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1 Dynamic Loads in Parallel Shaft Transmissions - Part 2 (May/June 1990)

Solutions to the governing equations of a spur gear transmission model, developed in a previous article are presented. Factors affecting the dynamic load are identified. It is found that the dynamic load increases with operating speed up to a system natural frequency. At operating speeds beyond the natural frequency the dynamic load decreases dramatically. Also, it is found that the transmitted load and shaft inertia have little effect upon the total dynamic load. Damping and friction decrease the dynamic load. Finally, tooth stiffness has a significant effect upon dynamic loadings the higher the stiffness, the lower the dynamic loading. Also, the higher the stiffness, the higher the rotating speed required for peak dynamic response.

2 Chamfering-Deburring Still a Player - Now More than Ever (September/October 2018)

Chamfering and deburring have been described as "unloved," a "necessary evil" and, in fact - "dead." After all, manual deburring is still common in many shops.

3 Hotter, Faster, Harder Cutting (July/August 1995)

What Is Whisker-Reinforced Ceramic? Whisker-reinforced ceramic as applied to cutting tool inserts comprises a matrix of aluminum oxide into which approximately 50% by volume of high-purity silicon carbide "whiskers" are randomly dispersed. The "whiskers" are, in fact, single crystals having dimensions of approximately 0.6 microns in diameter x 10-80 microns in length. These "whiskers" have a tensile strength on the order of 1,000,000 psi (690 MPa). The composite material that is the best known and most widely applied using this technology is designated WG-300 and manufactured by the Greenleaf Corporation of Saegertown, PA.

4 Predicted Effect of Dynamic Load on Pitting Fatigue Life for Low-Contact-Ratio Spur Gears (March/April 1989)

How dynamic load affects the pitting fatigue life of external spur gears was predicted by using NASA computer program TELSGE. TELSGE was modified to include an improved gear tooth stiffness model, a stiffness-dynamic load iteration scheme and a pitting-fatigue-life prediction analysis for a gear mesh. The analysis used the NASA gear life model developed by Coy, methods of probability and statistics and gear tooth dynamic loads to predict life. In general, gear life predictions based on dynamic loads differed significantly from those based on static loads, with the predictions being strongly influenced by the maximum dynamic load during contact.

5 Explore "The World of Gearing" in Detroit (July/August 1991)

AGMA's Gear Expo '91, "The World of Gearing," opens October 20 and runs through October 23 at the Cobo Conference & Exhibition Center in "The Heart of the Manufacturing Industry," Detroit, MI. Gear Expo '91 is "the largest trade show ever specifically organized for the gear industry," according to Rich Norment, AGMA's Executive Director.

6 M & M Precision, Penn State & NIST Team Up For Gear Metrology Research (July/August 1997)

In 1993, M & M Precision Systems was awarded a three-year, partial grant from the Advanced Technology Program of the Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Working with Pennsylvania State University, M&M embarked on a technology development project to advance gear measurement capabilities to levels of accuracy never before achieved.

7 Kish Method for Dermination of Hunting Mesh (May/June 1997)

When designing a gear set, engineers usually want the teeth of the gear (Ng) and the pinion (Np) in a "hunting" mesh. Such a mesh or combination is defined as one in which the pinion and the gear do not have any common divisor by a prime number. If a mesh is "hunting," then the pinion must make Np x Ng revolutions before the same pinion tooth meshes with the same gear space. It is often easy to determine if a mesh is hunting by first determining if both the pinion and the gear teeth are divisible by 2,3,5,7,etc. (prime numbers). However, in this age of computerization, how does one program the computer to check for hunting teeth? A simple algorithm is shown below.

8 Prediction of Dynamic Factors for Helical Gears in a High-Speed Multibody Gearbox System (May 2018)

Accurate prediction of gear dynamic factors (also known as Kv factors) is necessary to be able to predict the fatigue life of gears. Standards-based calculations of gear dynamic factors have some limitations. In this paper we use a multibody dynamic model, with all 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) of a high-speed gearbox to calculate gear dynamic factors. The findings from this paper will help engineers to understand numerous factors that influence the prediction of dynamic factors and will help them to design more reliable gears.

9 Gearbox Field Performance From a Rebuilder's Perspective (May/June 2001)

The major focus of the American Gear Manufacturers Association standards activity has been the accurate determination of a gearbox's ability to transmit a specified amount of power for a given amount of time. The need for a "level playing field" in the critical arena was one of the reasons the association was formed in the first place. Over the past 85 years, AGMA committees have spent countless hours "discussing" the best ways to calculate the rating of a gear set, often arguing vigorously over factors that varied the resulting answers by fractions of a percentage point. While all that "science" was being debated in test labs and conference rooms all over the country, out industry's customers were conducting their own experiments through the daily operation of gear-driven equipment of all types.

10 Chamfering and Deburring External Parallel Axis Gears (November/December 1996)

The chamfering and deburring operations on gear teeth have become more important as the automation of gear manufacturing lines in the automotive industry have steadily increased. Quieter gears require more accurate chamfers. This operation also translates into significant coast savings by avoiding costly rework operations. This article discusses the different types of chamfers on gear teeth and outlines manufacturing methods and guidelines to determine chamfer sizes and angles for the product and process engineer.

11 Mr. Jackson's Amazing, Mysterious Machine (March/April 1998)

In our never-ending quest to bring our readers information about he unusual, the unique and-dare we say it?-the bizarre, the Addendum Staff has traveled for this issue to the wilds of Darkest Tennessee and the Museum of Appalachia. This museum of Appalachian fold art, crafts and history is located in Norris, TN, about 16 miles north of Knoxville. Among the 250,000 items collected by the museum's founder, John Rice Irwin, is a "thing," a "contraption," an "objet trouve"; to wit, Asa Jackson's mysterious machine.

12 The Gear Industry and Y2K (July/August 1999)

If you think Y2K will mean the end of the world, forget it. General Vladimir Dvorkin recently said, "I'd like to apologize beforehand if I fail to realize someone's hopes for the Apocalypse." Te general was, of course, discussing Russian nuclear missiles, making the point that they are not going to launch or detonate when the calendar rolls over to January 1, 2000. General Dvorkin's American counterparts are similarly optimistic. While all that is a relief, it raises the question: will Y2K be as kind to the rest of society? And more specifically, will it be as kind to the gear industry? According to AGMA's president, Joe Franklin, the answer is a resounding "yes." According to Franklin, the AGMA Board considers Y2K a non-issue within an industry that is well ahead of others in its preparedness for January 1, 2000. But is it really? Does the gear industry understand the problem any better than other sectors of society? It's a relief to know that the nuclear bombs are not likely to fall within the first moments of the year 2000, but how about the computers and machines that keep the worldwide economy together?

13 Hard Finishing By Conventional Generating and Form Grinding (March/April 1991)

The quality of a gear and its performance is determined by the following five parameters, which should be specified for each gear: Pitch diameter, involute form, lead accuracy, spacing accuracy, and true axis of rotation. The first four parameters can be measured or charted and have to be within tolerance with respect to the fifth. Pitch diameter, involute, lead, and spacing of a gear can have master gear quality when measured or charted on a testing machine, but the gear might perform badly if the true axis of rotation after installation is no longer the same one used when testing the gear.

14 Dynamic Loads in Parallel Shaft Transmissions Part 1 (March/April 1990)

Recently, there has been increased interest in the dynamic effects in gear systems. This interest is stimulated by demands for stronger, higher speed, improved performance, and longer-lived systems. This in turn had stimulated numerous research efforts directed toward understanding gear dynamic phenomena. However, many aspects of gear dynamics are still not satisfactorily understood.

15 Programmable Separation of Runout From Profile and Lead Inspection Data for Gear Teeth With Arbitrary Modifications (March/April 1998)

A programmable algorithm is developed to separate out the effect of eccentricity (radial runout) from elemental gear inspection date, namely, profile and lead data. This algorithm can be coded in gear inspection software to detect the existence, the magnitude and the orientation of the eccentricity without making a separate runout check. A real example shows this algorithm produces good results.

16 Gear Tip Chamfer and Gear Noise; Surface Measurement of Spiral Bevel Gear Teeth (July/August 1993)

Could the tip chamfer that manufacturing people usually use on the tips of gear teeth be the cause of vibration in the gear set? The set in question is spur, of 2.25 DP, with 20 degrees pressure angle. The pinion has 14 teeth and the mating gear, 63 teeth. The pinion turns at 535 rpm maximum. Could a chamfer a little over 1/64" cause a vibration problem?

17 The Case of This Issue's Column (September/October 1995)

221B Baker Street We've always said that gears show up in all the best places, even, it turns out, among the papers of that most famous of detectives, Sherlock Holmes. "The Adventure of the Engineer's Thumb" is, according to Dr. Watson, a case "so strange in its inception and so dramatic in its details," that it merits a mention even in our exalted pages.

18 A Basic Guide to Deburring and Chamfering Gears (July/August 1995)

In today's industrial marketplace, deburring and chamfering are no longer just a matter of cosmetics. The faster speeds at which transmissions run today demand that gear teeth mesh as smoothly and accurately as possible to prevent premature failure. The demand for quieter gears also requires tighter tolerances. New heat treating practices and other secondary gear operations have placed their own set of demands on manufacturers. Companies that can deburr or chamfer to these newer, more stringent specifications - and still keep costs in line - find themselves with a leg up on their competition.

19 Gear Expo 99 Wrap-up (January/February 2000)

Many people seem to be counting this year's Gear Expo in Nashville as a resounding success. There were 180 American and international exhibitors occupying over 50,000 square feet of exhibit space in the Nashville Convention Center, with total attendance of 2,700. This figure is dramatically down from past shows but that doesn't seem to be an issue with the show organizers. According to Kurt Medert, vice president of AGMA;s Administrative Division, even though attendance was off from the 1997 show, the exhibitors were pleased with the quality of the people who did come to the show. "This was an excellent show for us," said Marty Woodhouse, vice president of sales for Star Cutter Company and chairman of AGMA's Gear Expo committee. "Our customer base was there and they came to buy. It was very active."

20 The Gear Gods Help Those That Help Themselves (January/February 2013)

"Gear Train" is a new Gear Technology section focusing on training and education in the gear industry. For the first installment, we've focused on AGMA's online and video training programs.

21 The Little Steam Engine That Did. (May/June 2000)

When the steam engine became available for industrial use at the end of the eighteenth century, it was mainly used for driving plunger-pumps, such as those used in English coal mines. The stream engine's piston drove a lever, that reciprocating motion of which drove the pump plunger. Called the "Beam Machine," this mechanism needed a lot of space, had many parts, and was difficult to install because the engine and the pump had to be properly aligned.

22 Curvilinear Cylindrical Gears (May/June 1988)

The curved tooth cylindrical gear is one of ancient design. Samples which date from the period of the Warring State (475-221 BC) have been excavated from archeological sites in China. One such sample is now on display in the Xi'an Clay figures of Warriors and Horses Exhibition Hall. This example is about 3/4" in diameter and made of bronze. It was used in the famous model, "Ancient Chinese Vehicle With a Wooden Figure Always Pointing to the South." Although this early gear is handmade and somewhat crude, it is a viable model.

23 Measuring Pitch Diameter (September/October 2005)

Wait a minute, we don't measure pitch diameter. We're sometimes asked to measure it by customers, though, especially ones with older drawings.

24 William Brunton: 19th Century Neglected - but Influential - Engineer (August 2017)

Faithful readers of this space know we sometimes like to use Addendum to give relatively unknown 19th Century mechanical engineers/inventors their well-deserved props. Like, for example, William Brunton (1777-1851), who is credited - but generally unknown - with inventing the Steam Horse, also known as the Mechanical Traveler.

25 The European Rack Shift Coefficient 'X' for Americans (July/August 1993)

The use of dimensionless factors to describe gear tooth geometry seems to have a strong appeal to gear engineers. The stress factors I and J, for instance, are well established in AGMA literature. The use of the rack shift coefficient "x" to describe nonstandard gear proportions is common in Europe, but is not as commonly used in the United States. When it is encountered in the European literature or in the operating manuals for imported machine tools, it can be a source of confusion to the American engineer.

26 Gear Fundamentals Reverse Engineering (July/August 1991)

Whether gear engineers have to replace an old gear which is worn out, find out what a gear's geometry is after heat treatment distortion, or just find out parameters of gears made by a competitor, sometimes they are challenged with a need to determine the geometry of unknown gears. Depending on the degree of accuracy required, a variety of techniques are available for determining the accuracy of an unknown gear. If a high degree of precision is important, a gear inspection device has to be used to verify the results. Frequently, several trial-and-error attempts are made before the results reach the degree of precision required.

27 Crisis and Challenge in American Education (May/June 1988)

"We have met the enemy and he is us," says Pogo, the cartoon character. The enemy is the crisis in our educational system, and "crisis" is the only term that accurately describes the situation. It is every bit as serious, if not more so, than the crisis that followed the Soviet launching of Sputnik in 1957 - and for many of the same reasons. Our failing public education system threatens our position int he global political and business arenas; and this time, it's not just the Soviets or the Japanese who need to be taken seriously as competitors. Every country int he world that graduates better prepared students than we do - and there are a great many of them - has us at a competitive disadvantage.

28 Liebherr's LDF350 Offers Complete Machining in New Dimension (November/December 2011)

The objective, according to Dr.- Ing. Hansjörg Geiser, head of development and design for gear machines at Liebherr, was to develop and design a combined turning and hobbing machine in which turning, drilling and hobbing work could be carried out in the same clamping arrangement as the hobbing of the gearings and the subsequent chamfering and deburring processes.

29 Effects of Temperature on Gage Repeatability & Reproducibility (May/June 1992)

Temperature Induced Dimensional Changes Temperature causes various materials to change size at different rate, known as their Coefficients of Expansion (COE). The effects of this phenomenon on precision dimensional measurements are continuous and costly to industry. Precautions can be taken to allow parts and gages to temperature stabilize before conducting gage R & R studies, but the fact remains that on the shop floor temperatures vary all the time. The slow pace at which industry has accepted this reality probably has to do with the subtlety of these tiny size variations and our inability to sense gradual, but significant temperature changes.

30 An American Success Story (March/April 1997)

Joe Garfien came to America in 1928 to play soccer. He also learned to cut gears and build a business. "When I came here [to America] I came in on a Friday, and I had to go work on Monday, so I found a job at Perfection Gear...and that's how I got started in gears."

31 Computerized Hob Inspection & Applications of Inspection Results - Part I (May/June 1994)

Can a gear profile generated by the hobbing method be an ideal involute? In strictly theoretical terms - no, but in practicality - yes. A gear profile generated by the hobbing method is an approximation of the involute curve. Let's review a classic example of an approximation.

32 Gear Chamfering Robot (January/February 2011)

Banyan Technologies introduces a robotic chamfering device suitable for deburring, chamfering and radiusing the edges of slew bearing ring gears.

33 If He Builds It, Will They Come (September/October 1999)

Richard Spens has been rebuilding antique machine tools for nearly a decade. He is drawn to the ornate architecture and fascinated by the open design that allows you to see inside a machine as it operates. "Working with machines has been a lifelong thing with me," said Spens, now a design engineer. "I started building steam engines when I was 10 years old." What he's working on now, however, is bigger than any steam engine or machine tool. In rural Livonia, Michigan, Spens is converting an old dairy barn into an accurate recreation of a turn-of-the-century, belt driven gear shop. It's an outgrowth of his interest in antique machine tools and, he feels, a way to stem the tide that is costing America so many manufacturing and skilled trade jobs.

34 Chamfering and Deburring - the Underrated Process (August 2016)

Chamfering and deburring of cylindrical gears does not get much love from manufacturers. The process is seen as a necessary evil since it is adding cost without adding value. However, there are good reasons for not underrating this important auxiliary process. Chamfering and deburring takes care of several issues which may come up during the manufacture of quality gears.

35 Repair of High-Value, High-Demand Spiral Bevel Gears by Superfinishing (October 2012)

Following is a report on the R&D findings regarding remediation of high-value, high-demand spiral bevel gears for the UH–60 helicopter tail rotor drivetrain. As spiral bevel gears for the UH–60 helicopter are in generally High-Demand due to the needs of new aircraft production and the overhaul and repair of aircraft returning from service, acquisition of new spiral bevel gears in support of R&D activities is very challenging. To compensate, an assessment was done of a then-emerging superfinishing method—i.e., the micromachining process (MPP)—as a potential repair technique for spiral bevel gears, as well as a way to enhance their performance and durability. The results are described in this paper.

36 It's No American Dream: Pratt & Whitney GTF Engine Now a Reality... (November/December 2011)

In the August 2008 issue of Gear Technology, we ran a story (“Gearbox Speed Reducer Helps Fan Technology for ‘Greener” Jet Fuel Efficiency’) on the then ongoing, extremely challenging and protracted development of Pratt & Whitney’s geared turbofan (GTF) jet engine.

37 Of Trees, Whales & Practicality (July/August 1990)

One of the hot items on the public agenda these days is "The Environment." Suddenly everyone wants to save the whales and the rain forest. Politicians, rock stars, and big business have all discovered that you can't get anything but good press for saying that you're in favor of trees and marine mammals.

38 Effect of Extended Tooth Contact on the Modeling of Spur Gear Transmissions (July/August 1994)

In some gear dynamic models, the effect of tooth flexibility is ignored when the model determines which pairs of teeth are in contact. Deflection of loaded teeth is not introduced until the equations of motion are solved. This means the zone of tooth contact and average tooth meshing stiffness are underestimated, and the individual tooth load is overstated, especially for heavily loaded gears. This article compares the static transmission error and dynamic load of heavily loaded, low-contact-ratio spur gears when the effect of tooth flexibility has been considered and when it has been ignored. Neglecting the effect yields an underestimate of resonance speeds and an overestimate of the dynamic load.

39 Business Ethics Touchstone or Oxymoron (May/June 1995)

"Values" is one of he buzzwords we hear everywhere today. Family values. Traditional values. Alternative values. Along with a balanced budget, less government and more fiber in our diets, "values" - and their practical counterparts, "ethics" - are being promoted as one of the simple, obvious solutions to what ails us as a country and as individuals.

40 Form Diameter of Gears (May/June 1989)

One of the most frequently neglected areas of gear design is the determination of "form diameter". Form diameter is that diameter which specifies the transition point between the usable involute profile and the fillet of the tooth. Defining this point is important to prevent interference with the tip of the mating gear teeth and to enable proper preshave machining when the gear is to be finished with a shaving operation.

41 Impact of Indexing Errors on Spur Gear Dynamics (July 2015)

A transverse-torsional dynamic model of a spur gear pair is employed to investigate the influence of gear tooth indexing errors on the dynamic response. With measured long-period quasi-static transmission error time traces as the primary excitation, the model predicts frequency-domain dynamic mesh force and dynamic transmission error spectra. The dynamic responses due to both deterministic and random tooth indexing errors are predicted.

42 The Nina, The Pinta, And The American Gear Industry (January/February 1992)

Next year will be the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' famous "discovery" of America. Poor Columbus has fallen on hard times of late, what with revisionist historians smacking their lips over his more notable failures and reminding us that American natives have a vastly different point of view on this Great American Success Story. But before we relegate the Great Navigator to the scrap heap of trashed-over heros, let's take one last look at some of the positive lessons to be learned from the Columbus experience - ones that could be instructive to our current situation in the American gear industry.

43 The Million Dollar Clock (September/October 2019)

The Corpus Clock has a hundred and one little interesting factoids about everything from its design to its unveiling to its message — and it’s just hanging out on a street corner in Cambridge.

44 Chamfering: Hard vs Soft Parts and Before vs After Heat Treating (July 2019)

The author conducts a simple experiment to verify his anecdotal knowledge about chamfering hard vs soft parts.

45 Gerolamo Cardano - A Genius Born to Be Bad (June 2019)

He was an Italian polymath of mystery, mischief and mayhem who also managed to make significant contributions to gear technology and games of chance along the way.

46 Remembering James Cervinka (August 2012)

The gear industry lost one of its iconic figures in July when James Cervinka passed away at the age of 92. Jim was CEO and one of the founders of Arrow Gear. For 65 years, he was a gear man, and I can’t help but feeling that his absence shrinks the gear industry by far more than the loss of just one man.

47 The Evolution of Gear Chamfering (September/October 2018)

The latest technological solutions help keep chamfering and deburring operations in-line -- often without increasing cycle times.

48 Looking Arond the Corner (September/October 1998)

Listen carefully these days and you'll hear a faint rumbling among the economic masses. It's probably nothing to worry about. It'll most likely go away. It's only the naysayers and skeptics who predict that the end is near. They've been doing to far almost all eight years of our current economic boom, and they've been wrong so far.

49 Gears In Sneakers (September/October 1997)

Move over, Michael Jordan. While the Addendum staff is as proud as any other Chicagoans of our unbeata-Bulls, we confess to a soft spot in our hearts for the hometown's other championship basketball team: The Chicago American Gears.

50 Effects of Gear Surface Parameters on Flank Wear (January/February 2009)

Non-uniform gear wear changes gear topology and affects the noise performance of a hypoid gear set. The aggregate results under certain vehicle driving conditions could potentially result in unacceptable vehicle noise performance in a short period of time. This paper presents the effects of gear surface parameters on gear wear and the measurement/testing methods used to quantify the flank wear in laboratory tests.

51 CNC Controlled CBN Form Grinding (May/June 1984)

Borazon is a superabrasive material originally developed by General Electric in 1969. It is a high performance material for machining of high alloy ferrous and super alloy materials. Borazon CBN - Cubic Born Nitride - is manufactured with a high temperature, high pressure process similar to that utilized with man-made diamond. Borazon is, next to diamond, the hardest abrasive known; it is more than twice as hard as aluminum oxide. It has an extremely high thermal strength compared to diamond. It is also much less chemically reactive with iron, cobalt or nickel alloys.

52 Economics of CNC Gear Gashing vs. Large D.P. Hobbing (August/September 1984)

Gear gashing is a gear machining process, very much like gear milling, utilizing the principle of cutting one or more tooth (or tooth space) at a time. The term "GASHING" today applies to the roughing, or roughing and finishing, of coarse diametral pitch gears and sprockets. Manufacturing these large coarse gears by conventional methods of rough and finish hobbing can lead to very long machining cycles and uneconomical machine utilization.

53 Gear Fault Detection Effectiveness as Applied to Tooth Surface Pitting Fatigue Damage (November/December 2010)

A study was performed to evaluate fault detection effectiveness as applied to gear-tooth pitting-fatigue damage. Vibration and oil-debris monitoring (ODM) data were gathered from 24 sets of spur pinion and face gears run during a previous endurance evaluation study.

