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A study of AGMA 218, the draft ISO standard 6336, and BS 436: 1986 methods for rating gear tooth strength and surface durability for metallic spur and helical gears is presented. A comparison of the standards mainly focuses on fundamental formula and influence factors, such as the load distribution factor, geometry factor, and others. No attempt is made to qualify or judge the standards other than to comment on the facilities or lack of them in each standard reviewed. In Part I a comparison of pitting resistance ratings is made, and in the subsequent issue, Part II will deal with bending stress ratings and comparisons of designs.
AGMA Chairman David Ballard discusses what it means to be an AGMA member.
With all the heated debate and hoopla surrounding ISO 9000 certification, everyone seems to have an opinion about whether to sign up. Executives in the gear industry are flooded with information and ideas that often seem at odds. Gear Technology asked AGMA executive director Joe T. Franklin, Jr. to give an industry perspective on the pros and cons of ISO 9000 certification.
As the international business community grows closer together, the need for understanding differences between national and international gear rating standards becomes increasingly important for U.S. gear manufacturers competing in the world market.
In Part I differences in pitting ratings between AGMA 218, the draft ISO standard 6336, and BS 436:1986 were examined. In this part bending strength ratings are compared. All the standards base the bending strength on the Lewis equation; the ratings differ in the use and number of modification factors. A comprehensive design survey is carried out to examine practical differences between the rating methods presented in the standards, and the results are shown in graphical form.
The authors of last issue's article comparing AGMA, ISO and BS methods for Pitting Resistance Ratings are commended. Trying to compare various methods of rating gears is like hitting a moving target in a thick forest. The use of different symbols, presentations, terminology, and definitions in these standards makes it very difficult. But the greatest problem lies with the authors' use of older versions of these documents. ISO drafts and AGMA standards have evolved at the same time their work was accomplished and edited.
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to write all U.S. standards on gearing. However, in response to the growing interest in a global marketplace, AGMA became involved with the International Standards Organization (ISO) several years ago, first as an observer in the late 1970s and then as a participant, starting in the early 1980s. In 1993, AGMA became Secretariat (or administrator) for Technical Committee 60 of ISO, which administers ISO gear standards development.
AGMA introduced ANSI/AGMA 2015â€“2â€“A06â€” Accuracy Classification System: Radial System for Cylindrical Gears, in 2006 as the first major rewrite of the double-flank accuracy standard in over 18 years. This document explains concerns related to the use of ANSI/AGMA 2015â€“2â€“A06 as an accuracy classification system and recommends a revised system that can be of more service to the gearing industry.
When I first met the leaders of the gearing industry in April 2016 at AGMA's 100th Anniversary Celebration, I did my best imitation of Joe Namath, who famously predicted a Super Bowl victory for his New York Jets: I guaranteed we would reach our 101st year!
Herman Riccio, Chicago Gear Works President, to Retire; Gleason Opens MI Sales Office; American Pfauter hires Steve Peterson; plus AGMA's technical calendar for the Fall of 1984.
Another year, another AGMA Fall Technical Conference. But this is no ho-hum event. Not when every year, the conference attracts some of the greatest mechanical engineering minds on the planet, along with representatives of the worldâ€™s greatest manufacturing entities. And who knowsâ€”perhaps one day there will be an extraterrestrial contingentâ€”the science is that good. And all of it readily applicable to real-world manufacturing.
The AGMA Fall Technical Meeting provides an opportunity to share ideas with others on the design, analysis, manufacturing and application of gears, gear drives, and related products, as well as associated processes and procedures.
More than 100 years ago, gear manufacturers were facing a significant challenge from industry. The incredible advances in industrialization and transportation that occurred at the turn of the 20th century resulted in incredible growth for gear makers, but there were significant technical issues. "The lack of process and product standardization was a continuing problem in all U.S. industry. The lack of industry-wide gear standards meant there were no standard gear tooth sizes, ratings, quality definition or consistent manufacturing methods" (Celebrating 100 Years of Gearing, pg. 22).
AGMA and members of the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) are three years into a joint project to develop specifications and an information sheet on rating powder metal gears. According to committee vice chairman Glen A. Moore of Burgess-Norton Mfg. Co., the first phase of the project, the publication of AGMA Standard "6009-AXX, Specifications for Powder Metallurgy Gears," should be completed in late 1996 or early 1997.
The AGMA/ABMA Annual Meeting took place April 10-12 in St. Petersburg, Florida. Between committee meetings, networking opportunities and social events, many individuals in the gear industry were presented awards.
While the two have taught a variety of AGMA courses over the years, without question their most popular courses are Gear Failure Analysis (Errichello with longtime colleague Jane Muller) and Gearbox CSI: Forensic Analysis of Gear & Bearing Failures (Drago). Drago currently teaches Manufacturing & Inspection (with AGMA instructor Joseph W. Lenski, Jr.) and Gearbox System Design: The Rest of the Story - Everything but the Gears and Bearings (with AGMA instructor Steve Cymbala) as well.
Charlie Fischer, VP Technical Division, retiring end of April
There are many different gear rating methods in use today, and they can give substantially different results for any given gearset. This paper will make it easy to understand the choices and the impact the choices have on gearbox design. Eight standards are included - AGMA 2001; AGMA 6011; AGMA 6013; ISO 6336; API 613; API 617; API 672; and API 677. (Click HERE for the Appendix to this article).
â€śThe gear marketplace is a global marketplace.â€ť Bill Bradley says it easily, with no special emphasis. The vice president of AGMAâ€™s technical division sees the statement as an obvious fact.
The world is full of acronyms. At work, the inbox reveals e-mails from the AWEA, SAE, MPIF and AMT. On the weekends, Saturday mornings are consumed by activities involving the AYSO, PTA, YMCA or DMV. Itâ€™s a struggle to determine what organization does what and why we should care in the first place.
The face load factor is one of the most important items for a gear strength calculation. Current standards propose formulae for face load factor, but they are not always appropriate. AGMA 927 proposes a simpler and quicker algorithm that doesn't require a contact analysis calculation. This paper explains how this algorithm can be applied for gear rating procedures.
