducted by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories. successfully developed the methodology of CAD/CAM procedures for manufacturing dies (via EDM) for forging spiral bevel gears. Further, it demonstrated that precision forging of spiral bevel gears is a practical production technique. Although no detailed economic evaluation was made in this study, it is expected that precision forging offers an attractive alternative to the costly gear cutting operations for producing spiral bevel gears.
Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.
It has previously been demonstrated that one gear of an interchangeable series will rotate with another gear of the same series with proper tooth action. It is, therefore, evident that a tooth curve driven in unison with a mating blank, will "generate" in the latter the proper tooth curve to mesh with itself.
The forming of gear teeth has traditionally been a time-consuming heavy stock removal operation in which close tooth size, shape, runout and spacing accuracy are required. This is true whether the teeth are finished by a second forming operation or a shaving operation.
Broaching is a process in which a cutting tool passes over or through a part piece to produce a desired form. A broach removes part material with a series of teeth, each one removing a specified amount of stock.
Rotary gear honing is a hard gear finishing process that was developed to improve the sound characteristics of hardened gears by: Removing nicks and burrs; improving surface finish; and making minor corrections in tooth irregularities caused by heat-treat distortion.
Hard Gear Finishing (HGF), a relatively new technology, represents an advance in gear process engineering. The use of Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) equipment ensures a high precision synchronous relationship between the tool spindle and the work spindle as well as other motions, thereby eliminating the need for gear trains. A hard gear finishing machine eliminates problems encountered in two conventional methods - gear shaving, which cannot completely correct gear errors in gear teeth, and gear rolling, which lacks the ability to remove stock and also drives the workpiece without a geared relationship to the master rolling gear. Such a machine provides greater accuracy, reducing the need for conventional gear crowning, which results in gears of greater face width than necessary.
The merits of CBN physical characteristics over conventional aluminum oxide abrasives in grinding performance are reviewed. Improved surface integrity and consistency in drive train products can be achieved by the high removal rate of the CBN grinding process. The influence of CBN wheel surface conditioning procedure on grinding performance is also discussed.
Pride. Awe. Relief. Admiration. These were some of the emotions with which I, like most Americans, greeted the end of the Persian Gulf War. I was proud of our country for saying it would do a job and then doing it with a minimum of loss and a maximum of effectiveness; I was awed by the terrifying efficiency of our weapons and relieved that our casualties were so light; and I was filled with admiration at the skill with which one of the most complex logistical military operations of the century was carried out.
Question: When evaluating charts from a gear inspection machine, it is sometimes found that the full length of the profile traces vary, and that sometimes they are less than the length of active profile (above start of active profile-SAP) by up to 20%. This condition could be caused by a concentricity error between tooth grinding and shaping, or by unequal stock removal when grinding. (See Fig. 1.) Is it possible that some of the variation is coming from the inspection machine? How can variation from the inspection machine be reduced?
The term "blanking" refers to the initial metal cutting operations in the process planning sequence which produce the contour of a part starting from rough material. The scope of blanking is: To remove the excess material To machine the part to print specifications, except for those surfaces with subsequent finishing operations. To leave adequate machining stock for finishing operations. To prepare good quality surfaces for location and clamping of the part throughout the process.
"Opportunity is the start of great enterprises." said the Greet statesman Demosthenes, and what was true 2300 years ago is no less true now. Plenty of opportunities which can grow into great - and successful - enterprises are waiting for us right now if we only have the foresight to take advantage of them.
It always strikes me as something of an irony that the brightest holidays of the year fall in the deepest part of the darkest season. They come when the days are the shortest, the clouds the thickest, the weather (at least in Chicago), the worst. And yet it is at precisely this time when we celebrate the happier human emotions of family, love, and charity and somewhat arbitrarily declare a "new" year.