54 CFD Technology for Rotorcraft Gearbox Windage Aerodynamics Simulation (August 2009)

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is adapted, validated and applied to spinning gear systems with emphasis on predicting windage losses. Several spur gears and a disc are studied. The CFD simulations return good agreement with measured windage power loss.

55 Gears - Subculture Chic (January/February 2011)

Whether consumed by its romantic charm or simply a casual fan of its Victorian sensibilities, there’s a growing interest in all things steampunk lately. From books, television and films to music, art and design, the desire to ‘reclaim technology’ is getting closer and closer to mainstream pop culture. Wherever you find steampunk, you’ll undoubtedly find a gear or two not far behind.

56 Gear Blanking (May/June 1992)

The term "blanking" refers to the initial metal cutting operations in the process planning sequence which produce the contour of a part starting from rough material. The scope of blanking is: To remove the excess material To machine the part to print specifications, except for those surfaces with subsequent finishing operations. To leave adequate machining stock for finishing operations. To prepare good quality surfaces for location and clamping of the part throughout the process.

57 Gear Expo '91 Opens in Detroit (September/October 1991)

AGMA's Gear Expo '91, "The World of Gearing," opens Oct. 20-23 at Cobo Conference & Exhibition Center, Detroit, MI. Gear Expo '91 will provide 35,000 square feet of exhibits by 91 companies from around the world.

58 Laminated Gearing (November/December 2005)

Laminated spur gears with one-tooth pinions can be an alternative to spur gears.

59 Camshaft Gears (November/December 1992)

One of our readers in England has asked for our help in locating published technical data and information on the design, manufacture, and inspection of camshaft gears. Although millions of these gears have been made and are in constant use, we are not aware of any formal material having been published. We would be pleased to hear from anyone who had knowledge of such information.

60 Hobbing Precise, Uniform End Chamfers (March/April 2004)

The seemingly simple process of placing a uniform chamfer on the face ends of spur and helical gears, at least for the aerospace industry, has never been a satisfactory or cost effective process.

61 Product News (September/October 2018)

See the latest gear industry products from Marposs, GWJ Technology, Norton|Saint Gobain, Mitutoyo, C&B Machinery, DMG Mori, Gear Motions and LK Metrology.

62 All-in-One Broaching Capability (January/February 2010)

Faster, more efficient manufacturing offered with table-top design from American Broach & Machine.

63 Single Flank Data Analysis and Interpretation (September/October 1985)

Much of the information in this article has been extracted from an AGMA Technical Paper, "What Single Flank Testing Can Do For You", presented in 1984 by the author

64 Grinding It Out (January/February 2018)

C & B Machinery Meets Rigorous Demands with Installation of Manufacturing Cell.

65 Analysis of Excitation Behavior of Two-Stage Gearbox Based Upon Validated Simulation Model (September/October 2017)

In order to reduce costs for development and production, the objective in gearbox development and design is to predict running and noise behavior of a gearbox without manufacturing a prototype and running expensive experimental investigations. To achieve this objective, powerful simulation models have to be set up in a first step. Afterwards, those models have to be qualified and compared to experimental investigations. During the investigation procedure of gearboxes, there are two possibilities to evaluate the running and noise behavior: quasi-static and dynamic investigations. In times of engine downsizing, e-mobility and lightweight design, the dynamic excitation behavior is becoming increasingly important.

66 AMB 2012 Focuses on Technology Integration and Education (October 2012)

A large number of technologies aimed primarily at higher productivity were presented by exhibitors at the AMB, International Exhibition for Metal Working at the Stuttgart Trade Fair Centre in September. Following the successful 2010 show, AMB 2012 boasted further developments in energy and resource efficiency, higher productivity, life cycle performance, quality assurance and user-friendliness.

67 ITAMCO Offers Industrial Bluetooth Transmitter (November/December 2012)

Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies (ITAMCO) has released iBlue—the first handheld bluetooth transmitter that gathers crucial production data and sends it to bluetooth-enabled smartphones, tablets and computers.

68 Writing the Standards (January/February 2011)

Gary A. Bish, director of product design technology for Horsburgh & Scott, discusses his role as chairman of the AGMA mill gearing committee.

69 AMB 2010 Points to Recovery (January/February 2011)

With 86,202 visitors, The International Exhibition for Metal Working (AMB 2010) in Stuttgart, Germany, managed to slightly exceed attendance from the 2008 show (85,143). The metalworking industry celebrated its comeback with visitors from more than 80 countries. In addition, AMB 2010 set a new record with 1,346 exhibitors (2008: 1,306).

70 The Halls of Ivy Tech Are Humming with Precision Tooling (October 2013)

If you've been following this space with any regularity, you know that grassroots efforts among industry and academia are springing up around the country to help win the hearts, minds and talents of young people in nudging them towards a career in manufacturing. Add another partnership to the list.

71 Speed Matters - In Racing and in Hobbing (August 2017)

RCD Engineering's switch from manual to CNC hobbing operations breaks gear manufacturing lead time records with Bourn & Koch 100H in their gear production pit crew.

72 Coordinating Efforts (May 2013)

Like many Americans, I've been trained with the idea that those who see a problem should be the ones responsible for helping to solve it. If you see that something is broken, and you know how to fix it, don't wait for your dad, your boss or the government to tell you what to do. Just fix it.

73 The Geometry of Helical Mesh (September/October 1997)

In 1961 I presented a paper, "Calculating Conjugate Helical Forms," at the semi-annual meeting of the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA). Since that time, thousands of hobs, shaper cutters and other meshing parts have been designed on the basis of the equations presented in that paper. This article presents the math of that paper without the formality of its development and goes on to discuss its practical application.

74 Cool Gears (May/June 1999)

It's nice to have claim to fame. "We're probably the world's foremost authority on making gears out of ice," says Jeff Root of Virtual Engineering, Plymouth, MI.

75 GT Extras (January/February 2014)

Video from C&B Machinery; Introducing the Gear Technology Blog, featuring technical editor Charles D. Schultz; plus an online-exclusive article on big gear inspection.

76 A Computer Solution for the Dynamic Load, Lubricant Film Thickness, and Surface Temperatures in Spiral-Bevel Gears (March/April 1986)

Spiral-bevel gears, found in many machine tools, automobile rear-axle drives, and helicopter transmissions, are important elements for transmitting power.

77 Gear SAMPle - Interview with Antonio Maccaferri (January/February 2014)

In this Gear Profile article, we interview Antonio Maccaferri, president of SAMP S.p.A.

78 GT Extras (March/April 2014)

GT Videos featuring R&P Metrology, the latest from our Twitter and LinkedIn feeds and an introduction to gearboxfailure.com

79 IMTS 2000: The World of Manufacturing (September/October 2000)

For eight days every other year, the sponsor of the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS), the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT), strives to turn Chicago's McCormick Place into a "productivity marketplace," the largest and most completer display and demonstration of manufacturing technology ever seen in the Americas. If the growth of the show is any indicator, that effort has been very successful indeed. With over 1.4 million square feet of exhibit space taking up all five levels and all three exhibit halls of McCormick Place, each level would rank as one of the nation's 200 largest trade shows. That wasn't always the size or scope of the show. Its inception, while impressive for the time, was humble by today's standards.

80 Got Lean, Six Sigma - Here's Another Theory (March/April 2009)

Most readers are at least familiar with continuous improvement programs such as lean and six sigma. Perhaps your shop or company is well along in the implementation of one or the other—if not both. But what about theory of constraints (TOC), introduced in Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt’s 1984 book, The Goal? Despite its rather negative-sounding name, this continuous improvement process has much to offer manufacturers of all stripes. And when combined with lean and six sigma, the results can be dramatic. Dr. Lisa Lang, a TOC consultant and speaker, explains why and how in the following Q&A session with Gear Technology.

81 The Ever-Evolving Apple Parer (October 2013)

Mike Viney's curiosity about the evolving designs of apple parers began after reading the article, "There's a Fascination in Apple Parers" by Marion Levy, which appeared in the second edition of Linda Campbell's 300 Years of Kitchen Collectibles.

82 Gear Manufacturer Benefits from CAM Initiatives and Advanced Manufacturing Technology (September/October 2014)

Multiple CAM initiatives at Snyder Industries are improving safety, quality and productivity for parts ranging from 50 to 5,000 lbs.

83 Accurate and Fast Gear Trigonometry (September/October 1990)

An accurate and fast calculation method is developed to determine the value of a trigonometric function if the value of another trigonometric function is given. Some examples of conversion procedures for well-known functions in gear geometry are presented, with data for accuracy and computing time. For the development of such procedures the complete text of a computer program is included.

84 Core Competency (May/June 2001)

Rodgers and Hammerstein produced some of America's most memorable and lasting songs in musical theater. Lyricist Oscar Hammerstein II once said of composer Richard Rodgers, "I hand him a lyric and get out of his way," Hammerstein knew what Rodgers was good at, and vice versa, and each trusted his partner. Their partnership was so successful that you can scarcely think of one man without the other.

85 Hobs & Form Relived Cutters: Common Sharpening Problems (May/June 1998)

Fig. 1 shows the effects of positive and negative rake on finished gear teeth. Incorrect positive rake (A) increase the depth and decreases the pressure angle on the hob tooth. The resulting gear tooth is thick at the top and thin at the bottom. Incorrect negative rake (B) decreases the depth and increases the pressure angle. This results in a cutting drag and makes the gear tooth thin at the top and thick at the bottom.

86 A Failure to Communicate (November/December 1994)

The two reports referred to in this article, "The people wise Organization" and "House Divided: Views on Change from Top Management - and Their Employees," crossed our desks some weeks ago. They stimulated a fair amount of discussion here, and we hope they do the same in your offices. We welcome your responses. How do you view the corporate/competitive environment of the next few years? How do you see yourself and your company fitting in? Can these ideas work in the gear industry? Let us now what you think.

87 Computerized Hob Inspection & Applications of Inspection Results Part II (July/August 1994)

Flute Index Flute index or spacing is defined as the variation from the desired angle between adjacent or nonadjacent tooth faces measured in a plane of rotation. AGMA defines and provides tolerance for adjacent and nonadjacent flute spacing errors. In addition, DIN and ISO standards provide tolerances for individual flute variation (Fig. 1).

88 American Gear Industry Faces Major Challenges (May/June 1991)

Five years of effort by AGMA came to fruition in January with the publishing of a report from the Department of Commerce. This "National Security Assessment of the U.S. Gear Industry" indicates that if serious measures are not taken, the gear industry's future is in jeopardy. It also sets the tone for confronting major challenges now looming large in our industry.

89 Addendum III - The Return (May/June 1995)

Gear Technology's bimonthly aberration - gear trivia, humor, weirdness and oddments for the edification and amusement of our readers. Contributions are welcome.

90 CNC Technology and the System-Independent Manufacture of Spiral Bevel Gears (September/October 1992)

CNC technology offers new opportunities for the manufacture of bevel gears. While traditionally the purchase of a specific machine at the same time determined a particular production system, CNC technology permits the processing of bevel gears using a wide variety of methods. The ideological dispute between "tapered tooth or parallel depth tooth" and "single indexing or continuous indexing" no longer leads to an irreversible fundamental decision. The systems have instead become penetrable, and with existing CNC machines, it is possible to select this or that system according to factual considerations at a later date.

91 Area of Existence of Involute Gears (January/February 2010)

This paper presents a unique approach and methodology to define the limits of selection for gear parameters. The area within those limits is called the “area of existence of involute gears” (Ref. 1). This paper presents the definition and construction of areas of existence of both external and internal gears. The isograms of the constant operating pressure angles, contact ratios and the maximum mesh efficiency (minimum sliding) isograms, as well as the interference isograms and other parameters are defined. An area of existence allows the location of gear pairs with certain characteristics. Its practical purpose is to define the gear pair parameters that satisfy specific performance requirements before detailed design and calculations. An area of existence of gears with asymmetric teeth is also considered.

92 The Fundamentals of Gear Press Quenching (March/April 1994)

Most steel gear applications require appreciable loads to be applied that will result in high bending and compressive stresses. For the material (steel) to meet these performance criteria, the gear must be heat treated. Associated with this thermal processing is distortion. To control the distortion and achieve repeatable dimensional tolerances, the gear will be constrained during the quenching cycle of the heat treatment process. This type of fixture quenching is the function of gear quench pressing equipment.

93 Industry News (July 2020)

The latest gear industry news from Machine Tool Builders, Global Gear, EMAG, Bourn & Koch, Klingelnberg and others.

94 Additive Manufacturing - An Update (June 2020)

Writing about additive manufacturing (AM) and the 3-D printing of gears is somewhat akin to publishing an updated dictionary. A new edition dictionary is literally already out of date before it hits Amazon's or your local bookseller's shelves. New words are coined and definitions are updated constantly. So it is with AM: The technology is evolving so quickly that technical papers and other sources of AM information require constant revision.

95 GT Extras (October 2013)

This month's online features include ITAMCO's app for MTConnect and Google Glass.

96 Doing It Right & Faster... The Computer's Impact on Gear Design & Manufacture (May/June 1992)

The availability of technical software has grown rapidly in the last few years because of the proliferation of personal computers. It is rare to find an organization doing technical work that does not have some type of computer. For gear designers and manufacturers, proper use of the computer can mean the difference between meeting the competition or falling behind in today's business world. The right answers the first time are essential if cost-effective design and fabrication are to be realized. The computer is capable of optimizing a design by methods that are too laborious to undertake using hard calculations. As speeds continue to climb and more power per pound is required from gear systems, it no longer is possible to design "on the safe side" by using larger service factors. At high rotational speeds a larger gear set may well have less capacity because of dynamic effects. The gear engineer of today must consider the entire gear box or even the entire rotating system as his or her domain.

97 Staying Connected (May 2020)

With much of America still under stay-at-home orders, it's very difficult for many of us to stay connected. In our personal lives, we're celebrating birthdays with a drive-by and a wave, we're attending religious service on our laptops and talking with loved ones via video chat. If you're allowed to go to work, you're expected to wear a mask and keep your distance. And if you're working from home, your only connection to co-workers, employers, suppliers and vendors is via virtual meetings and conference calls.

98 American Wera Profilator Introduces Scudding Process (January/February 2008)

Rolled out at EMO 2007, the Scudding process is a continuous cutting operation that uses a tool design similar to a helical shaper cutter. It can be used for a wide range of gear applications...

99 David Goodfellow of American Pfauter, L.P. (November/December 1995)

Gear Technology speaks with David Goodfellow, president of American Pfauter, L.P., and Pfauter-Maag Cutting tools, L.P., to get his impressions about the state of the gear industry and its prospects for the future.

100 Innovating Against the Tide (September/October 2016)

During a year with a strong dollar, tanked oil prices and a number of soft markets that just aren't buying, one might expect spline manufacturers to be experiencing the same tumult everyone else is. But when I got a chance to speak with some of the suppliers to spline manufacturers at IMTS about how business is going, many of the manufacturing industry's recent woes never came up, and instead were replaced by a shrug and an "eh, business is doing pretty well."

101 The Uses and Limitations of Transmission Error (July/August 1988)

The concept of "transmission error" is relatively new and stems from research work in the late 1950s by Gregory, Harris and Munro,(1) together with the need to check the accuracy of gear cutting machines. The corresponding commercial "single flank" testing equipment became available in the 1960s, but it was not until about ten years ago that it became generally used, and only recently has it been possible to test reliably at full load and full speed.

102 Gear Wear Caused By Contaminated Oils (September/October 1996)

The diagnosis and prevention of gear tooth and bearing wear requires the discovery and understanding of the particular mechanism of wear, which in turn indicates the best method of prevention. Because a gearbox is a tribologically dependent mechanism, some understanding of gear and bearing tribology is essential for this process. Tribology is the general term for the study and practice of lubrication, friction and wear. If tribology is neglected or considered insignificant, poor reliability and short life will result.

103 Managing Shop Floor Data (September/October 2016)

There's no substitute for a good software package in gear manufacturing. It's a critical shop floor tool that provides practical engineering services that customers appreciate. When you're in the business of specifying and procuring high quality gears, the software needs to meet many objectives including the consideration of all tolerances of center distance, tooth thickness and tip diameters, root diameters, fillets, etc. It's also imperative that the software updates include the latest revisions to the gear standards being used in the industry.

104 Eliot K. Buckingham (July/August 1997)

His resume reads like that of many gear engineers of his generation: the stint in the army during World War II; the break for college in the late 40s; deliberately vague descriptions of projects for the Air Force in the New Mexico desert in the early 50s; the corporate engineering jobs later on in the decade.

105 Standard Samples for Grinder Burn Etch Testing (June 2018)

A different method to produce a sample that has a very consistent amount of thermal damage.

106 For Christmas and Beyond (November/December 2017)

When discussing the thinning of this country's potential manufacturing workforce, it is often maintained that technical training opportunities should be made available to grade school-age children who express interest. Get their attention while they're young and impressionable, the thinking goes — and hope their parents don't talk them out of it.

107 Selecting the Right Tooth Thickness (June 2018)

A reader asks: We are currently revising our gear standards and tolerances, and a few problems with the new standard AGMA 2002-C16 have arisen. Firstly, the way to calculate the tooth thickness tolerance seems to need a "manufacturing profile shift coefficient" that isn't specified in the standard; neither is another standard referred to for this coefficient. This tolerance on tooth thickness is needed later to calculate the span width as well as the pin diameter. Furthermore, there seems to be no tolerancing on the major and minor diameters of a gear.

108 Locating Multiple Bore Diameters Via Hobbing (November/December 2016)

Attached photos (Figs. 1-2) show a bushing to locate one single bore. This will be used to locate one single bore diameter of a gear wheel. What is (the latest) technology for common clamping a bushing to locate multiple bore diameters in hobbing?

109 The Comprehensive Gear Grind (June 2016)

Looking for some simple yet useful advice heading into IMTS 2016? Never second guess your machine tool investment. Flexibility is a mandatory requirement in gear manufacturing today. Accuracy, reliability and efficiency must improve with each new machine tool purchase. Innovation is always the end game. So it comes as no surprise that IMTS 2016 attendees will have plenty of gear grinding technologies to consider this fall.

110 How to Design and Install Bevel Gears for Optimum Performance - Lessons Learned (June/July 2013)

Bevel gears must be assembled in a specific way to ensure smooth running and optimum load distribution between gears. While it is certainly true that the "setting" or "laying out" of a pair of bevel gears is more complicated than laying out a pair of spur gears, it is also true that following the correct procedure can make the task much easier. You cannot install bevel gears in the same manner as spur and helical gears and expect them to behave and perform as well; to optimize the performance of any two bevel gears, the gears must be positioned together so that they run smoothly without binding and/or excessive backlash.

111 There's a Story Here (January/February 2018)

As the founder, president and co-host of Manufacturing Talk Radio, as well as publisher of Metals & Manufacturing Outlook eZine, I am excited to report that the economic outlook for 2018 is just too good not to tout. Whatever "final GDP number" the government divines for 2017, the year will finish above 3% for the first time in a decade.

112 Product News (November/December 2018)

The latest product news for the gear industry, including new products and services from Gleason, Liebherr, Forest City Gear, GMTA, Starrett and Kennametal.

113 Bending Fatigue Tests of Helicopter Case Carburized Gears: Influence on Material, Design and Manufacturing Parameters (November/December 2009)

A single tooth bending (STB) test procedure has been developed to optimally map gear design parameters. Also, a test program on case-carburized, aerospace standard gears has been conceived and performed in order to appreciate the influence of various technological parameters on fatigue resistance and to draw the curve shape up to the gigacycle region.

114 Transient EHL Analysis of Helical Gears (August 2016)

This paper addresses the lubrication of helical gears - especially those factors influencing lubricant film thickness and pressure. Contact between gear teeth is protected by the elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) mechanism that occurs between nonconforming contact when pressure is high enough to cause large increases in lubricant viscosity due to the pressure-viscosity effect, and changes of component shape due to elastic deflection. Acting together, these effects lead to oil films that are stiff enough to separate the contacting surfaces and thus prevent significant metal-to-metal contact occurring in a well-designed gear pair.

115 Heavy-Duty Demands - Modern Coating Technology Examined (May 2013)

The hob is a perfect example of how a little manufacturing ingenuity can make a reliable, highly productive cutting tool. It's an engineering specimen that creates higher cutting speeds, better wear resistance and increases rigidity. The cutting tool alone, however, can't take all the credit for its resourcefulness. Advanced coating technology from companies like Sulzer, Oerlikon Balzers, Ionbond, Seco Tools and Cemecon helps improve cutting tools by reducing overall costs, increasing tool life and maintaining the highest levels of productivity. The following is a quick recap of new technologies and the latest information in the coating market.

116 Program for Involute Equation to Develop Spur Gears on Pro-E Software (May/June 2002)

In effect, this article continues a previous Gear Technology article, "Modeling Gears In Pro/Engineer," published in the January/February 1999 issue. The previous article discussed drawing involute gear teeth using a program built into the Pro/E software.

117 The Name Game (November/December 2000)

The addendum team has just returned from IMTS 2000, and we were surprised to see several new names among the gear industry suppliers at the show.

118 Evaluation of Carburized & Ground Face Gears (September/October 2000)

Designers are constantly searching for ways to reduce rotocraft drive system weight. Reduced weight can increase the payload, performance, or power density of current and future systems. One example of helicopter transmission weight reduction was initiated as part of the United States Army Advanced Rotocraft Transmission program. This example used a split-torque, face-gear configuration concept (Ref. 1). compared to a conventional design with spiral-bevel gears, the split-torque, face-gear design showed substantial weight savings benefits. Also, the use of face gears allows a wide-range of possible configurations with technical and economic benefits (Ref. 2).

119 Mr. None-of-the-Above Wins Again (November/December 1988)

A few years ago, during a presidential election campaign, I saw an editorial cartoon that depicted a man standing outside a voting booth with a bemused expression on his face. Over the door to the booth was a quotation from Dante: "Abandon hope, all ye who enter here." Unfortunately for all of us, the grim jest is just as timely now. Once again, when we make our choice for president this year, the pick seems to be between Mr. Well-He's-Not-Actually-Awful and Mr. At-Least-He's-Not-The-Other-Guy. A candidate who can arouse truly positive and hopeful feelings in the electorate is once again not on the ballot.