The AGMA pavilion was a hot spot at October's PTC-Asia show in Shanghai, as evidenced by the intense quoting reported by exhibitors.
Despite the many things being done to promote manufacturing nationwide, there still remains an acute need for gear-specific training, remedial or otherwise.
Arlin Perry, president of Comer Industries, talks about his tenure as chairman of the AGMA Foundation and its role in supporting the industry.
Gear Technology talks with AGMA's president about the association and its role in the gear industry.
This is a very exciting year for AGMA as the organization celebrates its 100-year anniversary. In addition to the anniversary, AGMA President Joe Franklin, jr., who has done an outstanding job at the helm of AGMA for the last 25 years, will retire, and we welcome in our new AGMA President, Matt Croson, who will lead us into the next 100 years. The centennial kicked off in October with a dinner at the AGMA Gear Expo in Detroit and will continue throughout 2016 with a number of exciting events scheduled to celebrate this milestone anniversary.
Faydor Litvin, 1914-2017; Michael Goldstein receives AGMA Distinguished Service Award.
AGMA President Joe Franklin is stepping down after some 24 years on the job. He graciously took the time to answer some questions from Gear Technology Senior Editor Jack McGuinn regarding his tenure.
Lastest news from around the industry.
How do we educate the next generation of gear industry employees, and how do we train the ones we already have?
I'd like to apologize to the dedicated people working on revisions to the AGMA 925 standard and the Technical Report ISO 15144-1, both of which deal with the issue of micropitting. In the March/April issue of Gear Technology, we published an opinion piece in our Voices column that harshly criticized the methods for predicting micropitting outlined in ISO 15144-1.
Manufacturers focus on tool design, materials, coating, machine tool options and cutting parameters.
At the AGMA annual meeting last month, the association presented me with its Distinguished Service Award.
A best practice in gear design is to limit the amount of backlash to a minimum value needed to accommodate manufacturing tolerances, misalignments, and deflections, in order to prevent the non-driving side of the teeth to make contact and rattle. Industry standards, such as ANSI/AGMA 2002 and DIN3967, provide reference values of minimum backlash to be used in the gear design. However, increased customers' expectations in vehicle noise eduction have pushed backlash and allowable manufacturing tolerances to even lower limits. This is especially true in the truck market, where engines are quieter because they run at lower speeds to improve fuel economy, but they quite often run at high torsional vibration levels. Furthermore, gear and shaft arrangements in truck transmissions have become more complex due to increased number of speeds and to improve efficiency. Determining the minimum amount of backlash is quite a challenge. This paper presents an investigation of minimum backlash values of helical gear teeth applied to a light-duty pickup truck transmission. An analytical model was developed to calculate backlash limits of each gear pair when not transmitting load, and thus susceptible to generate rattle noise, through different transmission power paths. A statistical approach (Monte Carlo) was used since a significant number of factors affect backlash, such as tooth thickness variation; center distance variation; lead; runout and pitch variations; bearing clearances; spline clearances; and shaft deflections and misalignments. Analytical results identified the critical gear pair, and power path, which was confirmed experimentally on a transmission. The approach presented in this paper can be useful to design gear pairs with a minimum amount of backlash, to prevent double flank contact and to help reduce rattle noise to lowest levels.
News from around the Industry
No, not that president! I mean Matt Croson, the new president of the American Gear Manufacturers Association, who started in June and has been busy getting to know the gear industry and AGMA's members.
There are many benefits to attending Gear Expo, but if you're not taking advantage of the educational opportunities, you're missing out.
What do glam and avant garde rock star Brian Eno, AGMA and Seattle Gear Works have in common? Admittedly, not much. But there is a connection of sorts.
The complete Industry News section from the June 2017 issue of Gear Technology.
I have a query (regarding) calculated gear life values. I would like to understand for what % of gear failures the calculated life is valid? Is it 1-in-100 (1% failure, 99% reliability) or 1-in-one-thousand (0.1% failure)?
The complete Industry News section from the June 2019 issue of Gear Technology./
A reader asks: I'd like to know about the different approaches and factors considered while determining the value of Ka in regards to the DIN 3990 and AGMA standards.
The world is changing. I've just returned from the AGMA Annual Meeting in Scottsdale, AZ. Like always, it was a great opportunity to visit with peers, colleagues, customers and competitors in the gear industry. But this year's event was far more than just a chance to reunite with old friends. No, this year's annual meeting was also a wake-up call.
It's time to catch up on the episodes of Revolutions that you might have missed.
As most of you know by now, the trade show formerly known as Gear Expo is now the Motion + Power Technology Expo. If you're a gear-industry veteran, you might be confused by this change. If you've been coming to the show for years - or exhibiting at it - you might even feel a little betrayed. But I'm here to tell you it's going to be alright.
Liebherr and Wenzel announce sales and service agreement; MPIF releases new powder metal standard; Gear Motions announces promotions; Profilator opens new factory and more gear industry news.
Will tariffs and quotas affect your ability to operate in the fourth quarter this year?
The complete industry news section from the June 2018 issue of Gear Technology.
A reader asks: We are currently revising our gear standards and tolerances, and a few problems with the new standard AGMA 2002-C16 have arisen. Firstly, the way to calculate the tooth thickness tolerance seems to need a "manufacturing profile shift coefficient" that isn't specified in the standard; neither is another standard referred to for this coefficient. This tolerance on tooth thickness is needed later to calculate the span width as well as the pin diameter. Furthermore, there seems to be no tolerancing on the major and minor diameters of a gear.
At most family reunions, everyone gets along, everyone puts on a good face, and everyone celebrates their togetherness. The AGMA annual convention held at the end of April was a lot like that.
AGMA adds two new committees, Star Cutter Celebrates 90 years, plus other news from around the industry.
A discussion of ISO and AGMA standards for gears, shafts and bearings, and the art of designing a gearbox that meets your requirements.
A reader asks about ion-nitride finished shafts and the proper friction coefficient to be used for calculations.
The definition is pretty straightforward: An association is an organization of persons having a common interest. Basically, it's a group that shares a purpose or mission that exists for the mutual advancement of its members.