Many people in the gear industry have heard of skiving, a process wherein solid carbide or inserted carbide blade hobs with 15 - 60 degrees of negative rake are used to recut gears to 62 Rc. The topic of this article is the use of neutral (zero) rake solid carbide hobs to remove heat treat distortion, achieving accuracies of AGMA 8 to AGMA 14, DIN 10-5 and improving surface finish on gears from 8 DP - 96 DP (.3 module - .26 m.).
For environmental and economic reasons, the use of coolant in machining processes is increasingly being questioned. Rising coolant prices and disposal costs, as well as strains on workers and the environment, have fueled the debate. The use of coolant has given rise to a highly technical system for handling coolant in the machine (cooling, filtering) and protecting the environment (filter, oil-mist collector). In this area the latest cutting materials - used with or without coolant - have great potential for making the metal-removal process more economical. The natural progression to completely dry machining has decisive advantages for hobbing.
Precise heat treatment plays an essential role in the production of quality carburized gears. Seemingly minor changes in the heat treating process can have significant effects on the quality, expense and production time of a gear, as we will demonstrate using a case study from one of our customer's gears.
New Faces, Corporate Doin's, In Memoriam
The cutting tool is basic to gear manufacturing. Whether it's a hob, broach, shaper cutter or EDM wire, not much gets done without it. And the mission of the tool remains the same as always; removing material as quickly, accurately and cost-effectively as possible. Progress in the field tends to be evolutionary, coming gradually over time, but recently, a confluence of emerging technologies and new customer demands has caused significant changes in the machines, the materials and the coatings that make cutting tools.
This article summarizes the development of an improved titanium nitride (TiN) recoating process, which has, when compared to conventional recoat methods, demonstrated tool life increases of up to three times in performance testing of hobs and shaper cutters. This new coating process, called Super TiN, surpasses the performance of standard TiN recoating for machining gear components. Super TiN incorporates stripping, surface preparation, smooth coating techniques and polishing before and after recoating. The combination of these improvements to the recoating process is the key to its performance.
In this paper local tooth contact analysis and standard calculation are used to determine the load capacity for the failure modes pitting, tooth root breakage, micropitting, and tooth flank fracture; analogies and differences between both approaches are shown. An example gearset is introduced to show the optimization potential that arises from using a combination of both methods. Difficulties in combining local approaches with standard methods are indicated. The example calculation demonstrates a valid possibility to optimize the gear design by using local tooth contact analysis while satisfying the requirement of documenting the load carrying capacity by standard calculations.
News Items About EMO
1 Siemens and Kuka Annouce Cooperation at EMO (September 23, 2013)
Siemens Drive Technologies Division and Kuka Roboter GmbH have announced comprehensive cooperation at EMO in Hannover. The central pillar... Read News
2 RĂ¶hm Presents Clamping and Gripping Technologies at EMO 2017 (November 28, 2017)
Röhm exhibited several of the company's latest product developments at EMO 2017. Innovations that drew the greatest interest fro... Read News
3 EMAG to Present VL 2 at EMO 2013 (June 27, 2013)
At the EMO 2013 EMAG will be presenting the VL 2 single-spindle vertical pick-up lathe for the machining of small chucked components. &ld... Read News
4 Machine Tools Matter at EMO (May 10, 2013)
From September 16 to September 21, 2013, this year’s EMO Hannover will be opening its doors. At the wor... Read News
5 EMO Hannover Preview: Liebherr (August 15, 2019)
