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Gears are extremely complex shapes. Coordinate measuring machines, or CMMs, are designed to measure complex shapes. It seems to follow that CMMs world, therefore, be the ideal tool for measuring gears. But the answer is not so simple.
In this installment of Ask the Expert, Dr. Stadtfeld describes the best methods for measuring backlash in bevel gears.
I have heard that X-ray diffraction does not tell the whole story and that I should really run a fatigue test. I understand this may be the best way, but is there another method that gives a high degree of confidence in the residual stress measurement?
Wait a minute, we don't measure pitch diameter. We're sometimes asked to measure it by customers, though, especially ones with older drawings.
With growing markets in aerospace and energy technologies, measuring hob cutters used in gear cutting is becoming an essential requirement for workpieces and machine tools. Zoller, a provider of solutions for tool pre-setters, measuring and inspection machines and tool management software, has developed a new partnership with Ingersoll/Germany for shop floor checking of hob cutters by a combined hardware and software approach.
Our experts tackle the topic of measuring involute masters, including both master gears and gear inspection artifacts.
The traditional way of controlling the quality of hypoid gears' tooth flank form is to check the tooth flank contact patterns. But it is not easy to exactly judge the tooth flank form quality by the contact pattern. In recent years, it has become possible to accurately measure the tooth flank form of hypoid gears by the point-to-point measuring method and the scanning measuring method. But the uses of measured data of the tooth flank form for hypoid gears have not yet been well developed in comparison with cylindrical involute gears. In this paper, the tooth flank form measurement of generated face-milled gears, face-hobbed gears and formulate/generated gears are reported. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of scanning and point-to-point measuring of 3-D tooth flank forms of hypoid gears and introduce some examples of uses of measured data for high-quality production and performance prediction.
The trend toward moving coordinate measuring machines to the shop floor to become an integral part of the manufacturing operations brings real time process control within the reach of many companies. Putting measuring machines on the shop floor, however, subjects them to harsh environmental conditions. Like any measuring system, CMMs are sensitive to any ambient condition that deviates from the "perfect" conditions of the metrology lab.
Question: In the January/February issue of your magazine, we came across the term "electronic gearbox." We have seen this term used elsewhere as well. We understand that this EGB eliminates the change gear in the transmission line, but not how exactly this is done. Could you explain in more detail?
Base helix error - the resultant of lead and profile errors is the measured deviation from the theoretical line of contact (Fig. 1). It can be measured in the same way that lead error on a spur gear is measured, namely, by setting a height gage to height H based on the radial distance r to a specified line of contact (Fig. 2), rotating the gear so as to bring a tooth into contact with the indicator on the height gage, and then moving the height gage along two or more normals to the plane of action. The theoretical line of contact on helical gear must be parallel to the surface plate, which is attained by mounting the gear on a sine bar (Fig. 3).
In this article, equations for finding profile and base pitch errors with a micrometer are derived. Limitations of micrometers with disc anvils are described. The design of a micrometer with suitable anvils is outlined.
The purpose of this article is to clarify some terms and methods used in measuring the size of gears. There is also an explanation given of the error induced and how to correct for it in certain cases when the measurement is made using pins instead of balls.
CMM Inspection vs. GMM Inspection. Speed is the name of the game.
There are problems in dimensional measurement that should be simple to solve with standard measuring procedures, but aren't. In such cases, using accepted practices may result in errors of hundreds of microns without any warning that something is wrong.
The first commandment for gears reads "Gears must have backlash!" When gear teeth are operated without adequate backlash, any of several problems may occur, some of which may lead to disaster. As the teeth try to force their way through mesh, excessive separating forces are created which may cause bearing failures. These same forces also produce a wedging action between the teeth with resulting high loads on the teeth. Such loads often lead to pitting and to other failures related to surface fatigue, and in some cases, bending failures.
A new inspection method has several advantages over traditional methods, especially for very large or very small gears.
Question: What is functional measurement and what is the best method for getting truthful answers?
Surface roughness measuring of gear teeth can be a very frustrating experience. Measuring results often do not correlate with any functional characteristic, and many users think that they need not bother measuring surface roughness, since the teeth are burnished in operation. They mistakenly believe that the roughness disappears in a short amount of time. This is a myth! The surface indeed is shiny, but it still has considerable roughness. In fact, tests indicate that burnishing only reduces the initial roughness by approximately 25%.
Xspect Solutions Provides Wenzel Bridge-Type CMM Equipped with OpenDMIS Software for Basic Gear Measuring Capability with CMM Flexibility.
McCormick Place, Chicago. A manufacturer's dream. Acres and acres of machine tools up and running - cutting chips, filling molds, moving material, bending, shaping, smoothing, measuring. Computers, robots and lasers everywhere - George Lucas goes to engineering school. Sounds, light and, most important, over 100,000 people, moving around, taking notes, asking questions and, above all, buying. This was IMTS '94. A heady, if tiring, experience.