Bob Errichello retires from teaching, Siemens expands technical center, HBM Holdings acquires Schafer Industries, plus new hires and other industry news.
Gear Expo 2017 is your best opportunity to expand your knowledge, get answers to your technical questions and solve your toughest manufacturing challenges. The reason is quite simple. Gear Expo provides you with the greatest collection of gear expertise, know-how and experience you can find.
There is so much more to Gear Expo than gears or the machinery that makes them. That's because it takes much, much more to make a finished gear than even the most sophisticated machine. And it is exhibitors who are part of the "much, much, more" that are addressed in this article.
The 25th anniversary is the silver. The 50th is the gold. The 75th is the diamond. But what symbolizes the 100th?
AGMA Sets Up Shop in Living Laboratory of the Midwest. Columbus, Ohio recently surpassed Indianapolis as the second largest city in the Midwest behind Chicago, according to the United States Census Bureau. This could change come the 2020 census, but there's no denying Buckeye Nation is going places.
Summer never lasts as long as you want it to. By the time you read this, you'll be well into the hazy, lazy days, and the season will be gone before you know it. That means you're running out of time to make plans to attend our industry's most important event. Of course, I'm talking about Gear Expo (October 24 - 26) and the AGMA Fall Technical Meeting (October 22 - 24), both of which will take place in Columbus, OH.
your life and in your professional career is an inflection point for you to take stock of where you came from and where you are going.
Large, multi-segmented girth gears do not behave like the relatively compact, rigid, monolithic structures we typically envision when discussing gear manufacturing. Girth gears are very large, non-rigid structures that require special care during the machining of individual mating segments as well as the assembled gear blank itself.
There exists an ongoing, urgent need for a rating method to assess micropitting risk, as AGMA considers it a "a very significant failure mode for rolling element bearings and gear teeth - especially in gearbox applications such as wind turbines."
Gary A. Bish, director of product design technology for Horsburgh & Scott, discusses his role as chairman of the AGMA mill gearing committee.
For the last few years, the market has been tough for the U.S. gear industry. That statement will cause no one any surprise. The debate is about what to do. One sure sign of this is the enormous attention Congress and the federal government are now placing on "competitiveness."
A change has taken place within the industry that is going to have an enormous effect on the marketing, sales, and purchasing of gear manufacturing and related equipment. This change was the American Gear Manufacturers' Association, first biennial combination technical conference and machine tool minishow.
October 5-8, 1986 AGMA Fall technical Conference & Gearing Exhibit September 17-19, 1986 Ohio State University Gear Noise Seminar November 11-13, 1986 SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic November 19-21, 1986 Seminar: Gear System Design for Minimum Noise
At a time when there are many pressures on the Gear Industry and its representative Association, the American Gear Manufacturers Association, it seems particularly appropriate that Gear Technology - The Journal of Gear Manufacturing appears. AGMA is particularly pleased to have the opportunity to write the first editorial for this magazine.
AGMA president Joe T. Franklin Jr. talks about how the AGMA Gear Expo has grown and changed since its beginnings as a table-top show in 1987.
AGMA Flexible Couplings committee chairman Glenn C. Pokrandt gives an update about standards and other documents under development.
Chairman Todd Praneis of Cotta Transmission describes the activities of AGMA's Enclosed Drives technical committee.
A recap of the AGMA 2010 Fall Technical Meeting.
Five years of effort by AGMA came to fruition in January with the publishing of a report from the Department of Commerce. This "National Security Assessment of the U.S. Gear Industry" indicates that if serious measures are not taken, the gear industry's future is in jeopardy. It also sets the tone for confronting major challenges now looming large in our industry.
Dr. Phil Terry, chairman of the AGMA Technical Division Executive Committee, talks about the standards-making process.
When you graduated from school and made your way into the world, you probably thought youâ€™d learned everything you needed to know to be successful. But those of us whoâ€™ve been out in the workforce for some time know that you never stop learning.
Listing of papers to be presented and activities for the 2007 AGMA Fall Technical Meeting.
The organizers of Gear Expo 2007 promise to combine the most popular features of shows past with some innovations for this yearâ€™s attendees. By the time the show closes on October 10, the association hopes its targeted 175 exhibitors walk away with new insights leading to profitability and renewed contacts.
"One of the reasons AGMA has been successful over our 93-year history is that the associationâ€™s agenda, programs and activities reflect the voices of our members," says Joe T. Franklin, Jr., AGMA President.
Events from SME and AGMA, along with news from the gear industry.
Industrial gear standards have been used to support reliability through the specification of requirements for design, manufacturing and verification. The consensus development of an international wind turbine gearbox standard is an example where gear products can be used in reliable mechanical systems today. This has been achieved through progressive changes in gear technology, gear design methods and the continual development and refinement of gearbox standards.
I would appreciate if you could assist with a gear failure (occurring) after just seven weeks in service, post installation. This driving gear wheel has been installed in a medium-speed engine with backlash present at four different positions; with additional backlash checked on the mating surfaces. All backlash was found within (OEM)-recommended values. Please note included photos - it seems that the crack has started at the root fillet. Any comments would be appreciated.
It is often easy for those outside of the gear industry to get the impression that nothing is changing in our business. After all, all illustrated bimonthly by the covers of this very journal the making of gears has been with us for centuries. However, nothing could be further from the truth.
Step forward now to help yourself and your industry.
A few months ago at the AGMA management seminar, I was surprised by the feverish note taking that went on at a presentation on marketing. The sight reminded me that while many of us in the gear industry are good engineers, designers, and mangers, we are often not as familiar - or comfortable - with less concrete concepts, such as marketing.
The new chairman of the AGMA Technical Division Executive Committee explains what's involved in the process of developing technical standards at the AGMA.
Iâ€™ve just come back from the AGMA annual meeting in Napa, California, where I had a great time visiting with friends and colleagues in the gear industry. As always, the annual meeting was a great opportunity to network and meet with other AGMA members.