Liebherr-Verzahntechnik GmbH will be present with three stands at EMO under the motto “Smart technologies driving tomorrow’s ... Read News
6 Junker and Zema to Exhibit Gear Grinding Machines Together at EMO Milano (July 30, 2015)
At EMO Milano 2015, Junker Group and Zema will be exhibiting together for the first time in Europe: Zema will be demonstrating a cylindri... Read News
7 Walter AG Digital Solutions to be on Display at EMO 2017 (July 12, 2017)
Walter will demonstrate its focus on digitization, networking and connectivity at EMO 2017, in Hannover, September 18-23, 2017. The met... Read News
8 EMO Preview: Liebherr (July 12, 2013)
Stand A11, Hall 26. Liebherr-Verzahntechnik will be showcasing three new machines at the upcoming EMO show. These are solutions for the a... Read News
9 EMO Preview: KISSsoft (September 5, 2017)
At this year's EMO Hannover fair (September 18th to 23rd, 2017), KISSsoft will be present at the Gleason stand, Booth D82 in Hall 26.... Read News
10 DVS Technology Group Presenting Gear Grinding Solutions at EMO (September 20, 2017)
The EMO fair booth of DVS Technology Group in Hall 17, Booth C46 will be focusing on the high-precision machining of components for power... Read News
11 LMT Presents New Technologies at Emo Hannover (August 22, 2011)
The LMT Group will be presenting a large number of technological innovations at this year's EMO fair. SpeedCore is a new generation h... Read News
12 Röhm 3/2 Jaw Chuck, Clamp Mounting Assembly Tool and Live Center Solutions to be Displayed at EMO 2017 (August 21, 2017)
Röhm Products of America will showcase its industry-leading workholding innovations at EMO 2017 in Hanover, Germany, September 18-23... Read News
13 EMO Preview: Gleason Corporation (July 31, 2013)
Stand A43, Hall 26. Gleason will introduce two new machine products for the first time at EMO 2013 from September 16-21 in Hannover. In a... Read News
14 EMO Hannover Preview: Gleason Corporation (August 12, 2019)
At this year’s EMO show, Gleason Corporation (Hall 26, Stand D108) will showcase a wide array of new design, manufacturing and insp... Read News
15 EMO Hannover 2019: Klingelnberg (July 31, 2019)
Here's a preview of the products and technologies Klingelnberg will feature at EMO Hannover 2019 taking place September 16-21 in Hann... Read News
16 EMO Hannover 2019: PTG Holroyd (August 2, 2019)
Precision Technologies Group (PTG) will be presenting the capabilities of its advanced machine tools at EMO Hannover 2019, Hall 26, Booth... Read News
17 EMO Hannover 2019: Index Corporation (August 6, 2019)
At EMO 2019, Index will be showcasing a diverse array of its highly productive turning centers, as well as focusing on the role digitaliz... Read News
18 EMO Hannover 2019: DMG MORI (August 5, 2019)
DMG MORI (Hall 2) will highlight a variety of technologies at EMO Hannover including automation, digitization, additive manufacturing and... Read News
19 In Memoriam: Richard E. Breidenstein (May 10, 2012)
Dennis Richmond, vice president at Reishauer, recently commented on the passing of Richard E. Breidenstein: "The gear manufacturing ... Read News
20 EMO Preview: DMG-Mori Seiki (July 11, 2013)
Hall 27/Stand D44. DMG/Mori Seiki will demonstrate its full gear milling portfolio with a focus on gearMILL software and the InvoMilling ... Read News
21 Addition of Robot Blasting Cell Enables Shot Peening Demonstration (April 23, 2009)
Guyson Corporation expanded its engineering test laboratory with the purchase of a robotic blast system to sustain application developmen... Read News
22 Gleason Demonstrates Gear Measurement Technology at Control 2013 (May 10, 2013)
Gleason Metrology Systems will demonstrate their latest advances in gear measurement technology at Control 2013, May 14-17 in Stuttgart, ... Read News
23 ANCA to Demonstrate CNC Tool and Cutter Grinder (March 25, 2013)
The new, affordable ANCA MX5 CNC tool and cutter grinder will be demonstrated at EASTEC Booth 1152. Designed with the volume end-mill pro... Read News
24 EMO Hannover to Showcase Tool Innovations (February 21, 2013)
At the 10th Tool Conference in Schmalkalden, the manufacturers and users of metal-cutting tools were not indifferent to the controversial... Read News