120 Looming Large (January/February 2016)

Let's talk about large gears. Not the size or scope or inspection process, but the forecast and market potential in areas that utilize these massive components. We'll examine key industry segments like energy and mining and tap IHS Economics for a forecast for 2016 and 2017 (spoiler alert: it's not great). Additionally, we'll discuss some of the critical factors influencing global big gear manufacturers Ferry-Capitain and Hofmann Engineering.

121 Selection of the Optimal Parameters of the Rack-Tool to Ensure the Maximum Gear Tooth Profile Accuracy (January/February 1999)

An analysis of possibilities for the selection of tool geometry parameters was made in order to reduce tooth profile errors during the grinding of gears by different methods. The selection of parameters was based on the analysis of he grid diagram of a gear and a rack. Some formulas and graphs are presented for the selection of the pressure angle, module and addendum of the rack-tool. The results from the grinding experimental gears confirm the theoretical analysis.

122 Product News (May 2018)

Safe cutting tool clamping, superfinishing gear shafts, gearbox parts cleaning, gear deburring and more new gear-related products.

123 A Different Truth (March/April 2008)

Vietnam is the war Americans don’t like to talk about. Even today, many of us struggle to understand the what and the why of that war.

124 The Gears of Avon & Other Tragedies (March/April 1996)

As part of the Addendum Team's never-ending quest to improve the overall cultural tone of the gear industry, we bring you the following: April 23 is the 432nd birthday of William Shakespeare.

125 Upgrading Your Toolbox (May 2017)

Manufacturers focus on tool design, materials, coating, machine tool options and cutting parameters.

126 Introduction to Worm Gearing (March/April 1993)

Worm gears are among the oldest types of gearing, but that does not mean they are obsolete, antiquated technology. The main reasons for the bad experiences some engineers have with worm gearing are misapplication and misuse. No form of gearing works for every application. Strengths and weaknesses versus the application must be weighed to decide which form of gearing to use. For proper application and operation of worm gears, certain areas that may differ from other types of gearing need to be addressed.

127 Industry News and AGMA Calendar (August/September 1984)

Herman Riccio, Chicago Gear Works President, to Retire; Gleason Opens MI Sales Office; American Pfauter hires Steve Peterson; plus AGMA's technical calendar for the Fall of 1984.

128 Gear Teeth With Byte (January/February 1998)

Computers are everywhere. It's gotten so that it's hard to find an employee who isn't using one in the course of his or her day - whether he be CEO or salesman, engineer or machinist. Everywhere you look, you find the familiar neutral-colored boxes and bright glowing screens. And despite the gear industry's traditional reluctance to embrace new technology, more and moe of what you find on those screens are gears.

129 Alternative Gear Manufacturing (July/August 1998)

the gear industry is awash in manufacturing technologies that promise to eliminate waste by producing gears in near-net shape, cut production and labor costs and permit gear designers greater freedom in materials. These methods can be broken down into the following categories: alternative ways to cut, alternative ways to form and new, exotic alternatives. Some are new, some are old and some are simply amazing.

130 The Basics of Gear Metrology and Terminology Part I (September/October 1998)

It is very common for those working in the gear manufacturing industry to have only a limited understanding of the fundamental principals of involute helicoid gear metrology, the tendency being to leave the topic to specialists in the gear lab. It is well known that quiet, reliable gears can only be made using the information gleaned from proper gear metrology.

131 The Basics of Gear Metrology and Terminology Part II (November/December 1998)

In the last section, we discussed gear inspection; the types of errors found by single and double flank composite and analytical tests; involute geometry; the involute cam and the causes and symptoms of profile errors. In this section, we go into tooth alignment and line of contact issues including lead, helix angles, pitch, pitchline runout, testing and errors in pitch and alignment.

132 Austempered Gears and Shafts: Tough Solutions (March/April 2001)

Austempered irons and steels offer the design engineer alternatives to conventional material/process combinations. Depending on the material and the application, austempering may provide the producers of gear and shafts with the following benefits: ease of manufacturing, increased bending and/or contact fatigue strength, better wear resistance or enhanced dampening characteristics resulting in lower noise. Austempered materials have been used to improve the performance of gears and shafts in many applications in a wide range of industries.

133 Approximating an Involute Tooth Profile (September/October 1990)

On many occasions a reasonably approximate, but not exact, representation of an involute tooth profile is required. Applications include making drawings, especially at enlarged scale, and laser or EDM cutting of gears, molds, and dies used to produce gears. When numerical control (NC) techniques are to be used, a simple way to model an involute can make the NC programming task much easier.

134 Design Implications for Shaper Cutters (July/August 1996)

A gear shaper cutter is actually a gear with relieved cutting edges and increased addendum for providing clearance in the root of the gear being cut. The maximum outside diameter of such a cutter is limited to the diameter at which the teeth become pointed. The minimum diameter occurs when the outside diameter of the cutter and the base circle are the same. Those theoretical extremes, coupled with the side clearance, which is normally 2 degrees for coarse pitch cutters an d1.5 degrees for cutters approximately 24-pitch and finer, will determine the theoretical face width of a cutter.

135 Gear Shaving Basics - Part I (November/December 1997)

Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process also improves tooth surface finish and eliminates by means of crowned tooth forms the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service.

136 Tooth Thickness Tolerance and AGMA 2002-C16 (July 2019)

A reader asks: We are currently revising our gear standards and tolerances and a few questions with the new standard AGMA 2002-C16 have risen. Firstly, the way to calculate the tooth thickness tolerance seems to need a "manufacturing profile shift coefficient" that isn't specified in the standard; neither is another standard referred to for this coefficient. This tolerance on tooth thickness is needed later to calculate the span width as well as the pin diameter. Furthermore, there seems to be no tolerancing on the major and minor diameters of a gear.

137 The Sines of the Fathers (November/December 1995)

Your Addendum team has come across a number of Good Ole Boys in its time; now we bring you something of even more interest - a Good Ole Gear Book. Mr. Robert Price, of Automation - Gears - Machinery, a gear consulting firm in Delanson, NY, shared with us a real find.

138 Influence of Grinding Burn on Pitting Capacity (August 2008)

This paper intends to determine the load-carrying capacity of thermally damaged parts under rolling stress. Since inspection using real gears is problematic, rollers are chosen as an acceptable substitute. The examined scope of thermal damage from hard finishing extends from undamaged, best-case parts to a rehardening zone as the worst case. Also, two degrees of a tempered zone have been examined.

139 Ironclad Gears (July/August 1997)

This issue of Addendum is dedicated to gears that have served their country. There have been many, but among the most significant are surely those at work during the Civil War, when their application changed the nature of naval warfare forever. It's time to recall that role, namely, powering the revolving turret of the U.S.S. Monitor, one of the first "ironclad" vessels.

140 Doing the Right Thing (September/October 1995)

Knowing the right thing to do isn't hard. Most often, it's very obvious. Actually doing it is something else again. For example, we all know that we probably eat too much refined sugar and fat, but when the double chocolate cheesecake come by, it's easy to convince ourselves that one piece won't hurt.

141 The Effects of Surface Hardening on the Total Gear Manufacturing System (January/February 1991)

Carburized and hardened gears have optimum load-carrying capability. There are many alternative ways to produce a hard case on the gear surface. Also, selective direct hardening has some advantages in its ability to be used in the production line, and it is claimed that performance results equivalent to a carburized gear can be obtained. This article examines the alternative ways of carburizing, nitriding, and selective direct hardening, considering equipment, comparative costs, and other factors. The objective must be to obtain the desired quality at the lowest cost.

142 Looking to The Future (September/October 1997)

Economic times are good right now in America and in the gear industry. We're in the seventh year of an up cycle. The tough shake-outs of the 1980s and early 90s are over. Orders are up. Backlogs are at comfortable levels. We're looking at what promises to be the biggest, most successful trade show in the industry's history coming up in Detroit in October. The most pressing question on the immediate horizon seems to be "How long can the good times go on?"

143 Hard Cutting - A Competitive Process in High Quality Gear Production (May/June 1987)

The higher load carrying capacities, compact dimensions and longer life of hardened gears is an accepted fact in industry today. However, the costs involved in case hardening and subsequent finishing operations to achieve these advantages are considerable. For example, in order to achieve desired running properties on larger gears, it has been necessary to grind the tooth flanks. This costly operation can now be replaced, in many cases, by a new Hard Cutting (HC) process which permits the cutting of hardened gears while maintaining extremely low tooling costs.

144 Gear Expo '93 Promises To Be The Biggest All-Gearing Trade Show Yet (July/August 1993)

Gear Expo '93, "The World of Gearing," is scheduled for October 10-13 at Cobo Conference & Exhibition Center, Detroit, MI. Hours are 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. on all four days of the show.

145 Explore the World of Gearing from A to Z (September/October 1993)

Forty of Gear Technology's pre-show and show issue advertisers will be exhibiting a wide range of goods and services at AGMA's Gear Expo '93. The exhibition will be held October 10-13 at Cobo Conference & Exhibition Center in Detroit, MI. Below is an alphabetical listing of these advertisers and a preview of what can be seen at their booths.

146 Rules of Engagement Exporting - Part IV (September/October 1993)

Putting one's best foot forward is important for successful business communication. And successful business people know the "rule" of the game, what it say and do in business situations, to make the best impression. However, these rules change from country to country, and what is appropriate behavior here may appear rude to someone from Latin America, Europe or Asia To help you become more familiar with some of the different rules of engagement in other countries, Gear Technology spoke with three businessmen who have had extensive contact in various part of the world.

147 Gear Grinding Techniques Parallel Axes Gears (March/April 1985)

The fundamental purpose of gear grinding is to consistently and economically produce "hard" or "soft" gear tooth elements within the accuracy required by the gear functions. These gear elements include tooth profile, tooth spacing, lead or parallelism, axial profile, pitch line runout, surface finish, root fillet profile, and other gear geometry which contribute to the performance of a gear train.

148 Base Pitch Tables (September/October 1992)

There is one dimension common to both members of a pair of properly mating spur gears - the base pitch (BP). This base pitch is equal to the circular pitch of the gear on the base circle (see Fig. 1). For a helical gear, the base pitch can be described in either the transverse or normal plane, and is called the transverse base pitch (TBP) or normal base pitch (NBP), respectively. For parallel axis helical gears, both the TBP and NBP must be the same on both mating gears. For skew axis helical gears, only the NBP must be common.

149 The Paperless Factory (January/February 1995)

You're already a veteran of the computer revolution. Only you and your controller know how much money you've spent and only your spouse knows how many sleepless nights you've had in the last ten years trying to carve out a place in the brave new world of computerized gear manufacturing. PC's, CNCs, CAD, CAM, DNC, SPC, CMM: You've got a whole bowl of alphabet soup out there on the shop floor. Overall these machines have lived up to their promises. Production time is down, quality is up. You have fewer scrapped parts and better, more efficient machine usage.

150 Gear Roll-Finishing (May/June 1987)

In this discussion of gear roll-finishing particular attention is called to the special tooth nomenclature resulting from the interaction between the rolling die teeth and the gear teeth. To eliminate confusion the side of a gear tooth that is in contact with the "approach" side of a rolling die tooth is also considered to be the approach side. The same holds true for the "trail" side. Thus, the side of the gear tooth that is in contact with the trail side of a rolling die is also considered to be the trail side.

151 Comparing Surface Failure Modes in Bearings and Gears: Appearances vs. Mechanisms (July/August 1992)

In the 1960's and early 1970's, considerable work was done to identify the various modes of damage that ended the lives of rolling element bearings. A simple summary of all the damage modes that could lead to failure is given in Table 1. In bearing applications that have insufficient or improper lubricant, or have contaminants (water, solid particles) or poor sealing, failure, such as excessive wear or vibration or corrosion, may occur, rather than contact fatigue. Usually other components in the overall system besides bearings also suffer. Over the years, builders of transmissions, axles, and gear boxes that comprise such systems have understood the need to improve the operating environment within such units, so that some system life improvements have taken place.

152 Out of the Cave: Returning the Personal Touch to Business (March/April 2001)

Ever since the first cavemen bartered clamshells and spears, business has been about people interacting. In simpler times, commerce was conducted according to the look in someone's eye or the feel of his handshake. Today we have computers, fax machines, modems, e-mail and cell phones - all powerful tools that have increased our productivity. Those devices have shrunk our world, but, in some ways, they've also distanced us from each other by reducing personal interaction. In the name of efficiency, profitability and progress, we've found ways to place orders, sell products and exchange information without ever coming into contact with another human being.

153 The Bridges of Cook County and Other Sagas (September/October 1996)

In spite of being the "Second City," Chicago has always cultivated a reputation for bigness. We're known for big talk, big shoulders, big basketball players - and big gears. While not necessarily the biggest in the world (more about that late), some Chicago gears are among the hardest working.

154 What Was He Thinking (August 2016)

Having read about an automobile race in France, Kohlsaat decided he'd host America's first auto race in Chicago. The year was 1895 and automobiles were still a great curiosity. Kohlsaat, owner/publisher of the Chicago Times Herald, planned to exploit the growing interest in motoring by sponsoring a 54-mile race from downtown Chicago to nearby suburb Evanston, Illinois, and back. The match was open to all comers, foreign or domestic, whether powered by gas, electricity, or steam. The top prize: $2,000 (that's 50,000 2016 dollars).

155 Technical Calendar (January/February 1986)

The Society of Manufacturing Engineers is sponsoring an educational program on the "Fundamentals of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering," to be held January 28-30, 1986 at the Sheraton-Sand Key Resort in Clear-water Beach, Florida.

156 The Industry Now - Who, What & When (November/December 1995)

New Faces, Corporate Doin's, In Memoriam

157 Pressure Angle Changes in the Transverse Plane for Circular Cut Spiral Bevel Gears (September/October 1986)

Recently it has been suggested that the transverse plane may be very useful in studying the kinematics and dynamics of spiral bevel gears. The transverse plane is perpendicular to the pitch and axial planes as shown in Fig. 1. Buckingham has suggested that a spiral bevel gear may be viewed as a limited form of a "stepped" straight-tooth gear as in Fig. 2. The transverse plane is customarily used in the study of straight toothed bevel gears.

158 Identification and Correction of Damaging Resonances in Gear Drives (August/September 1984)

As a result of extensive research into the vibration characteristics of gear drives, a systematic approach has evolved, by which damaging resonances can be eliminated. The method combines finite element techniques with experimental signature and modal analyses. Implementation of the bulk of the method can be carried out early in the design stage. A step-by-step description of the approach, as it was applied to an existing accessory drive, is given in the text. It is shown how premature bearing failures were eliminated by detuning the torsional oscillations of a gearshaft. A dramatic reduction in vibration levels was achieved as a result of detuning the problem gear. The proposed approach can be extended to other types of rotating machines.

159 High-Temperature Testing of Stanyl Plastic Gears: A Comparison with Tensile Fatigue Data (March/April 2010)

This paper shows an experimental study on the fatigue lifetime of high-heat polyamide (Stanyl) gears running in oil at 140°C. Based on previous works (Refs. 1–2), an analysis is made correcting for tooth bending and calculating actual root stresses. A comparison with tensile bar fatigue data for the same materials at 140°C shows that a good correlation exists between gear fatigue data and tensile bar fatigue data. This insight provides a solid basis for gear designers to design plastic gears using actual material data.

160 AGMAs Go-To Gear Guys (September/October 2016)

While the two have taught a variety of AGMA courses over the years, without question their most popular courses are Gear Failure Analysis (Errichello with longtime colleague Jane Muller) and Gearbox CSI: Forensic Analysis of Gear & Bearing Failures (Drago). Drago currently teaches Manufacturing & Inspection (with AGMA instructor Joseph W. Lenski, Jr.) and Gearbox System Design: The Rest of the Story - Everything but the Gears and Bearings (with AGMA instructor Steve Cymbala) as well.

161 Gears in Congress & Other Odd Places (July/August 1995)

Gear Technology's bimonthly aberration - gear trivia, humor, weirdness and oddments for the edification and amusement of our readers. Contributions are welcome.

162 Maximum Life Spiral Bevel Reduction Design (September/October 1993)

Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ration under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque and power. Significant parameters in the design are the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near-optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.

163 Industry News (July 2009)

The complete industry news section from the July 2009 issue of Gear Technology.

164 Gear Metrology Standards and ISO 9000 (May/June 1994)

I noted with interest the beginning of Gear Technology's three-part series on ISO 9000 certification. I also recently attended Brown & Sharpe's/Leitz gear metrology seminar. Both events caused me to smile and reflect.

165 Product Liability Defense (January/February 1992)

It's every gear manufacturer's nightmare. Your company had been named as a defendant in a product liability suit - one involving serious injuries and death. You're facing endless court appearances, monumental legal fees, and, possibly, seven figure settlements our of your coffers. The very existence of your business could be on the line. The question is, how do you prevent this nightmare from becoming a painful reality.

166 Gear Heat Treating in the 90s: Beyond Black Magic (March/April 1995)

Heat Treating - The evil twin of the gear processing family. Heat treating and post-heat treating corrective processes can run up to 50% or more of the total gear manufacturing cost, so it's easy to see why, in these days when "lean and mean" production is the rage, and every part of the manufacturing process is under intense scrutiny, some of the harshest light falls on heat treating.

167 Working Smarter, Not Just Harder (May/June 1992)

It's a buyer's market these days on solutions for our country's economic problems. Everybody with access to a t.v. camera or a publisher is telling us what we need to do. Usually their solution involves either buying their book or tape or electing them to office.

168 Coming Clean on Gearbox Lubrication (September/October 2017)

Design and manufacture of gears is among the most complex and difficult disciplines of the industrial arts. From initial conception to machining and finishing, making gears ain't bean-bag. And guess what? Once those gears roll off the assembly line, it doesn't get any simpler. That's because gears - the metal ones at least - require the correct lubrication in order to prevent - or delay as long as possible - such things as wear, scuffing and Hertzian fatigue.

169 IMTS 2016: Economic Elixir (August 2016)

Peter Eelman has been involved with the International Manufacturing Technology Show for more than 30 years. First as an exhibitor with Warner & Swasey Co.; later with Toyoda USA; later still as a consultant; and currently as vice president for exhibitions and business development, IMTS. He also serves on the board of directors of the exhibitor-appointed Contractor Association and is a former member of the board of directors for the Trade Show Exhibitors Association. Eelman is a speaker with the International Association of Exhibitions and Events and serves on the Metropolitan Chicago Pier & Exposition Authority Labor Council. As the head of IMTS, Eelman is the go-to, make-things-happen guy for the Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau, the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority, McCormick Place and the various vendors, service providers and trade unions involved in the complex trade show process. In addition to IMTS, Eelman is also prominently involved in shows with an international presence.

170 Editorial (July/August 1989)

Assorted thoughts while in a holding pattern over O'Hare... I recently returned from England where I spent time checking out the overseas markets and attending a machinery auction. Buyers came to this auction from all over - Germany, Italy, Switzerland, India, Australia, America - and the prices were astonishing. Often buyers were paying in pounds sterling the same amount or more than they would have paid in U.S. dollars.

171 The Effect of Reverse Hobbing at a High Speed (March/April 1987)

Today it is common practice when climb hobbing to keep the direction of the hob thread the same as that of the helical gear. The same generalization holds true for the mass production of gears for automobiles. It is the authors' opinion, however, that conventional hobbing with a reverse-handed hob is more effective for the high-speed manufacture of comparatively small module gears for automobiles. The authors have proven both experimentally and theoretically that reverse-handed conventional hobbing, using a multi-thread hob with a smaller diameter is very effective for lengthening the life of the hob and for increasing cutting efficiency at high speeds.

172 Horsburgh & Scott: Heavy Duty Gear Expert (September/October 2003)

Big gears, They drive the machinery that rolls steel, grinds limestone, pulverizes coal, pumps mud, mixes rubber, raises bridges and does many other heavy-duty industrial jobs. For 117 years, big gears have also driven the business of Horsburgh & Scott of Cleveland, OH.

173 Design Formulas for Evaluating Contact Stress in Generalized Gear Pairs (May/June 2001)

A very important parameter when designing a gear pair is the maximum surface contact stress that exists between two gear teeth in mesh, as it affects surface fatigue (namely, pitting and wear) along with gear mesh losses. A lot of attention has been targeted to the determination of the maximum contact stress between gear teeth in mesh, resulting in many "different" formulas. Moreover, each of those formulas is applicable to a particular class of gears (e.g., hypoid, worm, spiroid, spiral bevel, or cylindrical - spur and helical). More recently, FEM (the finite element method) has been introduced to evaluate the contact stress between gear teeth. Presented below is a single methodology for evaluating the maximum contact stress that exists between gear teeth in mesh. The approach is independent of the gear tooth geometry (involute or cycloid) and valid for any gear type (i.e., hypoid, worm, spiroid, bevel and cylindrical).

174 Direct Gear Design for Spur and Helical Involute Gears (September/October 2002)

Modern gear design is generally based on standard tools. This makes gear design quite simple (almost like selecting fasteners), economical, and available for everyone, reducing tooling expenses and inventory. At the same time, it is well known that universal standard tools provide gears with less than optimum performance and - in some cases - do not allow for finding acceptable gear solutions. Application specifies, including low noise and vibration, high density of power transmission (lighter weight, smaller size) and others, require gears with nonstandard parameters. That's why, for example, aviation gear transmissions use tool profiles with custom proportions, such as pressure angle, addendum, and whole depth. The following considerations make application of nonstandard gears suitable and cost-efficient:

175 Design of Involute Gear Teeth (October/November 1984)

In designing involute gear teeth, it is essential that the fundamental properties of the involute curve be clearly understood. A review of "the Fundamental Laws of the Involute Curve" found in last issue will help in this respect. It has previously been shown that the involute curve has its origin at the base circle. Its length, however, may be anything from zero at the origin or starting point on to infinity. The problem, therefore, in designing gear teeth, is to select that portion of the involute, which will best meet all requirements.

176 Crash Course on New Technology (August 2013)

It's nice to see old friends. It's also advantageous to make new ones. Gear Expo has always been a family reunion of sorts, but it's first and foremost an opportunity to show off the latest and greatest technologies that are impacting the gear industry today. With this in mind, Gear Technology recently spoke with those responsible for putting the Fall Technical Meeting (FTM) and Gear Expo 2013 together in Indianapolis.

177 2001: A (Cyber) Space Odyssey (January/February 2001)

In 1968, Stanley Kubrick released the film 2001: A Space Odyssey, based on the story by Arthur C. Clarke. Back then, 2001 was a long way off. It was the future, a time of unknown marvels, amazing discoveries and technological achievements. Now we're in 2001. But while Clarke's and Kubrick's visions of 2001 took place in outer space, what captures my imagination this year is cyberspace.