The geometry of the bevel gear is quite complicated to describe mathematically, and much of the overall surface topology of the tooth flank is dependent on the machine settings and cutting method employed. AGMA 929-A06 â€” Calculation of Bevel Gear Top Land and Guidance on Cutter Edge Radius â€” lays out a practical approach for predicting the approximate top-land thicknesses at certain points of interest â€” regardless of the exact machine settings that will generate the tooth form. The points of interest that AGMA 929-A06 address consist of toe, mean, heel, and point of involute lengthwise curvature. The following method expands upon the concepts described in AGMA 929-A06 to allow the user to calculate not only the top-land thickness, but the more general case as well, i.e. â€” normal tooth thickness anywhere along the face and profile of the bevel gear tooth. This method does not rely on any additional machine settings; only basic geometry of the cutter, blank, and teeth are required to calculate fairly accurate tooth thicknesses. The tooth thicknesses are then transformed into a point cloud describing both the convex and concave flanks in a global, Cartesian coordinate system. These points can be utilized in any modern computer-aided design software package to assist in the generation of a 3D solid model; all pertinent tooth macrogeometry can be closely simulated using this technique. A case study will be presented evaluating the accuracy of the point cloud data compared to a physical part.
How should we consider random helix angle errors fHÎ˛ and housing machining errors when calculating KHÎ˛? What is a reasonable approach?
This issue, GT Extras brings you "Heat Treat and Induction Hardening of Industrial Gears," a treasure trove of heat treating related technical articles and a call for help in preparation for AGMA's 100th anniversary.
So there is little chance that they need the same software to assist with their work. Gone are the days when companies wrote their own code and process engineers thumbed the same tattered reference book.
If you havenâ€™t already done so, you should make plans to attend Gear Expo in September. Itâ€™s a unique and important show, and you should take advantage of it.
In todayâ€™s globalized manufacturing, all industrial products having dimensional constraints must undergo conformity specifications assessments on a regular basis. Consequently, (standardization) associated with GD&T (geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing) should be un-ambiguous and based on common, accepted rules. Of course gears - and their mechanical assemblies - are special items, widely present in industrial applications where energy conversion and power transmission are involved.
It's nice to see old friends. It's also advantageous to make new ones. Gear Expo has always been a family reunion of sorts, but it's first and foremost an opportunity to show off the latest and greatest technologies that are impacting the gear industry today. With this in mind, Gear Technology recently spoke with those responsible for putting the Fall Technical Meeting (FTM) and Gear Expo 2013 together in Indianapolis.
"Gear Train" is a new Gear Technology section focusing on training and education in the gear industry. For the first installment, we've focused on AGMA's online and video training programs.
AGMA925â€“A03 scuffing risk predictions for a series of spur and helical gear sets of transmissions used in commercial vehicles ranging from SAE Class 3 through Class 8.
The major focus of the American Gear Manufacturers Association standards activity has been the accurate determination of a gearbox's ability to transmit a specified amount of power for a given amount of time. The need for a "level playing field" in the critical arena was one of the reasons the association was formed in the first place. Over the past 85 years, AGMA committees have spent countless hours "discussing" the best ways to calculate the rating of a gear set, often arguing vigorously over factors that varied the resulting answers by fractions of a percentage point. While all that "science" was being debated in test labs and conference rooms all over the country, out industry's customers were conducting their own experiments through the daily operation of gear-driven equipment of all types.
This is the third article in a series exploring the new ISO 6336 gear rating standard and its methods of calculation. The opinions expressed herein are htose of the author as an individual. They do not represent the opinions of any organization of which he is a member.
One of the best ways to learn the ISO 6336 gear rating system is to recalculate the capacity of a few existing designs and to compare the ISO 6336 calculated capacity to your experience with those designs and to other rating methods. For these articles, I'll assume that you have a copy of ISO 6336, you have chosen a design for which you have manufacturing drawings and an existing gear capacity calculation according to AGMA 2001 or another method. I'll also assume that you have converted dimensions, loads, etc. into the SI system of measurement.
The wind turbine industry has been plagued with gearbox failures, which cause repair costs, legal expenses, lost energy production and environmental pollution.
Who wants or needs technical details about gearing? Who cares about it? Three out of every four people who are reading this magazine make up at least 75% of those who have an interest in the subject. The members of AGMA, EUROTRANS, JGMA and JSIM have an interest. All the people attending the Gear Expo in Detroit have an interest. Clearly, however, the people with the most pressing interest in our industry are our customers, the end users of gear products. The unfortunate reality, though, is that in many cases, these customers don't even know that's what they want.
Long-time readers of these pages will know that I have always felt strongly about the subject of professional education. There's nothing more important for an individual's career development than keeping up with current technology. likewise, there's nothing more important that a company can do for itself and it employees than seeing to it they have the professional education they need. Giving people the educational tools they need to do their jobs is a necessary ingredient for success.
Standards are unlike gears themselves: mundane, but complex, ubiquitous and absolutely vital. Standards are a lingua franca, providing a common language with reference points for evaluating product reliability and performance for manufacturers and users. The standards development process provides a scientific forum for discussion of product design, materials and applications, which can lead to product improvement. Standards can also be a powerful marketing tool for either penetrating new markets or protecting established ones.
AGMA has an excellent Training School for Gear Manufacturing. It's a great product providing a great service to the gear industry. Thus far we've educated 117 employees from 71 companies; students range from new hires with no experience to company presidents. Essentially every class since December, 1992, has been sold out.
AGMA's Gear Expo '89, "The Cutting Edge," opens at the David Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh, PA, on Nov. 6 and runs through Nov. 8. This year's show is "the largest trade show ever conceived specifically for the gear industry," according to Rick Norment, AGMA's executive director. The show is 60% larger in terms of floor space than the 1987 show, and over 90%of the booths have been sold.
AGMA's Gear Expo '93 is expected to be at least 10% larger in terms of floor space than the '91 show, according to Joe Franklin, AGMA's executive director. "As of June 1, we have 80 exhibitors registered", he says.
AGMA's Gear Expo '89 was, by all accounts, a great success, proving again the wisdom of having a trade show devoted exclusively to gearing and gear-related products. Over 1500 people attended the show, and 86 different companies exhibited their goods and services.