The purpose of this article is to discuss ISO 4156/ANSI B92.2M-1980 and to compare it with other, older standards still in use. In our experience designing and manufacturing spline gauges and other spline measuring or holding devices for splined component manufacturers throughout the world, we are constantly surprised that so many standards have been produced covering what is quite a small subject. Many of the standards are international standards; others are company standards, which are usually based on international standards. Almost all have similarities; that is, they all deal with splines that have involute flanks of 30 degrees, 37.5 degrees or 45 degrees pressure angle and are for the most part flank-fitting or occasionally major-diameter-fitting.
It used to be that gear manufacturers wanting to perform analytical gear inspection required at least three machines to do so: The lead measuring instrument, the tooth space comparator and the involute checking instrument. In the beginning, these machines were mechanically driven. Over the years, the manufacturers of analytical gear inspection equipment have combined these functions - and a host of others.
Here is some history that bears repeating— or at least re-reading. So take a few minutes to give it up for a long-gone Brit named Henry Maudslay (August 22, 1771 – February 14, 1831) — also known as “A Founding Father of Machine Tool Technology.” You might also consider him an early leader in inspection, as he also invented the first bench micrometer capable of measuring to one ten-thousandth of an inch (0.0001 in ≈ 3 μm).
Mitutoyo offers capable, affordable and flexible gear inspection option via coordinate measuring machines and gear inspection software.
Today, as part of filling a typical gear hobbing or shaping machine order, engineers are required to perform an SPC acceptance test. This SPC test, while it is contractually necessary for machine acceptance, is not a machine acceptance test. It is a process capability test. It is an acceptance of the machine, cutting tool, workholding fixture, and workpiece as integrated on the cutting machine, using a gear measuring machine, with its work arbor and evaluation software, to measure the acceptance elements of the workpiece.
Traditionally, profile and lead inspections have been indispensable portions of a standard inspection of an involute gear. This also holds true for the worm of a worm gear drive (Ref. 1). But the inspection of the profile and the lead is rarely performed on a worm wheel. One of the main reasons is our inability to make good definitions of these two elements (profile and lead) for the worm wheel. Several researchers have proposed methods for profile and lead inspections of a worm wheel using CNC machines or regular involute and lead inspections of a worm wheel using CNC machines or regular involute measuring machines. Hu and Pennell measured a worm wheel's profile in an "involute" section and the lead on the "pitch" cylinder (Ref. 2). This method is applicable to a convolute helicoid worm drive with a crossing angle of 90 degrees because the wheel profile in one of the offset axial planes is rectilinear. This straight profile generates an involute on the generated worm wheel. Unfortunately, because of the hob oversize, the crossing angle between the hob and the worm wheel always deviates from 90 degrees by the swivel angle. Thus, this method can be implemented only approximately by ignoring the swivel angle. Another shortcoming of this method is that there is only one profile and one lead on each flank. If the scanned points deviated from this curve, it produced unreal profile deviation. Octrue discussed profile inspection using a profile checking machine (Ref. 3).
In this article, the authors calculated the numerical coordinates on the tooth surfaces of spiral bevel gears and then modeled the tooth profiles using a 3-D CAD system. They then manufactured the large-sized spiral bevel gears based on a CAM process using multi-axis control and multi-tasking machine tooling. The real tooth surfaces were measured using a coordinate measuring machine and the tooth flank form errors were detected using the measured coordinates. Moreover, the gears were meshed with each other and the tooth contact patterns were investigated. As a result, the validity of this manufacturing method was confirmed.
This article describes a new technique for the size determination of external Involute splines by using a span measuring method. It provides application performance information demonstrating how this method and its measurements correlate with the traditional spline ring gage sizing method.
Your May/June issue contains a letter from Edward Ubert of Rockwell International with some serious questions about specifying and measuring tooth thickness.
This paper presents the results of research directed at measuring the total stress in a pair of statically loaded and carburized spur gears. Measurements were made to examine the change in total stress as a function of externally applied load and depth below the surface.
A trial test of the calibration procedures outlined in ISO 18653—Gears: Evaluation of Instruments for the Measurement of Individual Gears, shows that the results are reasonable, but a minor change to the uncertainty formula is recommended. Gear measuring machine calibration methods are reviewed. The benefits of using workpiece-like artifacts are discussed, and a procedure for implementing the standard in the workplace is presented. Problems with applying the standard to large gear measuring machines are considered and some recommendations offered.
Gear manufacturing schedules that provide both quality and economy are dependent on efficient quality control techniques with reliable measuring equipment. Given the multitude of possible gear deviations, which can be found only by systematic and detailed measuring of the gear teeth, adequate quality control systems are needed. This is especially true for large gears, on which remachining or rejected workpieces create very high costs. First, observation of the gears allows adjustment of the settings on the equipment right at the beginning of the process and helps to avoid unproductive working cycles. Second, the knowledge of deviations produced on the workpiece helps disclose chance inadequacies on the production side: e.g., faults in the machines and tools used, and provides an opportunity to remedy them.
Klingelnberg measuring centers eliminate trial-and-error with modern analysis tools.