178 Design Against Tooth Interior Fatigue Fracture (November/December 2000)

In a modern truck, the gear teeth are among the most stressed parts. Failure of a tooth will damage the transmission severely. Throughout the years, gear design experience has been gained and collected into standards such as DIN (Ref. 1) or AGMA (Ref. 2). Traditionally two types of failures are considered in gear design: tooth root bending fatigue, and contact fatigue. The demands for lighter and more silent transmissions have given birth to new failure types. One novel failure type, Tooth Interior Fatigue Fracture (TIFF), has previously been described by MackAldener and Olsson (Refs. 3 & 4) and is further explored in this paper.

179 One Fast Gear Boxx (November/December 1999)

You go, and if your name is Ryan Boxx, you go faster than everyone else. Boxx became the fastest 15-year-old in America this summer when he won his division of the National Hot Rod Association's Junior Drag Racing League National Championship.

180 Same Hob for Two Gears (September/October 2016)

I make all the double helical gears that go into a gearbox - four different gears in this unit. If the gear module for the bull gear and the intermediate gear are the same (these are the two individual gears that mate), and the gear module for the high-speed pinion and high-speed gears are the same (these are the other two individual gears that mate in the gear box as well), is it then possible to just use two hobs in this setup to make all four gears, since they mate together with each other? We are currently using a different gear hob for each gear.

181 The World--Our Market (May/June 1987)

As the time came to write this editorial, the replies to our survey from the last issue were just starting to pour in. We were gratified by the number of responses we received and by the amount of time many of you spent answering in great detail the text questions on the survey. Because of this unusually large response, it will take us some months to log, digest and respond to all the data. Thank you for this nice "problem."

182 The Future is Now for U.S. Wind Turbine Industry--But Who’s Positioned to Meet It? (January/February 2008)

The United States’ long-held dream of energy independence—as in cheap, clean, free of overseas extortion and renewable energy—could very well be realized in part by the country-wide development of wind turbines...

183 Purchasing Gear Lubricants - Be Careful When Playing the Numbers Game (October 2013)

When it comes to purchasing gear lubricants, many people on both the sales and purchasing side decide to play the numbers game. The person with the most numbers, or the biggest numbers, or the lowest numbers, must have the best product - right? Wrong; gear oil selection is not a game, and numbers alone cannot determine the right product for an application.

184 Gear Damage Detection Using Oil Debris Analysis (January/February 2003)

The purpose of this paper was to verify, when using an oil debris sensor, that accumulated mass predicts gear pitting damage and to identify a method to set threshold limits for damaged gears.

185 Seven Ingredients (August 2016)

Chicagoans are very particular about their hot dogs. To begin with, it has to be an all-beef product, served on a steamed poppy seed bun. But just as important are the essential toppings. If you walk into a proper Chicago hot dog stand and order it "Chicago Style," you'll get exactly these seven ingredients on your dog: yellow mustard, chopped white onions, neon green pickle relish, a dill pickle spear, tomato wedges, sport peppers and, of course, celery salt.

186 The Barkhausen Noise Inspection Method for Detecting Grinding Damage in Gears (November/December 2002)

When hardened steel components are ground, there is always the possibility of damage to the steel in the form of residual stress or microstructural changes. Methods for detecting this sort of damage have always had one or more drawbacks, such as cost, time, complexity, subjectivity, or the use of hazardous chemicals.

187 Calculating Dynamic Loads, Sizing Worm Gears and Figuring Geometry Factors (May/June 2001)

Q&A is an interactive gear forum. Send us you gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we will pass them to our panel of experts.

188 Gleason Corporation Acquires The Pfauter Group (September/October 1997)

Gleason Corporation has announced that agreement has been reached on all terms to acquire for approximately $36 million in cash the Hermann Pfauter Group, including, among other operations, Hermann Pfauter GmbH & Co., a privately held leading producer of gear equipment based in Ludwigsburg, Germany; its 76% interest in Pfauter-Maad Cutting Tools, a leading cutting tool manufacturer basked in Loves Park, IL; and Pfauter-Maag management's 24% ownership interest in that company. The acquisition includes all assets and liabilities, including the assumption of approximately $56 million in bank debt.

189 Veteran Machinists & Millenium Outlook (July/August 2000)

The Millenium Outlook article in the January/February 2000 issue of Gear Technology explored the prevailing attitudes of the gear industry as it stands on the brink of the new millenium through the thoughts and words of some of the industry's leaders. The article also placed the gear industry within the framework of 20th Century history. Joe Arvin, President of Arrow Gear, was interviewed for this article and requested an opportunity to elaborate on his published comments.

190 Dry Hobbing Saves Automaker Money, Improves Gear Quality (November/December 1996)

It takes confidence to be the first to invest in new manufacturing technology. But the payback can be significant. That has been the experience at the Ford Motor Company's Transmission & Chassis Division plant at Indianapolis, IN, which boasts the world's first production application of dry hobbing.

191 IMTS Traveling Companion (September/October 1996)

The gear lover's guide to "da show," plus native dishes, language lessons, amazing factoids and other bits about our kind of town.

192 The Politics of Denial (September/October 1996)

A good many things bother me about election years - the annoying sound bites, the negative commercials, the endless political over-analysis. But what bothers me most about the coming election is this: So far (when I'm writing this, it's admittedly early in the campaign) there's little or no talk about what is one of the most critical national issues of the next thirty years - our growing government debt.

193 Influence of Lubrication on Pitting and Micropitting Resistance of Gears (March/April 1990)

Pitting and micropitting resistance of case-carburized gears depends on lubricants and lubrication conditions. Pitting is a form of fatigue damage. On this account a short time test was developed. The test procedure is described. The "pitting test" was developed as a short time test to examine the influence of lubricants on micropitting. Test results showing the influence of case-carburized gears on pitting and micropitting are presented.

194 Museums, Casinos and Motown: The Detroit Outside Cobo Center (September/October 2001)

Besides Gear Expo 2001, Detroit is home to a museum with an 1896 Durya Motor Wagon, America's first production car; home to a casino in a building that use to be Internal Revenue Service offices; and home to the studio where Diana Ross and the Supremes recorded "Stop in the Name of Love."

195 Gear Backlash Analysis of Unloaded Gear Pairs in Transmissions (June 2016)

A best practice in gear design is to limit the amount of backlash to a minimum value needed to accommodate manufacturing tolerances, misalignments, and deflections, in order to prevent the non-driving side of the teeth to make contact and rattle. Industry standards, such as ANSI/AGMA 2002 and DIN3967, provide reference values of minimum backlash to be used in the gear design. However, increased customers' expectations in vehicle noise eduction have pushed backlash and allowable manufacturing tolerances to even lower limits. This is especially true in the truck market, where engines are quieter because they run at lower speeds to improve fuel economy, but they quite often run at high torsional vibration levels. Furthermore, gear and shaft arrangements in truck transmissions have become more complex due to increased number of speeds and to improve efficiency. Determining the minimum amount of backlash is quite a challenge. This paper presents an investigation of minimum backlash values of helical gear teeth applied to a light-duty pickup truck transmission. An analytical model was developed to calculate backlash limits of each gear pair when not transmitting load, and thus susceptible to generate rattle noise, through different transmission power paths. A statistical approach (Monte Carlo) was used since a significant number of factors affect backlash, such as tooth thickness variation; center distance variation; lead; runout and pitch variations; bearing clearances; spline clearances; and shaft deflections and misalignments. Analytical results identified the critical gear pair, and power path, which was confirmed experimentally on a transmission. The approach presented in this paper can be useful to design gear pairs with a minimum amount of backlash, to prevent double flank contact and to help reduce rattle noise to lowest levels.

196 Worm Gear Efficiency Estimation and Optimization (June 2016)

This paper outlines the comparison of efficiencies for worm gearboxes with a center distance ranging from 28 - 150 mm that have single reduction from 5 to 100:1. Efficiencies are calculated using several standards (AGMA, ISO, DIN, BS) or by methods defined in other bibliographic references. It also deals with the measurement of torque and temperature on a test rig — required for the calibration of an analytical model to predict worm gearbox efficiency and temperature. And finally, there are examples of experimental activity (wear and friction measurements on a blockon- ring tribometer and the measurements of dynamic viscosity) regarding the effort of improving the efficiency for worm gear drivers by adding nanoparticles of fullerene shape to standard PEG lubricant

197 Technical Calendar (May/June 1989)

May 18-21. AGMA Annual Meeting, "The Changing World of Gears." Loews Ventana Canyon Resort, Tucson, AZ. July 12-14, 1989. ASM international Conference on Carburizing. Sheraton Hotel & Conference Center, Lakewood, CO. September 12-20, 1989. European Machine Tool Show, Hannover, West Germany.

198 Namaste (August 2011)

In India, “namaste” is used as a common greeting. Although it translates literally to “I bow to you,” it’s often used the same way we use “hello” or “good-bye.” It’s a phrase commonly exchanged between individuals when they meet, and it’s also used as a salutation when they part. I’m using the phrase here because I’d like to introduce you to an exciting new project and venture for Randall Publications LLC.

199 Development of High-Hardness-Cast Gears for High-Power Mining Applications (January/February 2017)

Multiple possibilities are available to increase the transmissible power of girth gears. These solutions include: using a larger module, increasing of the gear diameter through the number of teeth, enlarging the face width, and increasing the hardness of the base material. The first three parameters are mostly limited by cutting machine capability. Module, outside diameter, and face width (for a cast gear) can theoretically be increased to infinity, but not the cutting machine dimensions. There are also practical limits with respect to the installation of very large diameter/large face width gears.

200 A Bar/Restaurant for Gearheads (July 2019)

It's called GearHouse Brewing Co. It's in Chambersburg, a small town in south-central Pennsylvania. And it's fit for a gearhead. The bar/restaurant is decorated inside and out with more than 15 gears and gear blanks.

201 The Beginner's Guide to Powder Metal Gears (September/October 1995)

Increasingly gear designers and product engineers are capitalizing on the economic advantages of powder metallurgy (P/M) for new and existing gear applications. Powder metal gears are found in automobiles, outdoor power equipment transmissions and office machinery applications as well as power hand tools, appliances and medial components.

202 The Involute Curve (January/February 2013)

Although gears can be manufactured using a wide variety of profiles, the involute curve is the most commonly used. Here are some of the basics.

203 Industry News (October 2012)

The complete Industry News section from the October 2012 issue of Gear Technology.

204 Gear Grinding Gets Integrated at IMTS 2012 (October 2012)

The latest machines, tooling and technology for gear grinding were featured at IMTS 2012.

205 Comparing Standards (September/October 1998)

One of the best ways to learn the ISO 6336 gear rating system is to recalculate the capacity of a few existing designs and to compare the ISO 6336 calculated capacity to your experience with those designs and to other rating methods. For these articles, I'll assume that you have a copy of ISO 6336, you have chosen a design for which you have manufacturing drawings and an existing gear capacity calculation according to AGMA 2001 or another method. I'll also assume that you have converted dimensions, loads, etc. into the SI system of measurement.

206 Involute Inspection Methods and Interpretation of Inspection Results (July/August 1997)

What is so unique about gear manufacturing and inspection? Machining is mostly associated with making either flat or cylindrical shapes. These shapes can be created by a machine's simple linear or circular movements, but an involute curve is neither a straight line nor a circle. In fact, each point of the involute curve has a different radius and center of curvature. Is it necessary to go beyond simple circular and linear machine movements in order to create an involute curve? One of the unique features of the involute is the fact that it can be generated by linking circular and linear movements. This uniqueness has become fertile soil for many inventions that have simplified gear manufacturing and inspection. As is the case with gear generating machines, the traditional involute inspection machines take advantage of some of the involute properties. Even today, when computers can synchronize axes for creating any curve, taking advantage of involute properties can be very helpful. I t can simplify synchronization of machine movements and reduce the number of variables to monitor.

207 Industry News (August 2016)

News from around the Industry

208 CNC Gear Grinding Methods (May/June 1997)

Grinding in one form or another has been used for more than 50 years to correct distortions in gears caused by the high temperatures and quenching techniques associated with hardening. Grinding improves the lead, involute and spacing characteristics. This makes the gear capable of carrying the high loads and running at the high pitch line velocities required by today's most demanding applications. Gears that must meet or exceed the accuracy requirements specified by AGMA Quality 10-11 or DIN Class 6-7 must be ground or hard finished after hear treatment.

209 AGMA Standards Committees Keep Industry in Business (November/December 2016)

More than 100 years ago, gear manufacturers were facing a significant challenge from industry. The incredible advances in industrialization and transportation that occurred at the turn of the 20th century resulted in incredible growth for gear makers, but there were significant technical issues. "The lack of process and product standardization was a continuing problem in all U.S. industry. The lack of industry-wide gear standards meant there were no standard gear tooth sizes, ratings, quality definition or consistent manufacturing methods" (Celebrating 100 Years of Gearing, pg. 22).

210 John Q. Gear Meets Martha Stewart (May/June 1997)

When you need totally useless information about gears, you can turn with confidence to the pages of Addendum, where we scour the globe for the obscure, the unusual and the ridiculous (the latter being or forte.)

211 Measurement Error Induced by Measuring over Pins Instead of Balls (January/February 1996)

The purpose of this article is to clarify some terms and methods used in measuring the size of gears. There is also an explanation given of the error induced and how to correct for it in certain cases when the measurement is made using pins instead of balls.

212 Product News (November/December 2016)

News about new Products in the Industry

213 Product News (January/February 2017)

News about all of the upcoming products int he industry.

214 Product news (August 2016)

News about the latest products in the industry.

215 Business Development for the New Year (January/February 2017)

It's the New Year, and with it comes the opportunity to take a fresh look at your business objectives. Because business development is such a vital part of running a company, I'd like to present some guidelines I have found beneficial for securing new work and new customers.

216 Industry News (January/February 2017)

News from around the Gear Industry

217 How to Avoid Errors When Measuring Step Gears (July/August 1995)

There are problems in dimensional measurement that should be simple to solve with standard measuring procedures, but aren't. In such cases, using accepted practices may result in errors of hundreds of microns without any warning that something is wrong.

218 Gear Grinding Today (June 2017)

New divisions, open houses and the continued rise of the Industrial Internet of Things - There's been a lot going on in gear grinding in the past year.

219 Product News (November/December 2014)

The complete Product News section from the November/December 2014 issue.

220 Gear Expo Showstoppers (August 2017)

Special Advertising Section featuring Gear Expo exhibitors.

221 The Right Tool for the Job (August 2017)

When a gearbox remanufacturer is trying to decide whether to regrind or replace a gear, any number of factors could be running through their head. Here are some remanufacturers' processes on how they reach the conclusions they do, and why you should listen to them.

222 Gear Grinding Comes of Age (July/August 1995)

In the quest for ever more exacting and compact commercial gears, precision abrasives are playing a key production role - a role that can shorten cycle time, reduce machining costs and meet growing market demand for such requirements as light weights, high loads, high speed and quiet operation. Used in conjunction with high-quality grinding machines, abrasives can deliver a level of accuracy unmatched by other manufacturing techniques, cost-effectively meeting AGMA gear quality levels in the 12 to 15 range. Thanks to advances in grinding and abrasive technology, machining has become one of the most viable means to grind fast, strong and quiet gears.

223 New Gear Technology at EMO Hannover 2017 (August 2017)

EMO is arguably the most important trade show when it comes to the introduction of machine tool technology, and this year's show - taking place from September 18-23 in Hannover, Germany - promises not to disappoint. We've talked to a number of gear manufacturing technology providers to give you a sneak peak of what you can expect to see if you attend this year.

224 Gear Expo 2017 and ASM Heat Treat 2017 Booth Previews (September/October 2017)

The latest technology on display in Columbus, OH. October 24-26.

225 Product News - Gear Expo 2017 (November/December 2017)

This special edition of Product News includes highlights from Gear Expo 2017 of new products that caught the editors' eyes.

226 Industry News (January/February 2018)

Fraunhofer CMI focuses on new U.S. gear and transmission technologies group, plus other news from around the industry.

227 Lean Shipping - Job Shop Lean (March/April 2013)

The shipping department is the closest to the customer, and its main objective is to maximize shipped orders every month. Our lean guru shows how to eliminate waste in the shipping department.

228 Industry News (July 2016)

Latest News from around the industry

229 Gear Oil Classification and Selection (May/June 1995)

Today gear drive operations have several options when selecting the proper lubricant for their gearboxes. As in the past, the primary lubricant used for gearbox lubrication is mineral oil. But with the advances in technology, synthetic hydrocarbons (PAOs) and polyglycols show very specific advantages in certain applications. With gear drives becoming more and more precise, it is now also to the benefit of the gear operator to verify that he or she has the proper additive package and viscosity in the lubricant selected. Fig. 1 shoes that a gear oil is a combination of a base oil and specific additives. The base oils can be either mineral oil, a synthetic or even in some cases a combination of the two.

230 Product News (July 2014)

The complete Product News section from the July 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

231 Industry News (July 2015)

News from the Gear Industry

232 Product News (August 2015)

News about the newest products from the Gear Industry

233 Industry News (September/October 2014)

The complete Industry News section from the September / October 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

234 Industry News (September/October 2015)

News from the Gear Industry

235 IMTS 2014 Product Preview (August 2014)

An in-depth look at the major booths with the latest technology used in gear manufacturing.

236 Product News (August 2014)

The complete Product News section from the August 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

237 Product News (November/December 2015)

News about recent products

238 Industry News (July 2014)

The complete Industry News section from the July 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

239 Product News (January/February 2016)

Latest news about the Latest Products

240 Portable Gear Inspection (July 2014)

Compact, custom and portable solutions are gaining more attention in manufacturing today as companies seek out the tools that offer the greatest productivity gains on the shop floor. Gear inspection seems to be following suit.

241 No Compromising on Quality at Allison Transmission (July 2014)

Gleason 350GMS helps put higher quality, more reliable gears into its next-generation TC10 automatic transmission.

242 GT Extras (June 2014)

The latest video from Koepfer America, Sandvik's Gear Up event and IMTS product previews

243 IMTS: Welcome to the Main Event (July 2016)

It's hard to think of a show more essential to attend than IMTS. It's the cornerstone event for the industry, the center of the universe for a week, the one show to rule them all.

244 Product News (January/February 2014)

The complete Product News section from the January/February 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

245 Industry News (November/December 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

246 Industry News (March/April 2016)

News from around the Gear Industry

247 Riding the Rails (November/December 2013)

Are trains still a growth industry prospect for manufacturers?

248 The Art of Versatility - Grinding at Gear Expo and EMO (October 2013)

Whether you spent time at Gear Expo in Indianapolis or EMO in Hannover, there was certainly new technology attracting attention. Machine tools are faster, more efficient and can integrate numerous functions in a single setup. Grinding technology is turning science upside down and inside out with high-speed removal rates and increased throughput.

249 Industry News (May 2016)

Lastest news from around the industry.

250 Product News (June 2016)

News about the Latest Products

251 Industry News (September 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the September 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

252 Product News (September 2013)

The complete Product News section from the September 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

253 Life in High Gear (July 2016)

Most books related to the gear industry are more about the business side or the technical aspects of what we do.

254 Product News (June/July 2013)

The complete Product News section from the June/July 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

255 Product News (July 2016)

News about the Latest Products

256 Broaching in the 21st Century (May 2018)

Back around 2005-2010, the most exciting things that were happening in broaching had little to do with broaching. What was happening - and continues to evolve today - was the emergence of on-the-edge CNC, software and servo drive technology. Together, they practically transformed a metalworking process as old as water into a viable, alternative consideration for producing high-volume part runs.

257 Industry News (March/April 2015)

The complete Industry News section from the March/April 2015 issue of Gear Technology.

258 The Right and Wrong of Modern Hob Sharpening (January/February 1992)

Precision gears play a vital role in today's economy. Through their application, automobile transmissions are more compact and efficient, ships sail faster, and diesel locomotives haul more freight. Today great emphasis is being placed upon the reduction of noise in all gear applications and, to be quiet, gears must be accurate.

259 Grinding Bevel Gears on Cylindrical Gear Grinding Machines (January/February 1994)

Power train designs which employ gears with cone angles of approximately 2 degrees to 5 degrees have become quite common. It is difficult, if not impossible, to grind these gears on conventional bevel gear grinding machines. Cylindrical gear grinding machines are better suited for this task. This article will provide an overview of this option and briefly introduce four grinding variation possibilities.

260 Gear Inspection and Measurement (July/August 1992)

The purpose of gear inspection is to: Assure required accuracy and quality, Lower overall cost of manufacture by controlling rejects and scrap, Control machines and machining practices and maintain produced accuracy as machines and tools wear, Determine hear treat distortions to make necessary corrections.

261 New Developments in Gear Hobbing (March/April 2010)

Several innovations have been introduced to the gear manufacturing industry in recent years. In the case of gear hobbing—the dry cutting technology and the ability to do it with powder-metallurgical HSS—might be two of the most impressive ones. And the technology is still moving forward. The aim of this article is to present recent developments in the field of gear hobbing in conjunction with the latest improvements regarding tool materials, process technology and process integration.

262 Quality Gear Inspection - Part I (September/October 1994)

Quality gear inspection means doing the "right" inspections "right." A lot of time and money can be spent doing the wrong types of inspections related to function and doing them incorrectly. As we will discover later, such things as runout can creep into the manufacturing and inspection process and completely ruin any piece of data that is taken. this is one of the most important problems to control for quality inspection.

263 Classification of Types of Gear Tooth Wear - Part I (November/December 1992)

The phenomena of deterioration of surfaces are generally very complex and depend on numerous conditions which include the operating conditions, the type of load applied, the relative speeds of surfaces in contact, the temperature, lubrication, surfaces hardness and roughness, and the compatibility and nature of materials.

264 Industry News (November/December 2019)

The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

265 Product News (January/February 2020)

Integrated Production Chains from Kapp Niles, an alternative to press quenching from Seco/Warwick, an expansion of the Profilator line and more.

266 The Latest in Broaching (January/February 2020)

From standardization to automated, Industry 4.0 capable broachers, here's the latest in what's being developed in the field of broaching.

267 The Gear Hobbing Process (January/February 1994)

Gear hobbing is a generating process. The term generating refers to the fact that the gear tooth form cut is not the conjugate form of the cutting tool, the hob. During hobbing both the hob and the workpiece rotate in a continuous rotational relationship. During this rotation, the hob is typically fed axially with all the teeth being gradually formed as the tool traverses the work face (see Fig. 1a).