25 Hardinge Demonstrates Super-Precision Turning with Automation (December 17, 2012)
Hardinge Inc. an international provider of advanced metal-cutting solutions, demonstrates automated production of hydraulic spool valve h... Read News
26 EMAG to Highlight New Technology at EMO Hannover (August 8, 2011)
The EMAG Group is spreading its products over three booths, demonstrating their whole range of multifunctional, future-orientated machini... Read News
27 Jenoptik Wavemore System Offers High-Accuracy Measurement (May 1, 2012)
The new Jenoptik Wavemove automated surface roughness and contour measuring system includes up to seven CNC axes for complete high-accura... Read News
28 Seco to Demonstrate Tooling Solutions at AeroDef (March 16, 2011)
Seco Tools will be demonstrating a comprehensive range of tooling solutions for aerospace and defense applications at AeroDef Manufacturi... Read News
29 Ontario Drive and Gear Signs Memorandum with Textron Systems (March 27, 2012)
Textron Systems Canada Inc. recently announced that the company has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Ontario Drive an... Read News
30 Sunnen to Demonstrate HTA Hone at Westec (January 11, 2012)
At Westec, Sunnen Products will demonstrate its new all-electric HTA hone, bringing increased part capacity and stroker torque for bore r... Read News
31 ZF Services Honors Employees in Special Ceremony (December 13, 2011)
26 ZF Services employees at the Schweinfurt location as well as two employees from Bremen can look back on a total of 530 years of comp... Read News
32 Brevini Holds Topping Off Ceremony (December 3, 2009)
Local Indiana state and federal officials along with Brevini Group president Renato Brevini and others gathered for a topping off ceremon... Read News
33 Sunnen Plans Match Honing Demonstrations at IMTS (July 8, 2010)
Sunnen's new match honing process produces bore specifications to match the measured size of individual pins, plungers or pistons tha... Read News
34 GF AgieCharmilles Demonstrates New Technologies at EMO Hannover (August 25, 2011)
GF AgieCharmilles’ machines, automation solutions and services will be showcased in a brand new booth designed specifically to a... Read News
35 Romi to Demonstrate Vertical Machining Center at IMTS (August 20, 2010)
Romi Machine Tools Ltd., a manufacturer of CNC Lathes, Production Turning Centers and Machining Centers, will have a D800AP Vertical Mach... Read News
36 MAG's T-Rex Spindle Produces Extreme Metal Removal Rates (April 27, 2012)
MAG's new high-torque T-Rex spindle, available on four-axis HMC 1250/1600 machines, can deliver up to 2,600 Nm (1,918 lb-ft) torque i... Read News
37 EMO Hannover Preview: Grind Master (August 19, 2019)
Grind Master offers a wide range of belt grinding and brushing machines which are used for precision deburring of flat punched and fine b... Read News
38 EMO Preview: Heller (July 22, 2013)
Stand C04, Hall 12. The highest chip volumes, maximum reliability and minimized piece-piece-part costs are the topics which Heller will b... Read News
39 Pferd Cast Cut Carbide Burs Feature High Stock Removal Rate, Smooth Milling Action (February 5, 2016)
Pferd Inc. has introduced Cast Cut, a new line of high-performance carbide burs specially designed for work on cast iron. They are charac... Read News
40 Helios Set to Demonstrate Gear Capabilities at Motion + Power Technology Expo (August 13, 2019)
Helios Gear Products will demonstrate multiple gear manufacturing solutions at the Motion + Power Technology Expo (MPT Expo) in Detroit a... Read News
41 EMO Hannover 2019: Samputensili (August 1, 2019)
Samputensili will present exciting world premieres, numerous innovations, and state-of-the-art products both for machine tools and cuttin... Read News
42 Walter Solid Carbide Milling Cutters Provide High Metal Removal Rates (June 20, 2019)
Walter has introduced the MC319/MC320 Advance Line of solid carbide milling cutters that have been specially engineered to meet the needs... Read News
43 Optomec Demonstrates 5-Axis Metal Additive Manufacturing (May 23, 2019)