Throughout the history of civilization attempts have been made to limit the number of the measuring systems in use with the result that today only two systems, English and metric, are practiced in the industrial nations. Globally, the metric system has been gaining ground, and the English system has been losing it. As of 1986, only the United States, Burma and Brunei remain uncommitted to metric conversion in the sense that no government controlled deadlines for the conversion have been established.
News Items About Measuring
1 Mitutoyo CMM Doubles the Measuring Range (October 18, 2011)
The new Crysta-Apex S Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) from Mitutoyo America Corporation brings new levels of perfo... Read News
2 Mahr Federal Introduces Universal Optical Measuring System (April 27, 2006)
The Helio-Scope from Mahr is a universal optical measuring system designed to facilitate precision control of complex turned parts. Wi... Read News
3 North America's Largest Gear Measuring Machine Purchased (October 21, 2008)
British Columbia-based Vancouver Gear Works Ltd. has placed an order for what is believed to be the largest gear measuring machine in N... Read News
4 Measuring System Eliminates Need for Gaging (February 23, 2009)
Designed with a small footprint for the shop environment, OneTouch optical measuring systems provide quick, micron-level accuracy on indi... Read News
5 Measuring System Goes Wireless (July 14, 2010)
The MikroCAD Lite measuring system from GFMesstechnik is now available without a PC, so all data acquisition and evaluation is performe... Read News
6 Marposs Newest Software Enables On-Machine Measuring (January 18, 2006)
The 3D Shape Inspector software for on-machine measurement application from Marposs is used with the companys touch probes and enab... Read News
7 Frenco Adds Gage for Measuring Splines to Produce A Circumferential Backlash Measuring Instrument (April 16, 2005)
Frenco has expanded its product line by starting to produce a circumferential backlash measuring instrument. According to its press r... Read News
8 New Measuring Machine from Mahr Federal (April 16, 2004)
The MarVision from Mahr Federal is designed to provide a mid-sized solution for high precision applications that require multiple modes o... Read News
9 New Measuring Machine from Marposs (April 16, 2004)
The M110 Optoflex from Marposs is designed for the dimensional inspection of shafts and shaft-like parts. Utilizing optoelectric technolo... Read News
10 Hexagon Metrology Debuts CNC Measuring Arm at Fabtech (January 19, 2005)
Hexagon Metrology introduced a new CNC articulated measuring arm at Fabtech that president and CEO William Gruber calls ?our version of a... Read News
11 Donner + Pfister Introduces New Measuring Equipment (January 19, 2005)
The ES 4100 portable pitch measuring instrument from Donner + Pfister offers measuring data. Operational convenience is achieved by the b... Read News
12 Mitutoyo Measuring System Inspects Large and Small Workpieces (October 11, 2012)
Mitutoyo America Corporation announces availability of the innovative, new Ko-ga-me measurement head - designed to bring full capability ... Read News
13 Zeiss Contura Offers Additional Measuring Ranges (May 27, 2014)
The latest generation of the successful Zeiss Contura is now entering the market. Zeiss introduced the coordinate measuring machine at the Control show in Stuttgart, Germany... Read News
14 Marposs iWave2 Wireless Gauge Has Measuring Resolution of 0.0001 mm. (August 20, 2015)
Marposs Corp. recently announced it will introduce its new iWave2 wireless manual gauge at the Quality Show in booth #619. The innov... Read News
15 Zeiss DuraMax Evolves Into Shopfloor Gear Wheel Measuring Machine (September 24, 2015)
Carl Zeiss Industrial Metrology will feature the Zeiss DuraMax. With DuraMax, Zeiss offers a compact 3-D coordinate measuring machine. Du... Read News
16 Klingelnberg P 16, P 26 and P 40 Measuring Machines to be Presented at Control 2016 (March 8, 2016)
Klingelnberg will be at Control 2016 (April 26-29), presenting a round of talks at its stand in Hall 1/1418, which will cover all a... Read News
17 R&P Metrology Offers Special Measuring System (March 7, 2014)
Responding to specific customer requirements, R&P Metrology GmbH announced a new model in their full line of custom metrology systems... Read News
18 R&P Metrology Announces 1600DS Measuring Machine (February 7, 2014)
R&P Metrology GmbH announced a new model in their full line of metrology systems, the RPG 1600DS. This system is designed for gears u... Read News
19 Mitutoyo Releases Measuring Microscopes (November 13, 2012)
Mitutoyo America Corporation announces availability of new, generation D MF/MF-U measuring microscopes. The new MF/MF-U measuring microsc... Read News
20 Mitutoyo Releases Compact Measuring System (June 19, 2013)
Mitutoyo America Corporation announces availability of the innovative, new Ko-ga-me measurement head - designed to bring full capability ... Read News
21 Hexagon Releases White Light Measuring Solution (January 17, 2014)
Hexagon Metrology has released the WLS qFLASH, a compact white light solution (WLS) that utilizes state-of-the-art blue light technology,... Read News
22 Mitutoyo CNC Cylindricity Measuring System Boasts High Rotational Accuracy (December 20, 2016)
Mitutoyo has announced the release of the RA-6000CNC, a custom-built CNC roundness/cylindricity measuring system with best-in-class accur... Read News