268 Hob Basics Part II (November/December 1993)

This is Part II of a two-part series on the basics of gear hobbing. Part I discussed selection of the correct type of hobbing operation, the design features of hobs and hob accuracy. This part will cover sharpening errors and finish hob design considerations.

269 Product News (November/December 2019)

The complete Product News section from the November/December 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

270 Hob Basics Part I (September/October 1993)

The Hobbing Process The hobbing process involves a hob which is threaded with a lead and is rotated in conjunction with the gear blank at a ratio dependent upon the number of teeth to be cut. A single thread hob cutting a 40-tooth gear will make 40 revolutions for each revolution of the gear. The cutting action in hobbing is continuous, and the teeth are formed in one passage of the hob through the blank. See Fig. 1 for a drawing of a typical hob with some common nomenclature.

271 Keeping Things Moving (March/April 2020)

Over the past month, everything about our world has changed. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought most aspects of our lives to a grinding halt. We can’t go out to eat. We can’t travel. We can’t even go to church. A lot of businesses are struggling. But at the same time, there are a lot of people who are busier than ever. In some cases, frighteningly so.

272 Recent Developments in Gear Metrology (November/December 1991)

Metrology is a vital component of gear manufacturing. Recent changes in this area, due in large part to the advent of computers, are highlighted in this article by comparison with more traditional methods.

273 Manufacturing Software...To Go (September/October 2010)

ITAMCO develops gear-related apps for the iPhone and related devices.

274 Basic Gear Generation Designing the Teeth (September/October 1991)

The finished gear engineer, the man who is prepared for all emergencies, must first of all know the basic design principles. Next he must be well versed in all sorts of calculations which come under the heading of "involute trigonometry."

275 Gear Shaving Basics, Part II (January/February 1998)

In our last issue, we covered the basic principles of gear shaving and preparation of parts for shaving. In this issue, we will cover shaving methods, design principles and cutter mounting techniques.

276 ...And from the Industry (October/November 1984)

Industry News from October/November 1984 Gear Technology.

277 Coarse Pitch Gears (May/June 1993)

This article discusses briefly some common manufacturing problems relating to coarse pitch gears and their suggested solutions. Most of the discussion will be limited to a low-quality production environment using universal machine tools.

278 Sizing Up Big Gears (January/February 2010)

Quality, materials and technology continue to challenge the big gear manufacturing market.

279 Viewpoint (November/December 1991)

Dear Editor: In Mr. Yefim Kotlyar's article "Reverse Engineering" in the July/August issue, I found an error in the formula used to calculate the ACL = Actual lead from the ASL = Assumed lead.

280 Carbide Hobs (May/June 1991)

The following article is a collection of data intended to give the reader a general overview of information related to a relatively new subject within the gear cutting industry. Although carbide hobbing itself is not necessarily new, some of the methods and types of application are. While the subject content of this article may be quite broad, it should not be considered all-inclusive. The actual results obtained and the speeds, feeds, and tool life used in carbide hobbing applications can vary significantly.

281 Quality Gear Inspection - Part II (November/December 1994)

This section will deal with the use of gear inspection for diagnostic purposes rather than quality determination. The proper evaluation of various characteristics in the data can be useful for the solution of quality problems. It is important to sort out whether the problem is coming from the machine, tooling and/or cutters, blanks, etc. An article by Robert Moderow in the May/June 1985 issue of Gear Technology is very useful for this purpose.

282 Industry News (May 2018)

The complete industry news section from the May 2018 issue of Gear Technology.

283 IMTS 2018: A Field Guide (August 2018)

Chicago Preps for the Next Manufacturing Technology Extravaganza

284 FNA 2018 (August 2018)

Furnaces North America Exhibition Highlights Future of Heat Treating.

285 Heat Treating Equipment Selection (March/April 1995)

For heat treatment of tool and alloy steels, the end-user has a wide range of basic types of heat treating equipment to choose from. This article reviews them and details the criteria that must be considered in selecting equipment for a specific application. In making this choice, the most important criterion must be the quality of the tool or part after processing.

286 Big Gears - High Standards, High Profits (January/February 2009)

Natural resources—minerals, coal, oil, agricultural products, etc.—are the blessings that Mother Earth confers upon the nations of the world. But it takes unnaturally large gears to extract them.

287 Industry News (September/October 2018)

Liebherr and Wenzel announce sales and service agreement; MPIF releases new powder metal standard; Gear Motions announces promotions; Profilator opens new factory and more gear industry news.

288 Industry News (November/December 2018)

The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2018 issue of Gear Technology.

289 Product News (January/February 2019)

The complete Product News section from the January/February issue of Gear Technology.

290 Identifying Equipment Failure (June 2019)

How machine tool maintenance has evolved in recent years in gear manufacturing.

291 CNC Basics (January/February 1995)

NC and CNC machines are at the heart of manufacturing today. They are the state-of-the-art equipment everybody has (or is soon going to get) that promise to lower costs, increase production and turn manufacturers into competitive powerhouses. Like many other high tech devices (such as microwaves and VCRs), lots of people have and use them - even successfully - without really knowing much about how they operate. But upgrading to CNC costs a lot of money, so it's crucial to separate the hype from the reality.

292 Measurement Management (July 2019)

The secret to meeting today's inspection demands is influenced by the technology and those in charge of operating it.

293 A Tale of Two Gear Companies (August 2019)

Experiencing a Dickensian dilemma in its essence, a Los Angeles based manufacturing company was faced with the good fortune of ever increasing orders for steel gears from a good customer with a new recreational product in very high demand. Confronting the possibility of an untold number of lonely late nights tending to the whims of a 1950s era manual hobber was an unpalatable prospect no one desired.

294 Industry News (August 2019)

The complete Industry News section from the August 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

295 Show Stoppers (September/October 2019)

Motion + Power Technology Expo VIP Exhibitors special advertising section.

296 Gear Hardness Technology (March/April 1992)

In a very general sense, increasing the hardness of a steel gear increases the strength of the gear. However, for each process there is a limit to its effectiveness. This article contains background information on each of the processes covered. In each section what is desired and what is achievable is discussed. Typical processes are presented along with comments on variables which affect the result. By reviewing the capabilities and processes, it is possible to determine the limits to each process.

297 Industry News (September/October 2019)

The complete Industry News section from the September/October 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

298 Finish Hobbing Crowned Helical Gears without Twist (January/February 2006)

New tool from LMT-Fette provides combination of operations.

299 Classification of Types of Gear Tooth Wear - Part II (January/February 1993)

The first part of this article included abrasive wear with two bodies, streaks and scoring, polishing, and hot and cold scuffing. This part will deal with three-body wear, scratches or grooves, and interference wear. Normal, moderate, and excessive wear will be defined, and a descriptive chart will be presented.

300 Well-Paying Manufacturing Jobs Are Blowing in the Wind--And State Governments are Racing to Harness Them (January/February 2008)

Lamentations continue—legitimately so—over the second-citizen status of manufacturing in the United States. The need undoubtedly continues for renewed support by government and educators for making things here once again...

301 Winds of Change (January/February 2008)

It seems that nothing can hold back the power of the wind—unless, of course, it's the availability of rugged, reliable, specially designed gearboxes. How Gleason is Keeping up with Demand.

302 Calculating SAP and TIF (September/October 1999)

Q&A is your interactive gear forum. send us your gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we'll put them before our panel of experts.

303 Ten Myths About Gear Lubrication (May/June 1995)

Myth No. 1: Oil Is Oil. Using the wrong oil is a common cause of gear failure. Gears require lubricants blended specifically for the application. For example, slow-speed spur gears, high-speed helical gears, hypoid gears and worm gears all require different lubricants. Application parameters, such as operating speeds, transmitted loads, temperature extremes and contamination risks, must be considered when choosing an oil. Using the right oil can improve efficiency and extend gear life.

304 AGMA Responds to Gear Standards Article (January/February 1991)

The authors of last issue's article comparing AGMA, ISO and BS methods for Pitting Resistance Ratings are commended. Trying to compare various methods of rating gears is like hitting a moving target in a thick forest. The use of different symbols, presentations, terminology, and definitions in these standards makes it very difficult. But the greatest problem lies with the authors' use of older versions of these documents. ISO drafts and AGMA standards have evolved at the same time their work was accomplished and edited.

305 Analyzing Gear Tooth Stress as a Function of Tooth Contact Pattern Shape and Position (January/February 1985)

The development of a new gear strength computer program based upon the finite element method, provides a better way to calculate stresses in bevel and hypoid gear teeth. The program incorporates tooth surface geometry and axle deflection data to establish a direct relationship between fillet bending stress, subsurface shear stress, and applied gear torque. Using existing software links to other gear analysis programs allows the gear engineer to evaluate the strength performance of existing and new gear designs as a function of tooth contact pattern shape, position and axle deflection characteristics. This approach provides a better understanding of how gears react under load to subtle changes in the appearance of the no load tooth contact pattern.

306 The Interrelationship of Tooth Thickness Measurements as Evaluated by Various Measuring Techniques (September/October 1987)

The first commandment for gears reads "Gears must have backlash!" When gear teeth are operated without adequate backlash, any of several problems may occur, some of which may lead to disaster. As the teeth try to force their way through mesh, excessive separating forces are created which may cause bearing failures. These same forces also produce a wedging action between the teeth with resulting high loads on the teeth. Such loads often lead to pitting and to other failures related to surface fatigue, and in some cases, bending failures.

307 Gear Up for Performance: An Introduction to Synthetic Lubricants for Fractional Horespower Applications (September/October 2000)

Editor's Note: The following article details the advantages of synthetic lubricants in certain applications. However, the user should be aware of certain design issues arising from the extract chemistry of the synthetic. For example, some synthetics may have low solvency for additives. Others may not be compatible with mineral oils or nonmetallic components such as seals and paints. Some synthetics may absorb water and may not have the same corrosion resistance as mineral oils. Finally, the user should consider biodegradability or toxicity before switching to any new lubricant. Many of these concerns are present in petroleum-based lubricants as well, so consult a lubrication specialist before specifying a lubricant.

308 A Hidden Treasure (March/April 1992)

At the next meeting of your association's marketing committee, notice what happens. The rate of taking notes increases dramatically when the market analysis and international trade trends reports begin. Even with the handouts to match the overhead projections of numbers, the audience's pace is furious. This is vital, apparently hard-to-come-by information, and no one wants to miss out. Almost all of the information comes from one source, yet the data offered is only one small dip from an enormous treasure chest - the U.S. Government.

309 Special Gears Help Hatch a Summer Movie (January/February 2001)

Chicken Run - the summer that used stop-motion clay figures - is about a group of chickens laying a plan to escape from their farm before they're turned into chicken pies. Distributed by Steven Spielberg's Dream Works, Chicken Run is also about a group of specially-made worms and wheels.

310 Comparison of PM-HSS and Cemented Carbide Tools in High-Speed Gear Hobbing (September/October 2009)

This article examines the dry hobbing capabilities of two cutting tool materials—powder metallurgical high-speed steel (PM-HSS) and cemented carbide. Cutting trials were carried out to analyze applicable cutting parameters and possible tool lives as well as the process reliability. To consider the influences of the machinability of different workpiece materials, a case hardening steel and a tempered steel were examined.

311 Gears With Ears (March/April 2001)

When you're manufacturing fun, very often you need gears. The Addendum team recently went on a behind-the-scenes gear-finding mission with Jerold S. Kaplan, Principal Engineer, Show/Ride Mechanical Engineering at Walt Disney Imagineering in Lake Buena Vista, FL. We found that at least part of Disney's magic comes from good, old-fashioned mechanical engineering.

312 Factors Influencing Fracture Toughness of High-Carbon Martensitic Steels (January/February 1989)

Plane strain fracture toughness of twelve high-carbon steels has been evaluated to study the influence of alloying elements, carbon content and retained austenite. The steels were especially designed to simulate the carburized case microstructure of commonly used automotive type gear steels. Results show that a small variation in carbon can influence the K IC significantly. The beneficial effect of retained austenite depends both on its amount and distribution. The alloy effect, particularly nickel, becomes significant only after the alloy content exceeds a minimum amount. Small amounts of boron also appear beneficial.

313 Events (May 2009)

Advance coverage of India's Gears, Motors & Controls Expo 2009, plus our regular calendar of events.

314 Capital Gains, Societal Gains, or No Gains At All (March/April 1990)

Taxes may be one of the only two sure things in life, but that doesn't make them popular. Nobody is happy to pay them, and the bigger the amount due, the unhappier the taxpayer. Conversely, politicians know that coming out in favor of a tax cut is the equivalent of voting for apple pie and motherhood. It's a sure-fire success at the ballot box.

315 1992 Marks Important Gear Design Milestone: Lewis Bending Strenth Equations Now 100 Years old (November/December 1992)

Columbus' first voyage to the Americas is not the only anniversary worthy of celebration this year. In 1892, on October 15, Wilfred Lewis gave an address to the Engineer's Club of Philadelphia, whose significance, while not as great as that of Columbus' voyage, had important results for the gearing community. In this address, Lewis first publicly outlined his formula for computing bending stress in gear teeth, a formula still in use today.

316 Redliner Charts and Gear Inspection (March/April 1999)

Q&A is your interactive gear forum. Send us your gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we'll put them before our panel of experts.

317 New Update of an Old Standard (July/August 1997)

Machinery's Handbook 25 by Erik Oberg, Franklin D. Jones, Holbrook L. Horton & Henry H. Ryffel, Reobert E. Green, ed., Industrial Press Inc., New York, NY, 1996 ISBA 0-8311-2424-5, $75.00 (Large Print Version, $95.00).

318 Industry News (May/June 1995)

Who's Who...What's What...Movers...Shakers...Name Changers...and Other Items of Interest

319 Gear Training - Courses, Schedules, Rates and More (January/February 2011)

The following article provides details on the specific programs and learning opportunities discussed in the January/February 2011 article "Now, More Than Ever" by senior editor Jack McGuinn.

320 Zerol Bevel Gears: Tribology Aspects in Angular Transmission Systems, Part III (November/December 2010)

Zerol bevel gears are the special case of spiral bevel gears with a spiral angle of 0°. They are manufactured in a single-indexing face milling process with large cutter diameters, an extra deep tooth profile and tapered tooth depth.

321 A Huge Success (September/October 1995)

Sivyer Steel Corporation, Bettendorf, IA, an ISO-9002-certified casting specialist, is familiar with tackling tough jobs. The company has built an international reputation as a supplier of high-integrity castings, especially those which require engineering and/or full machining. Its not unusual for Sivyer's customers, especially those in the mining, recycling, power generation, valve and nuclear fields, to ask the foundry to produce a one-of-a-kind casting - often something revolutionary - but AnClyde Engineered Products' request was a special challenge, even for Sivyer.

322 Marketplace by the Lake (November/December 1994)

McCormick Place, Chicago. A manufacturer's dream. Acres and acres of machine tools up and running - cutting chips, filling molds, moving material, bending, shaping, smoothing, measuring. Computers, robots and lasers everywhere - George Lucas goes to engineering school. Sounds, light and, most important, over 100,000 people, moving around, taking notes, asking questions and, above all, buying. This was IMTS '94. A heady, if tiring, experience.

323 New Views A different way to spec and shop for parts (January/February 1996)

Information is the name of the game in the 90s. We need more of it; we need it faster; and we need it in infinitely manipulatable and user-friendly form. In many cases, getting it that way is still something of a Holy Grail, somewhere off on the distant horizon. But thanks to computer technology, bit by byte, we're getting there.

324 An Interview with Thomas Koepfer (August 2010)

Publisher Michael Goldstein sat down with Dr. Thomas Koepfer, whose family company, Josef Koepfer & Söhne GmbH, was founded in 1867. Over the years, the Koepfer name has become one of the best-known in the gear industry, with company operations including the manufacture of gear machines, cutting tools and gears.

325 Gear Expo 2011 - Tempered Enthusiasm (November/December 2011)

I came back from Gear Expo in a pretty good mood, and judging by the smiles on the faces of exhibitors I saw, I'm not alone. In fact, the mood at Gear Expo 2011 was the best I've seen in recent memory.

326 Our Experts Discuss Electronic Gearboxes, Plus Backlash and What to Do about it (September/October 1994)

Question: In the January/February issue of your magazine, we came across the term "electronic gearbox." We have seen this term used elsewhere as well. We understand that this EGB eliminates the change gear in the transmission line, but not how exactly this is done. Could you explain in more detail?

327 Getting a Grip on Big-Gear Lubrication (January/February 2012)

In the wide, wide world of moving parts, the gears required for the big jobs—the really big jobs—often experience big problems. Proper lubrication of these gears is paramount in industrial applications such as wind turbines, kilns, sugar mills, crushers, heavy construction, offshore drilling rigs, mining and quarrying.

328 Detroit in 97 - the Biggest Gear Expo Ever (July/August 1997)

"A Decade of Performance" is the theme of the American Gear Manufacturers Association Gear Expo 97, to be held October 19-22 at Detroit's Cobo Hall. Products and services related to every aspect of the gear manufacturing process, from turning and grinding the blanks to coating and inspection of the gears,will be represented at the show.

329 Frozen Gears (March/April 1993)

Durability is the most important criterion used to define the quality of a gear. The freezing of metals has been acknowledged for almost thirty years as an effective method for increasing durability, or "wear life," and decreasing residual stress in tool steels. The recent field of deep cryogenics (below -300 degrees F) has brought us high temperature superconductors, the superconducting super collider, cryo-biology, and magnotehydrodynamic drive systems. It has also brought many additional durability benefits to metals.

330 Issues of Gear Design Using 3D Solid Modeling Systems (January/February 1999)

More and more gear shops are wrestling with the issue of whether or not solid modeling is right for their gear design work. The Q & A Page of The Gear Industry Home Page has had numerous questions asking how to model gears in solid modeling applications such as AutoCAD, Solidworks and Pr/Engineer. Given the problems people have been having, we are presenting the step-by-step process for modeling gears in Pr/Engineer, but first we thought it would be a good idea to explore the question of whether or not you should even try to design gears using Pro/Engineer or any other 3D solid modeling program.

331 The First Lady of Gearing (September/October 1997)

In 1877, Irish immigrant William Gleason, owner of a machine tool business in Rochester, NY, suffered a terrible blow. Gleason's son Tom died. The loss was not merely a personal one. Tom had been his father's assistant, and the senior Gleason had no one to fill the gap and help him carry on his business.

332 A Hopeful New Year (January/February 1993)

It always strikes me as something of an irony that the brightest holidays of the year fall in the deepest part of the darkest season. They come when the days are the shortest, the clouds the thickest, the weather (at least in Chicago), the worst. And yet it is at precisely this time when we celebrate the happier human emotions of family, love, and charity and somewhat arbitrarily declare a "new" year.

333 Developing a Total Productive Maintenance System (May/June 1995)

There's a reason they call it catastrophic gear failure: For example, if the line goes down at a large aluminum rolling mill because a gear set goes bad, the cost can run up to a whopping $200,000 a week. Even in smaller operations, the numbers alone (not to mention all the other problems) can be a plant manager's worst nightmare.

334 Thermal Effects on CMMs (September/October 1997)

The trend toward moving coordinate measuring machines to the shop floor to become an integral part of the manufacturing operations brings real time process control within the reach of many companies. Putting measuring machines on the shop floor, however, subjects them to harsh environmental conditions. Like any measuring system, CMMs are sensitive to any ambient condition that deviates from the "perfect" conditions of the metrology lab.

335 Investigation of the Strength of Gear Teeth (November/December 1992)

To mechanical engineers, the strength of gear teeth is a question of constant recurrence, and although the problem to be solved is quite elementary in character, probably no other question could be raised upon which such a diversity of opinion exists, and in support of which such an array of rules and authorities might be quoted. In 1879, Mr. John H. Cooper, the author of a well-known work on "Belting," made an examination of the subject and found there were then in existence about forty-eight well-established rules for horsepower and working strength, sanctioned by some twenty-four authorities, and differing from each other in extreme causes of 500%. Since then, a number of new rules have been added, but as no rules have been given which take account of the actual tooth forms in common use, and as no attempt has been made to include in any formula the working stress on the material so that the engineer may see at once upon what assumption a given result is based, I trust I may be pardoned for suggesting that a further investigation is necessary or desirable.

336 A Split Happened on the Way to Reliable, Higher-Volume Gear Grinding (September/October 2005)

Bevel gear manufacturers live in one of two camps: the face hobbing/lapping camp, and the face milling/grinding camp.

337 Capitalizing on Your Human Capital (November/December 1997)

A fundamental characteristic of the gear industry is that it is capital intensive. In the last decade, the gear manufacturing industry has been undergoing an intense drive toward improving and modernizing its capital equipment base. The Department of Commerce reports that annual sales of gear cutting equipment have increased nearly 60% since 1990. While this effort has paid off in increased competitiveness for the American gear industry, it is important to remember that there is another capital crucial to manufacturing success - "human capital."

338 The Jewels In the (Gear) Crown (January/February 1998)

Over the years the Addendum Staff has brought you odd, little known and sometimes useless facts about almost every conceivable topic concerning gears. This month, as part of our never-ending campaign to upgrade the tone of the industry, we are venturing into the world of high fashion. Lose those pocket protectors, gear fans. Welcome to the land of gear haute couture. Appearing now, in select magazines, are ads that rival those of Bulgari, Cartier and Tiffany. These gear "gems" come courtesy of Winzeler Gear, Chicago, IL.

339 Meeting The Challenge (May/June 1998)

Every once in a while something happens to fundamentally change the nature of your business. Despite the best of intentions and the most careful planning, there's no way we can anticipate every event. What do you do, for example, when your two biggest competitors merge, when the economy collapses in the region that imports your products or when key employees leave your company? Your reactions may make the difference between success and struggling to survive.

340 Politics of Manufacturing (July/August 1998)

In the approximately 15 years that I have been writing editorials for Gear Technology, I've purposely avoided certain topics. Sex, religion and my own used gear machinery business are among the subjects that have always been off limits. But with this issue, I'm going to break one of my long-standing taboos by talking politics.

341 Generating and Checking Involute Gear Teeth (May/June 1986)

It has previously been demonstrated that one gear of an interchangeable series will rotate with another gear of the same series with proper tooth action. It is, therefore, evident that a tooth curve driven in unison with a mating blank, will "generate" in the latter the proper tooth curve to mesh with itself.