The geometry factor, which is a fundamental part of the AGMA strength rating of gears, is currently computed using the Lewis parabola which allows computation of the Lewis form factor.(1) The geometry factor is obtained from this Lewis factor and load sharing ratio. This method, which originally required graphical construction methods and more recently has been computerized, works reasonably well for external gears with thick rims.(2-6) However, when thin rims are encountered or when evaluating the strength of internal gears, the AGMA method cannot be used.
AGMA Voices is a new feature brought to you by Gear Technology in cooperation with the American Gear Manufacturers Association. AGMA Voices will give you opinions, insight and information presented by various AGMA staff members, board members, committee heads and volunteers. In this column, Gear Technology will bring you guest editorials from the gear industryâ€™s leading association.
AGMA has started to replace its 2000-A88 standard for gear accuracy with a new series of documents based largely on ISO standards. The first of the replacement AGMA standards have been published with the remainder coming in about a year. After serving as a default accuracy specification for U.S. commerce in gear products for several decades, the material in AGMA 2000-A88 is now considered outdated and in need of comprehensive revision.
We've contacted many of the gear industry's leading suppliers to find out what they'll be showing at Gear Expo 99. Booth numbers are current as of July 31, 1999, but they are subject to change. A current list of exhibitors and booth information is available at the AGMA Web site at www.agma.org.
In the quest for ever more exacting and compact commercial gears, precision abrasives are playing a key production role - a role that can shorten cycle time, reduce machining costs and meet growing market demand for such requirements as light weights, high loads, high speed and quiet operation. Used in conjunction with high-quality grinding machines, abrasives can deliver a level of accuracy unmatched by other manufacturing techniques, cost-effectively meeting AGMA gear quality levels in the 12 to 15 range. Thanks to advances in grinding and abrasive technology, machining has become one of the most viable means to grind fast, strong and quiet gears.
In the process of developing gear trains, it occasionally occurs that the tip of one gear will drag in the fillet of the mating gear. The first reaction may be to assume that the outside diameter of the gear is too large. This article is intended to show that although the gear dimensions follow AGMA guidelines, if the gear is cut with a shaper, the cutting process may not provide sufficient relief in the fillet area and be the cause of the interference.
Grinding in one form or another has been used for more than 50 years to correct distortions in gears caused by the high temperatures and quenching techniques associated with hardening. Grinding improves the lead, involute and spacing characteristics. This makes the gear capable of carrying the high loads and running at the high pitch line velocities required by today's most demanding applications. Gears that must meet or exceed the accuracy requirements specified by AGMA Quality 10-11 or DIN Class 6-7 must be ground or hard finished after hear treatment.
In 1961 I presented a paper, "Calculating Conjugate Helical Forms," at the semi-annual meeting of the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA). Since that time, thousands of hobs, shaper cutters and other meshing parts have been designed on the basis of the equations presented in that paper. This article presents the math of that paper without the formality of its development and goes on to discuss its practical application.
Notes from Detroit...Overall, Gear Expo 97, the AGMA biennial trade show, was a success. While attendance may not have been what some people had hoped for, the quality of the attendees was high. Serious buyers came and brought their checkbooks.
For over 50 years, grinding has been an accepted method of choice for improving the quality of gears and other parts by correcting heat treat distortions. Gears with quality levels better than AGMA 10-11 or DIN 6-7 are hard finished, usually by grinding. Other applications for grinding include, but are not limited to, internal/external and spur/helical gear and spline forms, radius forms, threads and serrations, compressor rotors, gerotors, ball screw tracks, worms, linear ball tracks, rotary pistons, vane pump rotators, vane slots, and pump spindles.
Gear Expo 99, AGMA's biennial showcase for the gear industry, has left the Rust Belt this year and landed in Music City U.S.A., Nashville, Tennessee. The event, with exhibitors from around the globe showing off the latest in gear manufacturing as well as metal working processes, will be held at the Nashville Convention Center, October 24-27, 1999. According to Kurt Medert, AGMA vice president and Gear Expo show manager, "In choosing Nashville, AGMA;s Trade Show Advisory Council found a city that is an excellent trade show site. It has the right mix of convention center, nearby hotels, and a clean downtown area with entertainment readily available for the exhibitors and visitors alike. Nashville is in the heart of southern industry, which we see as a focus of growth for the gear industry and its customers."
If you think Y2K will mean the end of the world, forget it. General Vladimir Dvorkin recently said, "I'd like to apologize beforehand if I fail to realize someone's hopes for the Apocalypse." Te general was, of course, discussing Russian nuclear missiles, making the point that they are not going to launch or detonate when the calendar rolls over to January 1, 2000. General Dvorkin's American counterparts are similarly optimistic. While all that is a relief, it raises the question: will Y2K be as kind to the rest of society? And more specifically, will it be as kind to the gear industry? According to AGMA's president, Joe Franklin, the answer is a resounding "yes." According to Franklin, the AGMA Board considers Y2K a non-issue within an industry that is well ahead of others in its preparedness for January 1, 2000. But is it really? Does the gear industry understand the problem any better than other sectors of society? It's a relief to know that the nuclear bombs are not likely to fall within the first moments of the year 2000, but how about the computers and machines that keep the worldwide economy together?
Thousands of gear industry professionals will converge October 24-27 in Nashville, TN, for Gear Expo 99, the industry's biennial collection of the latest in gear manufacturing technology. With nearly 50,000 square feet of exhibit space sold more than two months in advance of the show, this year's Gear Expo will offer visitors more opportunity for supplier comparison than ever before. As of July 20, 166 suppliers of equipment, tooling, services and precision gear products were scheduled to participate, with as many as 20 additional booths yet to be sold, according to AGMA vice president and Gear Expo show manager Kurt Medert. The largest previous Gear Expo was held in 1997 in Detroit, with 43,100 square feet of exhibit space and 161 exhibitors.