At RAPID-TCT, Optomec is demonstrating simultaneous five-axis additive manufacturing at its booth (#517) this week in Detroit, enabling n... Read News
44 Houghton International HOCUT 8750 Oil Metal Removal Fluid Improves Operational Efficiency During Manufacture of Automotive Parts (April 6, 2018)
Houghton International has developed a new versatile soluble oil metal removal fluid for the manufacture of automotive parts including en... Read News
45 Whittemore Expands Midwest Territory to Include Kansas and Missouri (February 7, 2018)
The Whittemore Co. (Chicago, IL) recently announced they have expanded their territory coverage to include the states of Kansas and Misso... Read News
46 Jenoptik Industrial Metrology Hommel-Etamic Wavemove Measuring Station Features Eight-Axis CNC Measurement Technology (November 7, 2017)
The Jenoptik Industrial Metrology division offers a fully automated measuring station which can be operated directly by staff on the prod... Read News
47 Sandvik Coromant CoroMill 745 Face Milling Cutter Provides Higher Metal Removal Rates for Roughing and Semi-Finishing Milling Operations (October 3, 2017)
Cutting tool and tooling system specialist Sandvik Coromant has unveiled a new, high-feed version of the CoroMill 745 face mill... Read News
48 Oelheld Holds Groundbreaking Ceremony for New Facility (August 2, 2016)
Many guests, including Philipp Storr, president of Oelheld, dignitaries of the village of West Dundee and representatives from Opus, Oelh... Read News
49 Timken Company Researchers Receive 2015 Wilbur Deutsch Memorial Award (July 6, 2015)
Research conducted by The Timken Company to address a critical issue for wind turbine operators received the 2015 Wilbur Deutsch Memorial... Read News
50 EMO Preview: Hainbuch GmbH (August 29, 2013)
Stand J22, Hall 3. Hainbuch presents a jaw module that is small, flexible, that can be quickly changed, and covers a large clamping range... Read News
51 Gleason's Gear Solutions Forum to Include Over 40 Demonstrations on Products and Technologies (June 16, 2015)
Gleason Corporation will host the Gear Solutions Forum (GSF) at its worldwide headquarters in Rochester, NY on Sept. 23-24. This year als... Read News
52 Index to Demonstrate Modular Eight-spindle Automatic CNC Turning Machine at PMTS 2015 (March 6, 2015)
Index will demonstrate its MS22C-8, a modular eight-spindle automatic CNC turning machine, producing brass connector parts at PMTS 2015, ... Read News
53 EMAG Demonstrates Gear Production Advances (January 28, 2014)
Drivers are already used to the sixth gear – and the development continues. There are plans afoot for an automatic gearbox for a ni... Read News
54 Dontyne Offers Remote Hosting Services (November 14, 2013)
In response to customer demand for remote hosting, Dontyne Systems is pleased to release the latest software development to help support ... Read News
55 PTG Displays Zenith 400 at EMO 2013 (October 1, 2013)
Showcasing the Zenith 400 helical profile grinder, from PTG company, Holroyd Precision Limited, the augmented reality presentation provid... Read News
56 DMG-Mori Seiki Annouce EMO Highlights (September 30, 2013)
CELOS from DMG/Mori Seiki enables integrated management, documentation and visualization of job, process and machine data. It is compatib... Read News
57 Gear Expo Recap: Sandvik Coromant Demos InvoMilling (September 23, 2013)
The InvoMilling process, a unique approach to milling spur and helical gears using indexable insert cutters was front and center during G... Read News
58 Infigen Energy Chooses Romax for Remote Monitoring Services (September 13, 2013)
Infigen Energy, owner and operator of 24 wind farms across the USA and Australia has chosen Romax as its independent provider to support ... Read News
59 MecWash System Boasts High Contaminant Removal Rate (September 10, 2013)
MecWash Systems introduces BladeWash aqueous parts washers. Developed specifically for cleaning the internal cooling channels in tu... Read News
60 ECM Commemorates 10 Years in United States (December 19, 2007)
ECM, a manufacturer of vacuum carburizing furnaces, recently announced its ten-year anniversary in the United States. The U.S. headquarte... Read News