342 Drivetrain Research An Idea Whose Time is Overdue (July/August 1995)

The popular perception today is that technological advancement is an engine running almost out of control. New products and processes are developing faster than we can keep up with them, as anyone who has had a new computer system crash into obsolescence practically before it's out of the box can tell you. But that's not the case everywhere. Transmission technology, for example.

343 Repair via Isotropic Superfinishing of Aircraft Transmission Gears (May 2009)

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that transmission gears of rotary-wing aircraft, which are typically scrapped due to minor foreign object damage (FOD) and grey staining, can be repaired and re-used with signifi cant cost avoidance. The isotropic superfinishing (ISF) process is used to repair the gear by removing surface damage. It has been demonstrated in this project that this surface damage can be removed while maintaining OEM specifications on gear size, geometry and metallurgy. Further, scrap CH-46 mix box spur pinions, repaired by the ISF process, were subjected to gear tooth strength and durability testing, and their performance compared with or exceeded that of new spur pinions procured from an approved Navy vendor. This clearly demonstrates the feasibility of the repair and re-use of precision transmission gears.

344 Load Distribution in Planetary Gears (May/June 2001)

Two-shaft planetary gear drives are power-branching transmissions, which lead the power from input to output shaft on several parallel ways. A part of the power is transferred loss-free as clutch power. That results in high efficiency and high power density. Those advantages can be used optimally only if an even distribution of load on the individual branches of power is ensured. Static over-constraint, manufacturing deviations and the internal dynamics of those transmission gears obstruct the load balance. With the help of complex simulation programs, it is possible today to predict the dynamic behavior of such gears. The results of those investigations consolidate the approximation equations for the calculation of the load factors...

345 Manufacturing and Pursuit of the American Dream: Reality or Fool's Quest (November/December 2012)

It wasn’t so very long ago that a high school-educated, able-bodied person with a will to work typically had little trouble finding a decent job in manufacturing. Whether at an area job shop, an OEM plant or auto plant—work was to be had. Work that paid well enough to marry, buy a home, feed, raise and educate a family—with even enough left over for a modest retirement pension.

346 Stopping the Great American Giveaway (January/February 1987)

Inviting an American shipbuilding industry official to discuss the subject of meeting foreign competition is like inviting Jackie Gleason to speak on dieting. I am painfully aware of the commercial shipbuilding industry situation. Let me tell you a little about it.

347 Hiring & Firing the Older Employee (January/February 1993)

Given the current economic and legal climate, matters of hiring and firing are cause for considerable concern among managers. In addition to all the other factors to be considered, employers must be wary of exactly how these procedures should be carried out, so that the company is not left open to lawsuits based on charges of discrimination of one kind or another. The reasons given for a particular employment decision may be as crucial to determining liability as the decision itself.

348 Influence of Geometrical Parameters on the Gear Scuffing Criterion - Part 2 (May/June 1987)

In ParI 1 several scuffing (scoring) criteria were shown ultimately to converge into one criterion, the original flash temperature criterion according to Blok. In Part 2 it will be shown that all geometric influences may be concentrated in one factor dependent on only four independent parameters, of which the gear ratio, the number of teeth of the pinion, and the addendum modification coefficient of the pinion are significant.

349 Gear Mathematics for Bevel & Hypoid Gears (August 2015)

The calculation begins with the computation of the ring gear blank data. The geometrically relevant parameters are shown in Figure 1. The position of the teeth relative to the blank coordinate system of a bevel gear blank is satisfactorily defined with...

350 The Gear Industrys Family Reunion (August 2015)

When it came to picking a personal favorite booth at Gear Expo, AGMA Vice President of Marketing Jenny Blackford donned her proverbial TAG Heuer watch and embroidered silk apron and decided to keep her allegiance neutral.

351 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL): A Review (July 2015)

This review of elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) was derived from many excellent sources (Refs. 1–5). The review of Blok’s flash temperature theory was derived from his publications (Refs. 6–9). An excellent general reference on all aspects of tribology is the Encyclopedia of Tribology (Ref. 10).

352 Metallurgical Investigation of Tiger Stripes on a Carburized High Speed Pinion (May 2014)

Tiger stripes on a high-speed pinion made of a carburized SAE 9310 steel were investigated. The morphology of the damage was typical of electric discharge damage. The cause of the stripes and potential damage to the gear tooth were analyzed and are presented in this report.

353 Helical Gear Mathematics Formulas and Examples (May/June 1988)

The following excerpt is from the Revised Manual of Gear Design, Section III, covering helical and spiral gears. This section on helical gear mathematics shows the detailed solutions to many general helical gearing problems. In each case, a definite example has been worked out to illustrate the solution. All equations are arranged in their most effective form for use on a computer or calculating machine.

354 Tool Life and Productivity Improvement Through Cutting Parameter Setting and Tool Design in Dry High-Speed Bevel Gear Tooth Cutting (May/June 2006)

This article presents some of the findings of cutting investigations at WZL in which the correlation of cutting parameters, cutting materials, tool geometry and tool life have been determined.

355 Helical Gear Mathematics, Formulas and Examples Part II (July/August 1988)

The following excerpt is from the Revised Manual of Gear Design, Section III, covering helical and spiral gears. This section on helical gear mathematics shows the detailed solutions to many general helical gearing problems. In each case, a definite example has been worked out to illustrate the solution. All equations are arranged in their most effective form for use on a computer or calculating machine.

356 Setting Load Parameters for Viable Fatigue Testing of Gears in Powertrain Axles Part I: Single-Reduction Axles (August 2014)

This presentation introduces a new procedure that - derived from exact calculations - aids in determining the parameters of the validation testing of spiral bevel and hypoid gears in single-reduction axles.

357 Hybrid Gear Preliminary Results: Application of Composites to Dynamic Mechanical Components (May 2013)

Composite spur gears were designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center. The composite web was bonded only to the inner and outer hexagonal features that were machined from an initially all-metallic aerospace quality spur gear. The hybrid gear was tested against an all-steel gear and against a mating hybrid gear. Initial results indicate that this type of hybrid design may have a dramatic effect on drive system weight without sacrificing strength.

358 Letters to the Editor (January/February 2020)

Last issue's farewell editorial by our founder and original publisher, Michael Goldstein, sparked a lot of feedback and comments from our readers. Here's a sampling of what your fellow subscribers had to say.

359 Skiving is Thriving on a Global Scale (January/February 2018)

Call it new wine in old bottles, or old wine in new bottles, but gear skiving has certainly aged well over time. Gear skiving's evolution, perhaps gaining momentum most dramatically since around 2004, has ultimately led to rather dramatic technological advancement and cost saving in the manufacture of certain gears.

360 The Tradition Continues (January/February 2020)

You may have noticed a few changes around here. Most notably, the face on this page isn't the one you're used to seeing here. As you've probably heard by now, Michael Goldstein, founder and Publisher since 1984, has stepped back from his day-to-day duties and transferred the operation of Gear Technology, Power Transmission Engineering and Gear Technology India to the American Gear Manufacturers Association.

361 From Bauhaus to Gearbox (September/October 2014)

Arguably the city of Chicago’s most compelling, dynamic period — early 1930s -1960 — is dramatically evoked in Thomas Dyja’s 2013 book, THE THIRD COAST — When Chicago Built the American Dream.

362 Surface Damage Caused by Gear Profile Grinding and its Effects on Flank Load Carrying Capacity (September/October 2004)

Instances of damage to discontinuous form ground and surface-hardened gears, especially of large scale, have recently increased. This may be attributed partly to a faulty grinding process with negative effects on the surface zones and the surface properties.

363 Coffeegate (January/February 2015)

The other day I went to Starbuck’s and ordered my usual four shots of espresso, straight up. I know what you’re thinking: that’s a lot of caffeine, especially for someone as naturally energetic as I am. But after years and years, I may have built up a tolerance to the caffeine. I picked up the espresso habit as a much younger man, when I worked for Daldi & Matteucci (DEMM) in Italy back in the ’70s. And I’ve stuck with it ever since.

364 Fundamentals of Bevel Gear Hard Cutting (November/December 1990)

Some years back, most spiral bevel gear sets were produced as cut, case hardened, and lapped. The case hardening process most frequently used was and is case carburizing. Many large gears were flame hardened, nitrided, or through hardened (hardness around 300 BHN) using medium carbon alloy steels, such as 4140, to avoid higher distortions related to the carburizing and hardening process.

365 The Gear Vanity Plate Hall of Fame (May 2009)

Here is the first batch of responses to our request for entries into the Gear Vanity Plate Hall of Fame (see Addendum, March/April 2009).

366 Just a Bad Dream (May 2008)

There's a monster under the bed of the nation's economy. It has the same power over many adults as a child's nightmare.

367 Henry Maudslay (May 2015)

Here is some history that bears repeating - or at least re-reading. So take a few minutes to give it up for a long-gone Brit named Henry Maudslay (August 22, 1771 - February 14, 1831) - also known as "A Founding Father of Machine Tool Technology." You might also consider him an early leader in inspection, as he also invented the first bench micrometer capable of measuring to one ten-thousandth of an inch.

368 Pineapples, Corncobs & Other Hobbing Matters (July/August 1991)

Two questions on hobbing cover the various types of hobs and their unusual names, as well as the importance of hob swivel angle.

369 Rating of Helical Asymmetric Tooth Gears (November/December 2017)

Although gear geometry and the design of asymmetric tooth gears are well known and published, they are not covered by modern national or international gear design and rating standards. This limits their broad implementation for various gear applications, despite substantial performance advantages in comparison to symmetric tooth gears for mostly unidirectional drives. In some industries — like aerospace, that are accustomed to using gears with non-standard tooth shapes — the rating of these gears is established by comprehensive testing. However, such testing programs are not affordable for many other gear drive applications that could also benefit from asymmetric tooth gears.

370 Gear Manufacturing Past, Present & Future (January/February 2000)

Roughly 100 years ago, Cornelius J. Brosnan of Springfield, Massachusetts, invented and received the first U.S. patent for a paper clip. At about the same time, his fellow inventors were coming up with such marvels as the zipper, the safety razor and the typewriter.

371 The Gallery of Fame: A Tribute to Gear Pioneers (March/April 1999)

The Gear Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Chicago is home to a unique tribute to gear pioneers from around the world, the Gallery of Fame. The gallery is the brainchild of the laboratory director, Professor Faydor L. Litvin. The Gallery was begun in 1994 an dis a photographic tribute to those gear company founders, inventors and researchers who devoted their careers to the study and development of gears.

372 Eddy Current Examination of Gear Systems (May/June 1997)

Nondestructive examination (NDE) of ferrous and nonferrous materials has long proved an effective maintenance and anomaly characterization tool for many industries. Recent research has expanded its applicability to include the inspection of large, open gear drives. Difficulties inherent in other NDE methods make them time-consuming and labor-intensive. They also present the user with the environmental problem of the disposal of used oil. The eddy current method addresses these problems.

373 New Book For Gear Purchaseres & Specifiers (May/June 1997)

This book is written for those among us, with or without a technical background, who have an occasional need to use, purchase or specify gears. The author assumes an audience that is not made up of experienced gear designers, but of people who do need to have a basic understanding of the criteria used by the designer. The subjects covered include not only the gears themselves, but their manufacturing methods, the systems that contain them and the terms used to describe them.

374 AGMA: Delivering Value in New and Measurable Ways (January/February 2017)

When I first met the leaders of the gearing industry in April 2016 at AGMA's 100th Anniversary Celebration, I did my best imitation of Joe Namath, who famously predicted a Super Bowl victory for his New York Jets: I guaranteed we would reach our 101st year!

375 Gear Standards and ISO GPS (October 2013)

In today’s globalized manufacturing, all industrial products having dimensional constraints must undergo conformity specifications assessments on a regular basis. Consequently, (standardization) associated with GD&T (geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing) should be un-ambiguous and based on common, accepted rules. Of course gears - and their mechanical assemblies - are special items, widely present in industrial applications where energy conversion and power transmission are involved.

376 Manufacturing Strong (January/February 2019)

For this year’s exercise in large gears, we’re not going to dwell on size range or length, merely look at the fundamental challenges and latest technologies required to manufacture large parts in the gear industry. This could be a gearbox assembly for the construction, mining or oil and gas industries or simply a large standalone gear pinion set for a custom application. Whatever the industry or application, large gears require more preparation, planning and precision than other areas of gear manufacturing.

377 Designing Hardened & Ground Spur Gears to Operate With Minimum Noise (May/June 1994)

When designing hardened and ground spur gears to operate with minimum noise, what are the parameters to be considered? should tip and/or root relief be applied to both wheel and pinion or only to one member? When pinions are enlarged and he wheel reduced, should tip relief be applied? What are the effects on strength, wear and noise? For given ratios with enlarged pinions and reduced wheels, how can the gear set sized be checked or adjusted to ensure that the best combination has been achieved?

378 Heat Treat 2019 (August 2019)

As the way things are manufactured continues to evolve, manufacturing trade shows are keeping pace with that evolution. A perfect example of that can be found at this year’s biennial Heat Treat 2019 (Oct. 15–Oct. 17, COBO Center, Detroit)

379 CNC Milling of Straight and Spiral Bevel Gears (January/February 2019)

Contrary to what appears to be popular belief, 5-axis CNC gear manufacturing is not limited to milling with end mill, ball mill or CoSIMT (Conical Side Milling Tool — it is the generic form of the Sandvik InvoMill and Gleason UpGear tools.) tools, where throughput is too low to prevent production at any significant level. Straight and spiral bevel gear manufacturing on 5-axis CNC machines using face mill cutters provides essentially the same throughput as conventional gear cutting machines — with added benefits.

380 Who Makes the Nails (November/December 2001)

I've been thinking a lot about the importance of manufacturing over the last couple of years, especially as I've watched more and more of it leave our country. We work in an industry that is both economically and strategically vital, but I'm concerned that most Americans do not realize the importance of manufacturing, or what will happen if it continues to dissipate.

381 Opportunity and Obligation (September/October 2003)

I was recently honored by the European Association of Machine Tool Merchants (EAMTM) at the organization's annual meeting this past June in Mallorea, Spain. The organization inducted me as a Fellow, EAMTM's highest honor, bestowed on members who have made significant contributions as volunteers serving the organization, which was originally founded in 1940. I felt especially honored, as I am only the 19th person and the second non-European to have been given this award.

382 Case Study Involving Surface Durability and Improved Surface Finish (August 2012)

Gear tooth wear and micropitting are very difficult phenomena to predict analytically. The failure mode of micropitting is closely correlated to the lambda ratio. Micropitting can be the limiting design parameter for long-term durability. Also, the failure mode of micropitting can progress to wear or macropitting, and then go on to manifest more severe failure modes, such as bending. The results of a gearbox test and manufacturing process development program will be presented to evaluate super-finishing and its impact on micropitting.

383 Undercover Gears (March/April 2002)

Top Secret Code Name: Ginger Mission: Design, prototype and test a transmission for a new device. The transmission must be compact and efficient. It should have almost no backlash, and it must be able to operate in both forward and reverse. Most importantly, the transmission must be quiet. In fact, it shouldn't sound like a transmission at all. It should blend in with the environment and sound like music or the wind. This mission, should you choose to accept it, is top secret. Not even your employees can know what you're working on...

384 A Quick-Start Approach for Implementing Lean in Job Shops (October 2012)

In the August issue, we examined the lean tools that will and will not work in high-mix, low-volume manufacturing facilities. Now, we will examine how to implement the tools that will work in the job shop with an approach that expands the capabilities of value stream mapping.

385 Paying the Tab (June 2009)

The U.S. economy has been out of kilter for some time. But Uncle Sam isn't going to bail you out. You're going to have to do it yourself.

386 Were Your Childhood Memories in HIGH GEAR (July 2007)

Loyal Gear Technology reader and Interstate Castings vice president Greg Bierck came across “High Gear” at a vintage toy store in Indianapolis, IN.

387 To Climb A Mountain, A Railroad Needs Gears (July/August 2003)

Recently, the Addendum team has taken a keen interest in a Swiss mountain. being the Addendum team, we haven't been interested in this rocky, fissured mountain for it natural majesty.

388 What We Learned @IMTS (October 2012)

They only let the Addendum team on the show floor for one day (they said it was something to do with their liability insurance...), but here's what our intrepid team of gear fanatics noticed at IMTS 2012.

389 Optimization of a Process Chain for Gear Shaft Manufacturing (March/April 2013)

The research presented here is part of an ongoing (six years to date) project of the Cluster of Excellence (CoE). CoE is a faculty-wide group of researchers from RWTH Aachen University in Aachen (North Rhine-Westphalia). This presentation is a result of the group’s examination of "integrative production technology for high-wage countries," in which a shaft for a dual-clutch gearbox is developed.

390 Hard Turning Large-Diameter Parts (June 2010)

Fuji's VTP-1000 is designed for highly accurate fine finishing of cylindrical components up to one meter in diameter.

391 Sicmat Releases Raso 200 Dynamic Shaving Machine (November/December 2011)

The Raso 200 Dynamic has been developed to offer all the characteristics of a gear shaving machine with a competitive price.

392 The Global Challenge to America's Engineering and Innovation Position (January/February 2012)

John P. Walter and Abby Dress analyze the challenges facing America's manufacturers to remain competitive in a global environment.

393 Application Examples from "Optimizing Gear Geometry for Minimum Transmission Error, Mesh Friction Losses and Scuffing Risk Through Computer- Aided Engineering" (August 2010)

Examples from gears in wind turbine, automotive and industrial applications.

394 Arrow Gear: Spiral Bevel Specialist (July/August 2003)

James J. Cervinka and Frank E. Pielsticker must've known the future when they named their new business Arrow Gear Co. in 1947. They started out to manufacture gears for hand tools and machine tools, but their business has taken off since then.

395 Technical Calendar (January/February 1989)

March 19-22, 1989. First International Applied Mechanical Systems Design Conference. Convention Center, Nashville, TN. April 25-27, 1989. ASME 5th Annual Power Transmission & Gearing Conference, Chicago, IL

396 The Toys That Make Engineering Noise (May 2019)

Last year, Hot Wheels celebrated its 50th anniversary. While a writing gig in manufacturing and engineering probably sounded surreal to the 8-year-old version of this author, truth be told, he was obsessed with Hot Wheels and Matchbox toys for most of his childhood. Somewhere in a box in the basement there’s a 1967 Camaro and a 1953 Corvette that would still bring a smile to this face.

397 Relationship between Misalignment and Transmission Error in Cross- Axes Helical Gear Assemblies (March/April 2019)

Question: I am a gear engineer for a motor manufacturer in China. I am writing about noise generated from cross-helical gear assembly error. I want to learn the relationship between the misalignment (center distance change and cross-angle shift) and transmission error. It is better under the loading and theory conditions. What is the trend of cross-helical gear development (use ZI worm and involute helical gear, point contact)?

398 Generation of Helical Gears with New Surface Topology by Application of CNC Machines (January/February 1994)

Analysis of helical involute gears by tooth contact analysis shows that such gears are very sensitive to angular misalignment leading to edge contact and the potential for high vibration. A new topology of tooth surfaces of helical gears that enables a favorable bearing contact and a reduced level of vibration is described. Methods for grinding helical gears with the new topology are proposed. A TCA program simulating the meshing and contact of helical gears with the new topology has been developed. Numerical examples that illustrate the proposed ideas are discussed.

399 The Do-It-Yourself Mentality (June 2019)

Finding capable, dependable machinists is one of the great challenges of modern manufacturing. Most gear manufacturers we talk to would hire more machine operators - if only they could find them. They lament the fact that their workforce is getting older and grayer, and they don't know what to do.

400 The Valued Troublesome Employee (September/October 2017)

I'm sure it comes as no surprise that finding skilled people to work in your manufacturing facility is no simple task. But after finding them, and investing in the development of their abilities, what happens when one of them - an employee your company really needs - becomes a troublesome employee? This is among the trickiest situations a manager can face.

401 Delivering The Goods (May/June 1993)

One of the key questions to be answered when exporting is how you are going to get your product to your customer. All the time, effort, and money you've spent to make a sale in the first place can be wasted if the shipment is late, damaged, or lost, or if delivery becomes an expensive bureaucratic nightmare for either you or the buyer.

402 Gear Noise Analysis: Design and Manufacturing Challenges Drive New Solutions for Noise Reduction (July 2019)

Gear noise is among the issues of greatest concern in today's modern gearboxes. Significant research has resulted in the application of enhancements in all phases of gear manufacturing, and the work is ongoing. With the introduction of Electric Vehicles (EV), research and development in this area has surged in recent years. Most importantly, powerful new noise analysis solutions are fast becoming available.

403 Leonardo, the Engineer (January/February 1989)

These lines, interesting enough, are from the notebooks of an artist whose images are part of the basic iconography of Western culture. Even people who have never set foot in a museum and wouldn't know a painting by Corregio from a sculpture by Calder, recognize the Mona Lisa. But Leonardo da Vinci was much more than an artist. He was also a man of science who worked in anatomy, botany, cartography, geology, mathematics, aeronautics, optics, mechanics, astronomy, hydraulics, sonics, civil engineering, weaponry and city planning. There was little in nature that did not interest Leonardo enough to at least make a sketch of it. Much of it became a matter of lifelong study. The breadth of his interests, knowledge, foresight, innovation and imagination is difficult to grasp.

404 Surface Characteristics of Hobbed Gears (July 2017)

Gear hobbing is one of the most productive manufacturing processes for cylindrical gears. The quality of the gears is a result of the tool quality, the precision of the workpiece, tool clamping and kinematics of the machine. The dry gear hobbing process allows machining of gears with a quality according to the DIN standard up to IT 5. To evaluate which gear quality is possible to machine with a given clamping and hob, it is useful to simulate the process in advance.

405 Measuring Left and Right (July 2017)

CMM Inspection vs. GMM Inspection. Speed is the name of the game.

406 Gear Tooth Profile Determination From Arbitrary Rack Geometry (November/December 1988)

This article describes a method of obtaining gear tooth profiles from the geometry of the rack (or hob) that is used to generate the gear. This method works for arbitrary rack geometries, including the case when only a numerical description of the rack is available. Examples of a simple rack, rack with protuberances and a hob with root chamfer are described. The application of this technique to the generation of boundary element meshes for gear tooth strength calculation and the generation of finite element models for the frictional contact analysis of gear pairs is also described.

407 Systematic Approach to Designing Plastic Spur and Helical Gears (November/December 1989)

Plastic gears are being used increasingly in applications, such as printers, cameras, small household appliances, small power tools, instruments, timers, counters and various other products. Because of the many variables involved, an engineer who designs gear trains on an occasional basis may find the design process to be somewhat overwhelming. This article outlines a systematic design approach for developing injection molded plastic spur and helical gears. The use of a computer program for designing plastic gears is introduced as an invaluable design tool for solving complex gearing equations.