In a modern truck, the gear teeth are among the most stressed parts. Failure of a tooth will damage the transmission severely. Throughout the years, gear design experience has been gained and collected into standards such as DIN (Ref. 1) or AGMA (Ref. 2). Traditionally two types of failures are considered in gear design: tooth root bending fatigue, and contact fatigue. The demands for lighter and more silent transmissions have given birth to new failure types. One novel failure type, Tooth Interior Fatigue Fracture (TIFF), has previously been described by MackAldener and Olsson (Refs. 3 & 4) and is further explored in this paper.
Many people seem to be counting this year's Gear Expo in Nashville as a resounding success. There were 180 American and international exhibitors occupying over 50,000 square feet of exhibit space in the Nashville Convention Center, with total attendance of 2,700. This figure is dramatically down from past shows but that doesn't seem to be an issue with the show organizers. According to Kurt Medert, vice president of AGMA;s Administrative Division, even though attendance was off from the 1997 show, the exhibitors were pleased with the quality of the people who did come to the show. "This was an excellent show for us," said Marty Woodhouse, vice president of sales for Star Cutter Company and chairman of AGMA's Gear Expo committee. "Our customer base was there and they came to buy. It was very active."
AGMA is looking to boost attendance at Gear Expo 2001 and the 2001 Fall Technical Meeting by "cross-pollinating" the two events.
Gear Expo provides an opportunity to learn from the industry's experts by walking the aisles and talking to exhibitors. Visitors to Gear Expo 2001 also can take advantage of some formal training and educational opportunities sponsored by AGMA and SME.
It's an ideal time for a pilgrimage to AGMAâ€™s Fall Technical Meeting and Gear Expo, which take place in Indianapolis.
This article discusses applications of statistical process capability indices for controlling the quality of tooth geometry characteristics, including profile and lead as defined by current AGMA-2015, ISO-1328, and DIN-3960 standards. It also addresses typical steps to improve manufacturing process capability for each of the tooth geometry characteristics when their respective capability indices point to an incapable process.
When it came to picking a personal favorite booth at Gear Expo, AGMA Vice President of Marketing Jenny Blackford donned her proverbial TAG Heuer watch and embroidered silk apron and decided to keep her allegiance neutral.
One of the great benefits of Gear Expo for us here at Gear Technology is the opportunity to meet faceto-face with many of the people who, in one way or another, contribute to our success throughout the year. After all, our success is dependent almost entirely on information and the people who provide it. These contributors include researchers at top technical universities, the heads of technology at major gear industry corporations, independent consultants with decades of gear industry experience, members and volunteers at leading industry organizations like the AGMA, our technical editors and others.
This paper outlines the comparison of efficiencies for worm gearboxes with a center distance ranging from 28 - 150 mm that have single reduction from 5 to 100:1. Efficiencies are calculated using several standards (AGMA, ISO, DIN, BS) or by methods defined in other bibliographic references. It also deals with the measurement of torque and temperature on a test rig — required for the calibration of an analytical model to predict worm gearbox efficiency and temperature. And finally, there are examples of experimental activity (wear and friction measurements on a blockon- ring tribometer and the measurements of dynamic viscosity) regarding the effort of improving the efficiency for worm gear drivers by adding nanoparticles of fullerene shape to standard PEG lubricant
AGMA training classes, trade shows, technical conferences and more.
Gear Technology hosts dinner for technical contributors to the gear industry during this year's AGMA Fall Technical Meeting and Gear Expo in Columbus, OH. Plus other news from around the industry.
Many people in the gear industry have heard of skiving, a process wherein solid carbide or inserted carbide blade hobs with 15 - 60 degrees of negative rake are used to recut gears to 62 Rc. The topic of this article is the use of neutral (zero) rake solid carbide hobs to remove heat treat distortion, achieving accuracies of AGMA 8 to AGMA 14, DIN 10-5 and improving surface finish on gears from 8 DP - 96 DP (.3 module - .26 m.).
Flute Index Flute index or spacing is defined as the variation from the desired angle between adjacent or nonadjacent tooth faces measured in a plane of rotation. AGMA defines and provides tolerance for adjacent and nonadjacent flute spacing errors. In addition, DIN and ISO standards provide tolerances for individual flute variation (Fig. 1).
Sure, Gear Expo undoubtedly has a ton to offer attendees in education, research and networking alone, but what really draws the crowd in are the physical products and technology on display from exhibitors. Otherwise it would just be another technical meeting or social receptionâ€”and AGMA could save a few bucks on space to say the least.
Forty of Gear Technology's pre-show and show issue advertisers will be exhibiting a wide range of goods and services at AGMA's Gear Expo '93. The exhibition will be held October 10-13 at Cobo Conference & Exhibition Center in Detroit, MI. Below is an alphabetical listing of these advertisers and a preview of what can be seen at their booths.
Tooth contact under load is an important verification of the real contact conditions of a gear pair and an important add-on to the strength calculation according to standards such as ISO, AGMA or DIN. The contact analysis simulates the meshing of the two flanks over the complete meshing cycle and is therefore able to consider individual modifications on the flank at each meshing position.
Much of the information in this article has been extracted from an AGMA Technical Paper, "What Single Flank Testing Can Do For You", presented in 1984 by the author
Details about the Solutions Center, SME and AGMA special events at the show.
The first edition of the international calculation method for micropittingâ€”ISO TR 15144â€“1:2010â€”was just published last December. It is the first and only official, international calculation method established for dealing with micropitting. Years ago, AGMA published a method for the calculation of oil film thickness containing some comments about micropitting, and the German FVA published a calculation method based on intensive research results. The FVA and the AGMA methods are close to the ISO TR, but the calculation of micropitting safety factors is new.
It may not be widely recognized that most of the inspection data supplied by inspection equipment, following the practices of AGMA Standard 2015 and similar standards, are not of elemental accuracy deviations but of some form of composite deviations. This paper demonstrates the validity of this â€ścompositeâ€ť label by first defining the nature of a true elemental deviation and then, by referring to earlier literature, demonstrating how the common inspection practices for involute, lead (on helical gears), pitch, and, in some cases, total accumulated pitch, constitute composite measurements.
In 2005, Gear Expo debuted its first Solutions Center, a forum that features short exhibitor presentations on gear-related topics. This year, AGMA says the Solutions Center will return with a slightly different format.