408 Getting in Sync (January/February 2019)

Gear skiving is here to stay, and as a result of this industry shift, it’s become paramount to improve how well machining spindles synchronize with each other.

409 Hard Finishing and Fine Finishing Part 2 (November/December 1989)

After shaping or hobbing, the tooth flanks must be either chamfered or duburred. Here it is paramount that the secondary burr produced will not be formed into the flank, but to the face of the gear, because during hardening, the secondary burr will straighten up and, due to its extreme hardness, will lead to excessive tool wear.

410 Full Contact Analysis vs. Standard Load Capacity Calculation for Cylindrical Gears (November/December 2018)

In this paper local tooth contact analysis and standard calculation are used to determine the load capacity for the failure modes pitting, tooth root breakage, micropitting, and tooth flank fracture; analogies and differences between both approaches are shown. An example gearset is introduced to show the optimization potential that arises from using a combination of both methods. Difficulties in combining local approaches with standard methods are indicated. The example calculation demonstrates a valid possibility to optimize the gear design by using local tooth contact analysis while satisfying the requirement of documenting the load carrying capacity by standard calculations.

411 AGMA, ISO, and BS Gear Standards Part II - Pitting Resistance Ratings (January/February 1991)

In Part I differences in pitting ratings between AGMA 218, the draft ISO standard 6336, and BS 436:1986 were examined. In this part bending strength ratings are compared. All the standards base the bending strength on the Lewis equation; the ratings differ in the use and number of modification factors. A comprehensive design survey is carried out to examine practical differences between the rating methods presented in the standards, and the results are shown in graphical form.

412 The Lubrication of Gears - Part II (May/June 1991)

What follows is Part 2 of a three-part article covering the principles of gear lubrication. Part 2 gives an equation for calculating the lubricant film thickness, which determines whether the gears operate in the boundary, elastohydrodynamic, or full-film lubrication regime. An equation for Blok's flash temperature, which is used for predicting the risk of scuffing, is also given.

413 Surface Pitting Fatigue Life of Noninvolute Low-Contact-Ratio Gears (May/June 1991)

Spur gear endurance tests were conducted to investigate the surface pitting fatigue life of noninvolute gears with low numbers of teeth and low contact ratios for the use in advanced application. The results were compared with those for a standard involute design with a low number of teeth. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm (3.50 in.) with 12 teeth on both gear designs. Test conditions were an oil inlet temperature of 320 K (116 degrees F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.49 GPa (216 ksi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The following results were obtained: The noninvolute gear had a surface pitting fatigue life approximately 1.6 times that of the standard involute gear of a similar design. The surface pitting fatigue life of the 3.43-pitch AISI 8620 noninvolute gear was approximately equal to the surface pitting fatigue life of an 8-pitch, 28-tooth AISI 9310 gear at the same load, but at a considerably higher maximum Hertz stress.

414 Viewpoint (November/December 1990)

Dear Editor: Your article on the ITC's Report to the President on the condition of the U.S. gear industry (Sept./Oct. issue) was most interesting. I am wondering if the total report neglected to mention that some of our inability to export gears is due to our reluctance to provide metric countries with the metric module-based gears that overseas customers demand.

415 Applying Process Control to Gear Manufacturing (March/April 1992)

A common goal of gear manufacturers is to produce gearing that is competitively priced, that meets all quality requirements with the minimum amount of cost in a timely manner, and that satisfies customers' expectations. In order to optimize this goal, the gear manufacturer must thoroughly understand each manufacturing process specified, the performance capability of that process, and the effect of that particular process as it relates to the quality of the manufactured gear. If the wrong series of processes has been selected or a specific selected process is not capable of producing a quality part, manufacturing costs are greatly increased.

416 Limitations of Worm and Worm Gear Surfaces in Order to Avoid Undercutting (November/December 1990)

The dimensions of the worm and worm gear tooth surfaces and some of the worm gear drive parameters must be limited in order to avoid gear undercutting and the appearance of the envelope of lines of contact on the worm surface. The author proposes a method for the solution of this problem. The relations between the developed concept and Wildhaber's concept of the limit contact normal are investigated. The results of computations are illustrated with computer graphics.

417 Comparative Load Capacity Evaluation of CBN-Finished Gears (May/June 1990)

Cubic boron nitride (CBN) finishing of carburized gearing has been shown to have certain economic and geometric advantages and, as a result, it has been applied to a wide variety of precision gears in many different applications. In critical applications such as aerospace drive systems, however, any new process must be carefully evaluated before it is used in a production application. Because of the advantages associated with this process, a test program was instituted to evaluate the load capacity of aerospace-quality gears finished by the CBN process as compared to geometrically identical gears finished by conventional grinding processes. This article presents a brief description of the CBN process, its advantages in an aerospace application, and the results of an extensive test program conducted by Boeing Helicopters (BH) aimed at an evaluation of the effects of this process on the scoring, surface durability, and bending fatigue properties of spur gears. In addition, the results of an x-ray diffraction study to determine the surface and subsurface residual stress distributions of both shot-peened and nonshot-peened CBN-ground gears as compared to similar conventionally ground gears are also presented.

418 Bevel Gear Generators Get Better with Age (January/February 2020)

An economical modernization program gives Designatronics' tried-and-true Gleason No. 102 Coniflex generators a new lease on life for fast, reliable production of smaller precision straight bevel gears.

419 Shake, Rattle and Roll (June 2018)

Software Providers Examine the Dynamic Behavior of Gear Noise.

420 2020 State of the Gear Industry (January/February 2020)

Reader Survey Results. Gear Technology's annual State-of-the-Gear-Industry survey polls gear manufacturers about the latest trends and opinions relating to the overall health of the gear industry. As in years past, the survey was conducted anonymously, with invitations sent by e-mail to gear industry companies – primarily in North America, but also including some respondents from around the world.

421 The Marketing Menagerie: What's Right For You (January/February 1991)

You get calls and letters every day from people wanting you to use their ad agency, their direct mail program, their p.r. or marketing firm to promote your business. It seems everyone wants you to spend your money to communicate to your prospects and customers. But what's the best method for you?

422 Gear Quality Inspection: How Good is Yours (June/July 2012)

How well you conduct your inspections can be the difference-maker for securing high-value contracts from your customers. And as with most other segments of the gear industry, inspection continues striving to attain “exact science” status. With that thought in mind, following is a look at the state of gear inspection and what rigorous inspection practices deliver—quality.

423 Trends in Induction Hardening (March/April 2019)

An Interview with Dr. Valery Rudnev, FASM, IFHTSE Fellow, Director of Science & Technology at Inductoheat, Inc.

424 The Sum of Our Fears (November/December 1992)

Last month I attended a meeting in Mexico City sponsored by CIATEQ, a quasi-governmental organization in Mexico, which has as one of its aims the encouragement of the growth of the gear industry in Mexico. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a catalyst among the attendees to form a Mexican equivalent of AGMA and to encourage an alliance with AGMA. Joe Franklin, the Executive Director of AGMA, Bill Boggess, the President, Vice-President Ray Haley, and I were among the few Americans at the meeting.

425 Getting Started in Exporting (March/April 1993)

Exporting. It's one of the hot strategies for helping boost businesses of all kinds, gear manufacturing among them. With domestic markets tight and new markets opening up overseas, exporting seems like a reasonable tactic. But while the pressure is on to sell overseas, there is equal, justifiable concern about whether the move is a good one. Horror stories abound about foreign restrictions, bureaucratic snafus, carloads of paperwork, and the complications and nuances of doing business in other languages and with other cultures.

426 The Road to Reliability (May 2018)

Gear Industry Steps Up to Automation Challenges in Auto Industry. Automotive parts are always moving. They are zipping across conveyors, smashing into each other in bins and traveling across the production chain before ending up inside an automobile. For gears, this can be a somewhat precarious situation as they tend to run best when they're free from nicks, abrasions, cracks or other damages.

427 Surface Roughness Measurements of Cylindrical Gears and Bevel Gears on Gear Inspection Machines (May 2015)

Alongside the macro test parameters on tooth flanks for profile and tooth traces, surface properties (roughness) play a decisive role in ensuring proper toothed gear function. This article addresses roughness measurement systems on tooth flanks. In addition to universal test equipment, modified test equipment based on the profile method for use on gears is addressed in particular. The equipment application here refers to cylindrical gear flanks and bevel gear flanks. The most important roughness parameters, as well as the implementation of the precise measurement procedure will also be described under consideration of the applicable DIN EN ISO standards as well as the current VDI/VDE Directive 2612 Sheet 5.

428 Gear Technology: The Next Ten Years (September/October 1994)

A little more than ten years ago this month, the first Gear Technology came off the presses. It was a fledgling effort in every respect. The gear industry had never a magazine of its very own before. Those of us involved in its production were like first-time parents; we were proud and excited, but unsure of what we'd let ourselves in for. None of us knew if this baby could really fly.

429 Ferrography: A Noninvasive Method to Inspect Your Gears (July/August 2000)

Would you like to be able to see the condition of the gears in your transmissions without having to open the box and physically examine them? There is a way, and not too many people know about it. It's called Wear Particle Analysis, or ferrography, and it is just starting to get noticed.

430 Beginning Gear Training (January/February 1998)

Gearing is a self-training course for teaching the basic fundamentals of gears and gearing to those totally unfamiliar with the subject.

431 New Standards for Large Ring Gears for Mills, Kilns (September 2013)

Methods of examining large ring gear teeth to detect surface breaking discontinuities have often been time-consuming and limited in terms of data collected. Methods such as visual and magnetic particle inspection can miss critical discontinuities. However, a new ASTM international standard provides a more effective method for gear examination using eddy current array, a technology that has been widely used but, until now, not standardized.

432 AGMA and ISO Accuracy Standards (May/June 1998)

The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to write all U.S. standards on gearing. However, in response to the growing interest in a global marketplace, AGMA became involved with the International Standards Organization (ISO) several years ago, first as an observer in the late 1970s and then as a participant, starting in the early 1980s. In 1993, AGMA became Secretariat (or administrator) for Technical Committee 60 of ISO, which administers ISO gear standards development.

433 Wanted, Custom-Made Machine Tools (August 2013)

The machine tool industry is as competitive as ever. New machine technologies, materials, coatings and software upgrades are changing the way gears are being manufactured. Companies like Gleason, Liebherr, Kapp/Niles and DMG/Mori Seiki spend plenty of time and resources on R&D to develop the best products for the gear market. More importantly, these companies engage with (and listen to) customer requests.

434 Job Shop Lean - Assembly (May 2013)

The Tiger Team from Hoerbiger looks for ways to cut waste and improve throughput in the company's assembly cell.

435 How to Conduct a Heat Treat Audit (March/April 2013)

Audits of the heat treating department are a vital part of any good quality program - either as part of a self-assessment or ISO program for a captive shop or - of equal importance - as part of an evaluation of the capabilities of a commercial heat treat supplier. In either case, the audit process needs to be formal in nature and follow specific guidelines.

436 Specifying Custom Gears (May/June 1999)

Gear design and specification are not one and the same. They are the first two steps in making a gear. The designer sits down and mathematically defines the gear tooth, working with the base pitch of the gear, the pressure angle he wants to employ, the number of teeth he wants, the lead, the tooth thickness, and the outside, form and root diameters. With these data, the designer can create a mathematical model of the gear. At this stage, he will also decide whether the gear will be made from existing cutting tools or whether new tools will be needed, what kind of materials he will use, and whether or not he will have the gear heat treated and finished.

437 IMTS 2012 Events, Conferences and Some Just Plain Fun (September 2012)

IMTS exists primarily as a buy-and-sell North American venue for practically every conceivable technology used in manufacturing, and in that regard it has no equal. There you’ll find on display the latest and greatest technology, from hardware to software and everything in between. But anyone who has attended past shows is aware that IMTS is much more than that. Following is a rundown of "extracurricular" activities you’ll find waiting for your edification and enjoyment.

438 Shades of Gray (July/August 2003)

In America and most parts of the world, people are looking for answers about what's going to happen next in the manufacturing economy. We're all looking for evidence that better times are ahead, or at least that the worst is over. We crave a clear indicator, something that shows us in black and white that the situation is going to get better.

439 The Design and Testing of a Low Noise Marine Gear (May/June 2000)

This article offers an overview of the practical design of a naval gear for combined diesel or gas turbine propulsion (CODOG type). The vibration performance of the gear is tested in a back-to-back test. The gear presented is a low noise design for the Royal Dutch Navy's LCF Frigate. The design aspects for low noise operation were incorporated into the overall gear system design. Therefore, special attention was paid to all the parameters that could influence the noise and vibration performance of the gearbox. These design aspects, such as tooth corrections, tooth loading, gear layout, balance, lubrication and resilient mounting, will be discussed.

440 Determining Lead Error on a Crowned Pinion (July/August 2000)

Q&A is your interactive gear forum.

441 A Mechanically Marvelous Sea Saga (September 2013)

In the summer of 1974, long before Argo, there was “AZORIAN” -- the code name for a CIA gambit to recover cargo entombed in a sunken Soviet submarine -- the K-129 -- from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. The challenge: exhume -- intact -- a 2,000-ton submarine and its suspicious cargo from 17,000 feet of water.

442 Gear Rhymes (September/October 2000)

We'd like to thank our friends down at Sanderson Brothers Pty. Ltd., Thomastown, Australia, for bringing the work of Capt. S. Bramley-Moore to our attention. So, without further ado, we offer you the following poem to help you keep your gear formulae straight.

443 The Two-Sided-Ground Bevel Cutting Tool (May/June 2003)

In the past, the blades of universal face hobbing cutters had to be resharpened on three faces. Those three faces formed the active part of the blade. In face hobbing, the effective cutting direction changes dramatically with respect to the shank of the blade. Depending on the individual ratio, it was found that optimal conditions for the chip removal action (side rake, side relief and hook angle) could just be established by adjusting all major parameters independently. This, in turn, results automatically in the need for the grinding or resharpening of the front face and the two relief surfaces in order to control side rake, hook angle and the relief and the relief angles of the cutting and clearance side.

444 Gear Museum Road Trip (March/April 2003)

What's the perfect vacation destination for a gear aficionado? Aspen? Too trendy. Miami? Too humid. For a true machinery enthusiast, the perfect vacation is a gear museum road trip.

445 Performance Analysis of Hypoid Gears by Tooth Flank Form Measurement (July/August 2002)

The traditional way of controlling the quality of hypoid gears' tooth flank form is to check the tooth flank contact patterns. But it is not easy to exactly judge the tooth flank form quality by the contact pattern. In recent years, it has become possible to accurately measure the tooth flank form of hypoid gears by the point-to-point measuring method and the scanning measuring method. But the uses of measured data of the tooth flank form for hypoid gears have not yet been well developed in comparison with cylindrical involute gears. In this paper, the tooth flank form measurement of generated face-milled gears, face-hobbed gears and formulate/generated gears are reported. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of scanning and point-to-point measuring of 3-D tooth flank forms of hypoid gears and introduce some examples of uses of measured data for high-quality production and performance prediction.

446 3-D Finite Element Analysis of Long-Fiber Reinforced Composite Spur Gears (March/April 2002)

This article describes a method and a computer program that were developed for 3-D finite element analysis of long-fiber reinforced composite spur gears, in which long fibers are arranged along tooth profiles. For such a structure, the gear is composed of two regions; namely the long fiber reinforced and the chopped-fiber reinforced regions.

447 Failures of Bevel-Helical Gear Units on Traveling Bridge Cranes (November/December 2000)

Bridge cranes are among the most useful machines in many branches of modern industry. Using standard hooks or other specialized clamping devices, they can lift, transport, discharge, and stack a variety of loads.

448 Old World Expertise (November/December 2000)

Dear Editor, I am writing this in response to some articles appearing in your journal, but I want to take the opportunity, also, to express my thanks for all the good work your publication is doing. I always look forward to your next issue being in my mail slot. I know I will find timely technical articles relevant to our manufacturing situation here at Amarillo Gear Co., as well as thought provoking commentary on events and trends affecting our business. The Publisher's Page is always worth the reading.

449 Hidden Runout (September/October 2001)

Q&A is an interactive gear forum. Send us your gear design, manufacturing, inspection or other related questions, and we will pass them to our panel of experts.

450 Face Gears: An Interesting Alternative for Special Applications - Calculation, Production and Use (September/October 2001)

Crown gearings are not a new type of gear system. On the contrary, they have been in use since very early times for various tasks. Their earliest form is that of the driving sprocket, found in ancient Roman watermills or Dutch windmills. The first principles of gear geometry and simple methods of production (shaper cutting) were developed in the 1940s. In the 1950s, however, crown gears' importance declined. Their tasks were, for example, taken over by bevel gears, which were easier to manufacture and could transmit greater power. Current subject literature accordingly contains very little information on crown gears, directed mainly to pointing out their limitations (Ref. 1).

451 Puzzling Together A Gear Pioneer (September/October 2001)

The Dictionary of American Biography describes him as "one of the founders of the gear-cutting industry in the United State." He built the first hobbing machine for cutting spur gears. He founded the companies that are now Boston Gear and Philadelphia Gear Corp.

452 Measuring Base Helix Error on a Sine Bar (July/August 2001)

Base helix error - the resultant of lead and profile errors is the measured deviation from the theoretical line of contact (Fig. 1). It can be measured in the same way that lead error on a spur gear is measured, namely, by setting a height gage to height H based on the radial distance r to a specified line of contact (Fig. 2), rotating the gear so as to bring a tooth into contact with the indicator on the height gage, and then moving the height gage along two or more normals to the plane of action. The theoretical line of contact on helical gear must be parallel to the surface plate, which is attained by mounting the gear on a sine bar (Fig. 3).

453 Siemens Has Georgia Schools on its Mind (September 2013)

Siemens is helping the state of Georgia's STEM initiative by helping develop educational programs for the public schools.

454 Minimal Tooth Number of Flexspline in Harmonic Gear Drive with External Wave Generator (October 2013)

Wave generators are located inside of flexsplines in most harmonic gear drive devices. Because the teeth on the wheel rim of the flexspline are distributed radially, there is a bigger stress concentration on the tooth root of the flexspline meshing with a circular spline, where a fatigue fracture is more likely to occur under the alternating force exerted by the wave generator. The authors' solution to this problem is to place the wave generator outside of the flexspline, which is a scheme named harmonic gear drive (HGD) with external wave generator (EWG).

455 Helical Gear Systems (August 2016)

In terms of the tooth thickness, should we use the formulation with respect to normal or transverse coordinate system? When normalizing this thickness in order to normalize the backlash (backlash parameter), we should divide by the circular pitch. Thus, when normalizing, should this circular pitch be defined in the normal or traverse coordinate system, depending on which formulation has been used? Is the backlash parameter always defined with respect to the tangential plane or normal plane for helical gears?

456 Rebuilding a Metrology Infrastructure (January/February 1996)

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) announced at Gear Expo '95 that a national service for the calibration of involute artifacts is now available at the Department of Energy's Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN.

457 Mobilizing Microgears (July 2016)

We've been in the business of making things small and portable for a long time. But when it comes to shrinking things down, a team of scientists from Germany, Italy and Spain led by Roberto Di Leonardo decided to go big.

458 Long-Life, Low-cost, Near-Net-Shape forged Gears (May/June 1995)

Near-net gear forging today is producing longer life gears at significantly lower costs than traditional manufacturing techniques. Advances in forging equipment, controls and die-making capability have been combined to produce commercially viable near-net-shape gears in diameters up to 17" with minimum stock allowances. These forged gears require only minimal finishing to meet part tolerance specifications.

459 Noise Reduction in an EV Hub Drive Using a Full Test and Simulation Methodology (May 2016)

With the ongoing push towards electric vehicles (EVs), there is likely to be increasing focus on the noise impact of the gearing required for the transmission of power from the (high-speed) electric motor to the road. Understanding automotive noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) and methodologies for total in-vehicle noise presupposes relatively large, internal combustion (IC) contributions, compared to gear noise. Further, it may be advantageous to run the electric motors at significantly higher rotational speed than conventional automotive IC engines, sending geartrains into yet higher speed ranges. Thus the move to EV or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) places greater or different demands on geartrain noise. This work combines both a traditional NVH approach (in-vehicle and rig noise, waterfall plots, Campbell diagrams and Fourier analysis) - with highly detailed transmission error measurement and simulation of the complete drivetrain - to fully understand noise sources within an EV hub drive. A detailed methodology is presented, combining both a full series of tests and advanced simulation to troubleshoot and optimize an EV hub drive for noise reduction.

460 A Gear is a Gear is a Gear, Except When it Isnt (August 2015)

Look at that picture right over there on the right. That’s one of the Bronze Wheels of Peru. Looks like a gear, doesn’t it? If you knew nothing about it or the culture it sprang from and just happened to see it on the street, you’d probably label it as such. So many people have had that same thought, in fact, that the set has picked up another name: the Bronze Gears of Peru.

461 The Shape of Things to Come (July/August 1995)

An engineer's responsibility for verifying a new design or product concept as manufacturable early in the development cycle is a tough challenge. What appears to work on a blueprint or in a three-dimensional CAD file on a computer screen many not work on the factory floor; and the downstream impact on the manufacturing process of an undetected design flaw can be enormous. Costs can run into the millions.

462 Hypoid Gears with Involute Teeth (May 2015)

This paper presents the geometric design of hypoid gears with involute gear teeth. An overview of face cutting techniques prevalent in hypoid gear fabrication is presented. Next, the specification of a planar involute rack is reviewed. This rack is used to define a variable diameter cutter based upon a system of cylindroidal coordinates; thus, a cursory presentation of cylindroidal coordinates is included. A mapping transforms the planar involute rack into a variable diameter cutter using the cylindroidal coordinates. Hypoid gears are based on the envelope of this cutter. A hypoid gear set is presented based on an automotive rear axle.

463 Gear Expo 95: Bigger and Better (September/October 1995)

Gear Expo '95, scheduled for November 12-15 at the Indiana Convention center in Indianapolis, IN, will attract more exhibitors from a wider array of industries than any previous show, according to the show's sponsor, the American Gear Manufacturers Association.

464 Solving the Forgings Paradox (March/April 2015)

The process of forging metal into shapes possesses a surprisingly long and storied history. For example, the method of hot rolling can trace its protracted existence all the way back to an enigmatic Italian polymath named Leonardo da Vinci (you may have heard of him), who reportedly invented the rolling mill one lazy day in the 1400s.