The general impressionâ€”whether encouraged by AGMA or developed anecdotallyâ€”is that Gear Expo 2007 was a reasonableâ€”though certainly relativeâ€”success
Preview of Gear Expo, with information on AGMA's fall technical meeting and the city of Detroit.
The complete Events section from November/December 2005, including post-show coverage of Gear Expo 2005, AGMA's Fall Technical Meeting, and our regular technical calendar.
New software from AGMA helps gear designers calculate geometry and ratings for all types of bevel gears.
Co-located ASM and AGMA shows are a hot ticket.
The use of dimensionless factors to describe gear tooth geometry seems to have a strong appeal to gear engineers. The stress factors I and J, for instance, are well established in AGMA literature. The use of the rack shift coefficient "x" to describe nonstandard gear proportions is common in Europe, but is not as commonly used in the United States. When it is encountered in the European literature or in the operating manuals for imported machine tools, it can be a source of confusion to the American engineer.
It is with great anticipation that we move closer to AGMA's Fall Technical Conference and Gear Expo '87, which is being held on Oct. 4-6 in Cincinnati, OH. This bold undertaking by both AGMA and the exhibitors in the Expo's 160 booths is an attempt to make a major change in the industry's approach to the exposition of gear manufacturing equipment. By combining the Expo with the Fall Technical Conference, those involved in gear manufacturing will have the opportunity to review the latest equipment, trends, and most innovative ideas, while keeping up with the newest technology in the industry.
The use of dimensionless factors to describe gear tooth geometry seems to have a strong appeal to gear engineers. The stress factors I and J, for instance, are well established in AGMA literature. The use of the rack shift coefficient "x" to describe nonstandard gear proportions is common in Europe, but is not as commonly used in the United States. When it is encountered in the European literature or in the operating manuals for imported machine tools, it can be a source of confusion to the American engineer.
September 27-29. American Society for Metals 11th Annual Heat Treating Conference October 10-12. AGMA Fall Technical Meeting. Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, LA November 1-3. SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic, Sheraton Meridian, Indianapolis, IN
May 18-21. AGMA Annual Meeting, "The Changing World of Gears." Loews Ventana Canyon Resort, Tucson, AZ. July 12-14, 1989. ASM international Conference on Carburizing. Sheraton Hotel & Conference Center, Lakewood, CO. September 12-20, 1989. European Machine Tool Show, Hannover, West Germany.
From tiny beginnings, the AGMA Gear Expo is growing into a fine, strapping show. This year's effort, Gear Expo '89, "The Cutting Edge," will be bigger and better than ever. What started as a few tabletop exhibits in Chicago four years ago has now grown to a full-size, international exhibition at the David Lawrence Convention Center in Pittsburgh. With over 160 exhibitors, including major gear manufacturers and suppliers from around the world, this year's show promises to be a great success as well.
In May of this year the U.S. International Trade Commission made public its Report to the President on the condition of the U.S. gear industry. This 200+ page document is the result of a two-year study by the commission, with the help of the AGMA staff and members. It is the most comprehensive and current analytical coverage of the industry conditions and tends presently available. Because of the importance of this report to the industry, GEAR TECHNOLOGY is devoting a good portion of this issue to reprinting the Executive Summary for our readers.
AGMA's Gear Expo '91, "The World of Gearing," opens October 20 and runs through October 23 at the Cobo Conference & Exhibition Center in "The Heart of the Manufacturing Industry," Detroit, MI. Gear Expo '91 is "the largest trade show ever specifically organized for the gear industry," according to Rich Norment, AGMA's Executive Director.
AGMA's Gear Expo '91, "The World of Gearing," opens Oct. 20-23 at Cobo Conference & Exhibition Center, Detroit, MI. Gear Expo '91 will provide 35,000 square feet of exhibits by 91 companies from around the world.
October is the time. Detroit is the place. AGMA Gear Expo '91 is the event. Cobo Center in downtown Detroit is where you will want to be in October if you have any interest in gear products, manufacturing, or research.
Last month I attended a meeting in Mexico City sponsored by CIATEQ, a quasi-governmental organization in Mexico, which has as one of its aims the encouragement of the growth of the gear industry in Mexico. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a catalyst among the attendees to form a Mexican equivalent of AGMA and to encourage an alliance with AGMA. Joe Franklin, the Executive Director of AGMA, Bill Boggess, the President, Vice-President Ray Haley, and I were among the few Americans at the meeting.
Designing and sizing a rack-and-pinion system, per AGMA and ISO gear calculation.
News Items About agma
1 AGMA Announces Additive Manufacturing Publication for Gear Making (April 16, 2019)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) announced the publication of an emerging technology document, Additive Manufacturing T... Read News
2 Five New Companies Join AGMA (August 9, 2007)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association added five new member companies this month.New member companies include:Bluffton Motor Works ... Read News
3 AGMA Partners with IHS for Gear Market Report (March 26, 2012)
AGMA, in partnership with the economic forecasting firm IHS Global Insight, are providing a forecasting subscription service called Th... Read News
4 AGMA Announces New Appointments (May 5, 2011)
AGMA is pleased to announce the appointment of Matt Mondek of Cotta Transmission as chairman of the board for 2011-2013 and the appoint... Read News
5 2011 AGMA Fall Technical Meeting Call For Papers (December 20, 2010)
Planning is already underway for the 2011 Fall Technical Meeting (FTM), to be held October 30 - November 1, 2011 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Nex... Read News
6 AGMA Chairman E. Ray Haley (1928-2010) (November 18, 2010)
AGMA notes the passing of Edwin Ray Haley on November 3, 2010 in Jackson, Mississippi. Haley was the AGMA chairman of the board... Read News
7 AGMA Moves Forward with Spline Technical Committee (November 8, 2010)
Following a long line of AGMA product and specialty standards, splines are finally getting an opportunity to join the discussion. In Sept... Read News
8 Irving Laskin Receives AGMA Lifetime Achievement Award (December 3, 2008)
Irving Laskin, a consultant in gear technology specializing in fine pitch gearing, received the AGMA Lifetime Achievement Award for his d... Read News
9 AGMA Foundation Hires New Director (October 25, 2007)
AGMA hired Sandra Detwiler as its new executive director of the AGMA Foundation. Detwiler has 10 years of associatio... Read News
10 AGMA Seeks Staff Engineer (February 12, 2007)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association is seeking a staff engineer responsible for coordinating technical committees in the developm... Read News
11 AGMA Elects Wendy Young to Board (June 7, 2013)
Forest City Gear President Wendy Young has been elected to the American Gear Manufacturers Association’s Board of Directors, and be... Read News
12 AGMA Seeks New Executive (April 29, 2006)
AGMA's current vice president, technical division is retiring at the end of 2006 and the association is currently accepting applicati... Read News
13 AGMA Welcomes Five New Members (April 14, 2006)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association announced in its quarterly publication that five new companies recently joined the ranks as m... Read News
14 AGMA Foundation Revamps Fundraising Efforts (April 13, 2006)
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15 Bill Bradley Awarded AGMAs Lifetime Achievement Award (April 3, 2006)
The AGMA Board of Directors awarded Bill Bradley, AGMAs Vice President for the Technical Division with the Lifetime Achievement Awa... Read News
16 AGMA Announces New Board of Directors (January 31, 2006)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association announced the 2006 board of directors at its annual meeting in March. Stan Blenke, executiv... Read News
17 Charles Fischer Promoted at AGMA (January 20, 2006)
The American G... Read News
18 New AGMA Officers (April 12, 2005)
At the AGMA Annual meeting in March, the officers for 2005 were announced. Incomging officers are: Leslie Hennessy, Chairman Stan... Read News
19 AGMA Awards Key Members at Annual Meeting (April 6, 2012)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association recently announced that Bipin and Linda Doshi, of Schafer Gear Works, Inc. have been named th... Read News
20 AGMA Committee Works on Face Gear Draft (November 20, 2013)
AGMA standard 203.03 - Fine Pitch On-Center Face Gears for 20 Degree Involute Spur Pinions has been withdrawn from the AGMA files a... Read News
21 AGMA and Richard J. Daley College Partner on National Training Center in Chicago (April 12, 2019)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) signed a partnership agreement with Richard J. Daley College, one of the City Colleges... Read News
22 AGMA Welcomes New Board Members (April 12, 2017)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) recently announced the election of Jim Bregi, president of Doppler Gear as the new AGM... Read News
23 AGMA and NFPA Announce MPT Conference at Motion + Power Technology Expo (February 7, 2019)
The new Motion + Power Technology Expo (MPT Expo), formerly Gear Expo, will offer a new opportunity for attendees to learn from industry ... Read News
24 AGMA Promotes Blassingame to Vice President, Education Services (January 18, 2019)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) is pleased to announce the promotion of Casandra Blassingame to vice president, educat... Read News
25 AGMA Presents Distinguished Service Award at Fall Technical Meeting (October 2, 2018)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) presented Terry Klaves, retiree from Milwaukee Gear/Regal, with the AGMA Distinguished... Read News
26 Highlights from the 2018 AGMA/ABMA Annual Meeting (May 23, 2018)
More than 300 executives gathered in late April to connect and network with peers at the 2018 AGMA/ABMA Annual Meeting in Naples, Flori... Read News
27 AGMA Officially IACET Accredited (January 10, 2018)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) has been officially accredited by the International Association for Continuing Educati... Read News
28 Bob Errichello Retires; Rob Budny and Andy Milburn to Teach the AGMA Gear Faliure Analysis Course (September 8, 2017)
After teaching the AGMA Gear Failure Analysis course for 27 years, Bob Errichello and Jane Muller of Geartech retired from instructing in... Read News
29 AGMA Announces Two New Member-Driven Committees (June 14, 2017)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) announced two new member-driven committees: Emerging Technology and Industry Voi... Read News
30 AGMA Board Enters 2017 With New Mission and Strategy (November 21, 2016)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) will enter its 101st year with a new vision, mission and four supporting strategic obj... Read News
31 AGMA Releases New Marine Gear Unit Standard (January 15, 2014)
The AGMA Helical Enclosed Drive Marine Units Committee recently completed the development of the next version of their popular flagship s... Read News
32 AGMA Awards Maiuri with the Technical Divison Executive Committee Award (November 14, 2016)
It has been a tradition of AGMA’s Technical Division to acknowledge the outstanding contributions of individual committee members w... Read News
33 AGMA Offers Two New Courses in 2017 (November 10, 2016)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) is pleased to announce that the organization will offer two new courses to the 2017 ed... Read News
34 ITAMCO's Joel Neidig Receives AGMA 2016 Next Generation Award (June 16, 2016)
Joel Neidig, an engineer and lead technology developer with ITAMCO, has received the 2016 Next Generation Award from the American Gear Ma... Read News
35 AGMA Names Croson President (April 1, 2016)
AGMA has named Matthew E. Croson as its next president. Croson has more than two decades of leadership and communications experience in m... Read News
36 AGMA Releases Latest Newsletter (December 28, 2015)
New AGMA Publications The AGMA Technical Division has announced the publication of a number of new standards: The new revision of ANSI/A... Read News
37 AGMA Releases Vehicle Spur and Helical Standard Revision (December 7, 2015)
The AGMA Technical Division has released the new revision of ANSI/AGMA 6002-C15 “Design Guide for Vehicle Spur and Helical Gears&rd... Read News
38 AGMA Committee Revises Fine Pitch Gearing Data (May 2, 2014)
The AGMA Fine Pitch Gearing Committee is pleased to announce the publication of the newly revised information sheet AGMA 910-D12... Read News
39 Scott Knoy Receives AGMA Next Generation Award (April 28, 2014)
German Machine Tools of America (GMTA, formerly American Wera) proudly announces the winning of the prestigious Next Generation award... Read News
40 Former AGMA President Dies at 75 (December 30, 2003)
Robert Bergmann, 75, a former president of the American Gear Manufacturers Association, died June 10. Bergmann was CEO of Abart Gear &... Read News