465 No Time Like The Present (January/February 1996)

There's nothing like a new year - with the possible exception of birthdays ending in zero - to remind one of the passage of time. Keeping track of time has always been part of the brief of the gear engineer. One of the earliest gear assemblies is the remains of the Antikythera machine, a calendar/calculator dating from the first century B.C. Until the industrial revolution, clock makers and gear designers were usually the same people.

466 Plan Ahead (January/February 1996)

Indianapolis is a nice city. No. It's a great city for a convention. The facilities and the city are modern, clean and bright. The Convention Center is easy to get to by either car or plane, and its central location in the heart of town and the enclosed skyway system between it and major hotels put visitors close to amenities like restaurants, shopping and entertainment. The people are friendly and go out of their way to make visitors feel welcome.

467 Robots are a Mans best Friend (January/February 2015)

Pretty much everyone old enough to utter the familiar, dual syllabic refrain of “beep boop” in the electro-mechanical, monotone pitch from every sci-fi movie ever made has the same idea of what a robot looks likes.

468 The Effect of Metallurgy on the Performance of Carburized Gears (March/April 1996)

Gears are designed to be manufactured, processed and used without failure throughout the design life of the gear. One of INFAC's objectives (*see p.24) is to help manufacture of gears to optimize performance and life. One way to achieve this is to identify failure mechanisms and then devise strategies to overcome them by modifying the manufacturing parameters.

469 Practical Considerations for the Use of Double-Flank Testing for the Manufacturing Control of Gearing - Part I (January/February 2014)

Part I of this paper describes the theory behind double-flank composite inspection, detailing the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. Part II, which will appear in the next issue, includes a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection, especially for large-volume operations. Part II covers statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.

470 Cylkro Gears: An Alternative in Mechanical Power Transmission (May/June 1996)

Bevel gears have been the standard for several decades in situations where power transmission has to occur between shafts mounted at a given angle. Now a new approach has been developed that challenges the bevel gear's de facto monopoly in such applications. The concept is based on the principle of the crown gear; i.e., a cylindrical pinion mates with a face gear. Crown Gear B.V. in Enschede, Holland, is the developer of these specialty gear teeth, which are marketed under the trade name Cylkro.

471 Cutting Tools Now (May/June 1996)

The cutting tool is basic to gear manufacturing. Whether it's a hob, broach, shaper cutter or EDM wire, not much gets done without it. And the mission of the tool remains the same as always; removing material as quickly, accurately and cost-effectively as possible. Progress in the field tends to be evolutionary, coming gradually over time, but recently, a confluence of emerging technologies and new customer demands has caused significant changes in the machines, the materials and the coatings that make cutting tools.

472 Getting the Right Tools (September/October 2014)

So there is little chance that they need the same software to assist with their work. Gone are the days when companies wrote their own code and process engineers thumbed the same tattered reference book.

473 geartechnology.com And Other Adventures (July/August 1996)

You've been reading about it, talking about it, maybe even trying it. Gear Technology has jumped aboard it feet first and begun a voyage on the World Wide Web. Beginning with this issue, an electronic version of the magazine will be online. For those of us who still find the fax machine amazing technology, this is a great leap.

474 Cracking the WIP (September/October 2014)

Over the past few months I've talked with several different gear manufacturers who are in the process of upgrading their gear making equipment with modern CNC machine tools. Each of these manufacturers has come to the realization that in order to stay competitive, he needs to streamline operations and become more efficient...

475 First International Involute Gear Comparison (August 2014)

Measurement institutions of seven different countries — China, Germany, Japan, Thailand, Ukraine, United Kingdom and the U.S. — participated in the implementation of the first international comparison of involute gear measurement standards. The German metrology institute Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) was chosen as the pilot laboratory as well as the organizer. Three typical involute gear measurement standards provided by the PTB were deployed for this comparison: a profile, a helix and a pitch measurement standard. In the final analysis, of the results obtained from all participants, the weighted mean was evaluated as reference value for all 28 measured parameters. However, besides the measurement standards, the measured parameters, and, most importantly, some of the comparison results from all participants are anonymously presented. Furthermore, mishandling of the measurement standards as occurred during the comparison will be illustrated.

476 IMTS 2014: This is Big (August 2014)

Here's everything you need to know about IMTS 2014, including an interview with Peter Eelman, AMT's VP of Exhibitions and Communications.

477 Inreasing Hardness Through Cryogenics (March/April 1997)

The Instrumented Factory for Gears (INFAC) conducted a metallurgical experiment that examined the effects of carburizing process variables and types of cryogenic treatments in modifying the microstructure of the material. The initial experiment was designed so that, following the carburizing cycles, the same test coupons could be used in future experiment.

478 Induction Heat Trating: Things Remembered, Things Forgotten (March/April 1997)

Many potential problems are not apparent when using new induction heat treating systems. The operator has been trained properly, and setup parameters are already developed. Everything is fresh in one's mind. But as the equipment ages, personnel changes or new parts are required to be processed on the old equipment ages, personnel changes or new parts are required to b processed on the old equipment, important information can get lost in the shuffle.

479 Gear Ratio Epicyclic Drives Analysis (June 2014)

It has been documented that epicyclic gear stages provide high load capacity and compactness to gear drives. This paper will focus on analysis and design of epicyclic gear arrangements that provide extremely high gear ratios. Indeed, a special, two-stage planetary arrangement may utilize a gear ratio of over one hundred thousand to one. This paper presents an analysis of such uncommon gear drive arrangements and defines their major parameters, limitations, and gear ratio maximization approaches. It also demonstrates numerical examples, existing designs, and potential applications.

480 Power Skiving of Cylindrical Gears on Different Machine Platforms (January/February 2014)

It has long been known that the skiving process for machining internal gears is multiple times faster than shaping, and more flexible than broaching, due to skiving's continuous chip removal capability. However, skiving has always presented a challenge to machines and tools. With the relatively low dynamic stiffness in the gear trains of mechanical machines, as well as the fast wear of uncoated cutters, skiving of cylindrical gears never achieved acceptance in shaping or hobbing, until recently.

481 Viewpoint (November/December 1988)

Eliot K. Buckingham explains the procedure for proper measurement over wires for worm gears, in response to last issue's article.

482 Measurement of Directly Designed Gears with Symmetric and Asymmetric Teeth (January/February 2011)

In comparison with the traditional gear design approach based on preselected, typically standard generating rack parameters, the Direct Gear Design method provides certain advantages for custom high-performance gear drives that include: increased load capacity, efficiency and lifetime; reduced size, weight, noise, vibrations, cost, etc. However, manufacturing such directly designed gears requires not only custom tooling, but also customization of the gear measurement methodology. This paper presents definitions of main inspection dimensions and parameters for directly designed spur and helical, external and internal gears with symmetric and asymmetric teeth.

483 Notes From the Editors Desk (September/October 1985)

While on holiday in England during July, my thoughts for this page were on the proposed changes to our tax law, and how they would adversely affect America's industry. But with the President undergoing cancer surgery, Congress deadlocked on deficit reduction and the budget on the back burner, nothing new was being said or done regarding a new tax law

484 Reflections (May/June 2004)

When a man looks into a mirror, the image reflects who he is today. But it also reveals who he used to be. Although appearances change, many of the underlying characteristics remain the same. The same is true with Gear Technology, as we celebrate our 20th anniversary and reflect on who we are.

485 Celebrations & Expectations (May/June 1999)

When you're 15, you're filled with confidence and exuberance, and you have a future full of potential and room for growth. You're ready to take on the world. Gear Technology began publishing exactly 15 year ago, with the May/June 1984 issue, and the magazine has grown in many ways since then.

486 Hypoloid Gear with Small Shaft Angles and Zero-to-Large Offsets (November/December 2009)

Beveloid gears are used to accommodate a small shaft angle. The manufacturing technology used for beveloid gearing is a special setup of cylindrical gear cutting and grinding machines. A new development, the so-called Hypoloid gearing, addresses the desire of gear manufacturers for more freedoms. Hypoloid gear sets can realize shaft angles between zero and 20° and at the same time, allow a second shaft angle (or an offset) in space that provides the freedom to connect two points in space.

487 Honk if You Love Gears (March/April 2009)

The Addendum Team announces plans for the Gear Vanity Plate Hall of Fame.

488 Basic Honing & Advanced Free-Form Honing (July/August 1997)

Rotary gear honing is a crossed-axis, fine, hard finishing process that uses pressure and abrasive honing tools to remove material along the tooth flanks in order to improve the surface finish (.1-.3 um or 4-12u"Ra), to remove nicks and burrs and to change or correct the tooth geometry. Ultimately, the end results are quieter, stronger and longer lasting gears.

489 Down By The Old Mill Stream (March/April 1997)

Back in the days when our great, great, great, etc., grandaddies were designing gears, one of the most common materials in use was wood. For fairly obvious reasons, we don't see too many wooden gears around anymore. But there are a few.

490 Point-Surface-Origin Macropitting Caused by Geometric Stress Concentration (January/February 2011)

Point-surface-origin (PSO) macropitting occurs at sites of geometric stress concentration (GSC) such as discontinuities in the gear tooth profile caused by micropitting, cusps at the intersection of the involute profile and the trochoidal root fillet, and at edges of prior tooth damage, such as tip-to-root interference. When the profile modifications in the form of tip relief, root relief, or both, are inadequate to compensate for deflection of the gear mesh, tip-to-root interference occurs. The interference can occur at either end of the path of contact, but the damage is usually more severe near the start-of-active-profile (SAP) of the driving gear.

491 Hard Coatings on Contaminated Surfaces - A Case Study (January/February 1997)

Physical Vapor Deposited (PVD) coatings such as TiN (Titanium nitride) have been a boon for cutting tool manufacturers. They reduce wear and, therefore, extend tool life, which in turn reduces production costs. But PVD coatings are expensive, and when they fail, they cost both time and money, and they causes of the failure are not always readily apparent.

492 The Process of Gear Shaving (January/February 1986)

Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process can also improve tooth surface finish and eliminate, by crowned tooth forms, the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service. Shaving provides for form modifications that reduce gear noise. These modifications can also increase the gear's load carrying capacity, its factor of safety and its service life.

493 Understanding Fluid Flow to Improve Lubrication Efficiency (January/February 2004)

Excess lubricant supply in gearing contributes to power loss due to churning as well as the requirements of the lubrication system itself. Normally, a much larger amount of oil than required is used for cooling because so much of it is thrown away by centrifugal force. To lower the amount of lubricant required and reduce those losses, it is necessary to discover the ideal location of the supplying nozzle.

494 Reaching Out (March/April 2011)

Publisher Michael Goldstein describes the success of Gear Technology's new e-mail newsletter programs.

495 AGMA & MPIF Develop Standards, Information Sheet for Powder Metal Gears (September/October 1996)

AGMA and members of the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) are three years into a joint project to develop specifications and an information sheet on rating powder metal gears. According to committee vice chairman Glen A. Moore of Burgess-Norton Mfg. Co., the first phase of the project, the publication of AGMA Standard "6009-AXX, Specifications for Powder Metallurgy Gears," should be completed in late 1996 or early 1997.

496 Inspection Focus News & Technology (July/August 2000)

This section is dedicated to what's new and what's happening in the world of gear inspection and metrology. Here you will find news about products, companies and organizations, services and events affecting the gear inspection and metrology industry.

497 Noise Reduction in Plastic & Powder Metal Gear Sets (July/August 1996)

The data discussed in this article was taken from an upright vacuum cleaner. This was a prototype cleaner that was self-propelled by a geared transmission. It was the first time that the manufacturer had used a geared transmission in this application.

498 Effect of Web & Flange Thickness on Nonmetallic Gear Performance (November/December 1995)

Gears are manufactured with thin rims for several reasons. Steel gears are manufactured with thin rims and webs where low weight is important. Nonmetallic gears, manufactured by injection molding, are designed with thin rims as part of the general design rule to maintain uniform thickness to ensure even post-mold cooling. When a thin-rimmed gear fails, the fracture is thought the root of the gear, as shown in Fig. 1a, rather than the usual fillet failure shown in Fig. 1b.

499 Peter Kozma of Liebherr-America, Inc. (September/October 1995)

Peter Kozma, executive vice president of Liebherr-America, Inc., talks with us about Liebherr and its partners in the Sigma Pool.

500 Comparison of Surface Durability & Dynamic Performance of Powder Metal & Steel Gears (September/October 1995)

Surface-hardened, sintered powder metal gears are increasingly used in power transmissions to reduce the cost of gear production. One important problem is how to design with surface durability, given the porous nature of sintered gears. Many articles have been written about mechanical characteristics, such as tensile and bending strength, of sintered materials, and it is well-known that the pores existing on and below their surfaces affect their characteristics (Refs. 1-3). Power transmission gears are frequently employed under conditions of high speed and high load, and tooth surfaces are in contact with each other under a sliding-rolling contact condition. Therefore it is necessary to consider not only their mechanical, but also their tribological characteristics when designing sintered gears for surface durability.

501 George Wyss & Dennis Richmond of Reishauer Corporation (July/August 1995)

For this interview, we spoke with George Wyss, president, and Dennis Richmond, vice president of Reishauer Corporation about gear grinding and its place in gear manufacturing today.

502 Dennis Gimpert of Koepfer America (March/April 1995)

This is the second in our series of interviews with the leaders in the gear industry. This interview is with Dennis Gimpert, president of Koepfer America, South Elgin, IL.

503 Getting With The Program (May/June 1994)

Getting and keeping a work force capable of meeting the demands of the 21st century is one of the key challenges most U.S. manufacturers face today. That's not even news anymore. I - and others - have been talking about it in editorials and speeches for ten years now. It's also not news that the job is a tough one and that industry-wide response often has not been particularly effective.

504 Environmentally Safe Fluids for Industrial Cutting, Lubrication, & Cleaning (January/February 1993)

Not long ago, many manufacturing managers thought sensitivity to environmental protection standards meant additional expenses, decreased productivity, and a plethora of headaches and hassles.

505 Line of Action: Concepts & Calculations (January/February 1993)

In the past gear manufacturers have had to rely on hob manufacturers' inspection of individual elements of a hob, such as lead, involute, spacing, and runout. These did not always guarantee correct gears, as contained elements may cause a hob to produce gears beyond tolerance limits.

506 GT Advertisers Among the Hundreds at IMTS 92 (September/October 1992)

8 Gear Technology advertisers will have booths at IMTS 92, the largest trade show in the Western Hemisphere. The show opens in Chicago on Sept. 9 and runs through the 17th. More than 800 companies from around the world will cover some 931,000 sq. ft. of exhibit space to show the latest manufacturing technology - everything from forming and fabrication products to environmental and plant safety equipment.

507 Investing in Ourselves is the Key to Revitalizing American Manufacturing (July/August 1992)

Popular wisdom has it that manufacturing in the United States is no longer a viable entity. We are told that quality is poor, skilled labor is difficult to obtain, if not impossible, demand is low, and the government is helping to discourage business. So what should we do, give up?

508 The Words and Wisdom of Sheldon Gear Ratio Brown (August 2010)

Bicyclophiles (OK—not a real word, but you get the idea) around the globe may very well know the name, but chances are good that most Gear Technology readers have never heard of Sheldon Brown, AKA—“Gear Ratio,” “Gain Ratio,” “Mouldy Oldie,” “Theory,” “Quixote,” “Fixit” and some the Addendum team probably missed.

509 Loopy Logo or Symbolically Superior (June 2009)

Have you seen the newly created logo symbolozing the scope of President Obama's $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act?

510 Editorial (May/June 1984)

Over the years, we have traveled extensively throughout the industrialized world, and became increasingly aware of the availability of enormous amounts of technical writing concerning research, experiments, and techniques in the gear manufacturing field. New manufacturing methods, materials, and machines were continuously being developed, but the technical information about them was not readily available to those that could best use it. There was no central source for disseminating this knowledge.

511 2007 Holiday Buyers Guide (November/December 2007)

We love gears. We love talking about gears, writing about gears and examining gears. If you’re reading this cover to cover, it’s a safe bet you feel the same way. We also love collecting information for Gear Technology’s holiday buyer's guide. Call us sentimental.

512 Thanks, Team! (July 2020)

It takes a lot to put together a magazine like this one, issue after issue. There are articles to edit, materials to gather, production to coordinate, layouts to develop, subscriptions to enter and much, much more.

513 Analyzing Bevel Gear Damage Prediction Over Operating Life (March/April 2020)

FVA software offers simulation and calculation of transmission systems.

514 Design Parameters for Spline Connections (September/October 2019)

This article provides a guideline for the selection of a suitable standard in connection with the kind of spline to be designed and manufactured. Some basic formulae have been explained, together with a strategy on how to find standard tooling by calculating an appropriate profile shift factor for the spline to be designed.

515 Cutting Tool Dynamics (May 2019)

Meeting Today’s Requirements for High-Quality Gears

516 Fluid Fundamentals (March/April 2019)

PSP Peugeot Improves Production Process with Blaser Swisslube

517 What's In a Name (March/April 2019)

As most of you know by now, the trade show formerly known as Gear Expo is now the Motion + Power Technology Expo. If you're a gear-industry veteran, you might be confused by this change. If you've been coming to the show for years - or exhibiting at it - you might even feel a little betrayed. But I'm here to tell you it's going to be alright.

518 Most Famous Gear in Motown (September/October 2016)

It's hard for me to think of a massive Christmas exhibit as being the fifth largest tourist attraction in the entire country. I mean, sure, it's still a tradition to show up at the local Macy's to check out the Christmas decorations, but for my generation, the idea that a Christmas exhibit could draw out 1.5 million visitors, more tourists than either Yellowstone Park or the Statue of Liberty received, is stunning. But at the height of its popularity, that's exactly what the Ford Rotunda was.

519 Crossword (September/October 2005)

A gear lover's crossword puzzle, courtesy of the Addendum team.

520 Fundamental Study of Detection of Plastic Gear Failure Signs (March/April 2015)

This paper proposes a new method — using neural oscillators — for filtering out background vibration noise in meshing plastic gear pairs in the detection of signs of gear failure. In this paper these unnecessary frequency components are eliminated with a feed-forward control system in which the neural oscillator’s synchronization property works. Each neural oscillator is designed to tune the natural frequency to a particular one of the components.

521 Keeping it in the Family (November/December 2014)

In this online-only exclusive, we present a profile of Jones Welding Company.

522 2015: MORE OF THE SAME (November/December 2014)

From a technological perspective, there typically aren't many EUREKA! breakthroughs in the "state of the gear industry" to report, and 2014 was really no different.

523 Parallel Axis Gear Grinding: Theory & Application (November/December 2000)

The goal of gear drive design is to transit power and motion with constant angular velocity. Current trends in gear drive design require greater load carrying capacity and increased service life in smaller, quieter, more efficient gearboxes. Generally, these goals are met by specifying more accurate gears. This, combined with the availability of user-friendly CNC gear grinding equipment, has increased the use of ground gears.

524 Leading by Example - Remember When (September/October 2014)

In January of this year we at Gear Technology got hip to the fact-in un-hip, belated fashion - that we needed a Blog Site and someone to do the blogging. Lucky for us, we already had that someone right here - in plain sight. That someone was Charles D. Schultz, P.E.

525 America Needs a Different Kind of Candidate (September 2012)

The two candidates in the upcoming presidential election offer two distinctly different approaches to solving America’s economic problems -- neither of which is likely to be successful

526 IMTS - North America's Show of Shows (August 2012)

We talked with a number of major companies in the midst of their planning and strategizing for IMTS 2012, with the thought of determining just how much things have in fact changed for exhibitors regarding the trade show experience.

527 Innovative Analysis and Documentation of Gear Test Results (September/October 2008)

In this paper, a method is presented for analyzing and documenting the pitting failure of spur and helical gears through digital photography and automatic computerized evaluation of the damaged tooth fl ank surface. The authors have developed an accurate, cost-effective testing procedure that provides an alternative to vibration analysis or oil debris methods commonly used in conjunction with similar test-rig programs.

528 How's Your Lead Time (July 2007)

The gear companies enjoying the most success in today’s global market are those that firmly believe quality is much more than expert craftsmanship and foolproof inspection methodologies.

529 Fundamentals of Gears and Gear Manufacturing (March/April 2003)

Video Review for March/April 2003.

530 Design Robustness and it Effect on Transmission Error and Other Design Parameters (March/April 2003)

Transmission errors, axial shuttling forces and friction result in bearing forces that serve as the major excitations of gear noise. This paper will use these factors as well as gear stresses and tribological factors to assist in obtaining optimal gear designs.

531 Carburizing of Big Module and Large Diameter Gears (September/October 2002)

Carburized gears have higher strengths and longer lives compared with induction-hardened or quench-tempered gears. But in big module gears, carburizing heat-treatment becomes time-consuming and expensive and sometimes cannot achieve good hardness due to the big mass-effect. Also, it is not easy to reduce distortion of gears during heat treatment.

532 The Counterfeit Culture: Fake Products and Parts Present Global Market Challenges (May 2010)

It’s happened to most manufacturers at one point or another. A defective product comes back from a customer in need of repair. Perhaps a bearing or a gear drive has failed, and the customer simply needs a replacement. Upon further examination, the company realizes it was never one of its products in the first place, but a fabricated copy that snuck into the market. The manufacturing community has been dealing with counterfeit products for decades, but used machinery dealers and Internet shoppers seem to continuously get hit by scam artists.

533 The Gear Analysis Handbook by James L. Taylor Vibration Consultants Inc. (January/February 2002)

The author has written this book primarily from the viewpoint of analyzing vibrations on heavy industrial and mill gearing that may have been in service for a prolonged time. The purpose is to diagnose problems, especially the source or cause of failure. However, the principles and analysis techniques can be used for all types and sizes of gears, as well as for gear noise analysis.

534 aMAZEing Gear Design (July/August 2001)

Addendum

535 The New Now: U.S. Workforce Sustainability (March/April 2012)

Faithful Addendum readers are accustomed to finding upbeat, whimsical and oddball stories about gears in this space. What follows is not about gears, exactly. Rather, it is, as opposed to the usual bleak news about America losing its manufacturing mojo—a look at a positive, hopeful development in that regard.

536 Choosing An ISO 9000 Consultant: Why, When & How (May/June 1994)

On of the key questions confronting any company considering ISO 9000 certification is, how much is this going to cost? The up-front fees are only the beginning. Dissect the ISO 9000 certification procedure with an eye for hidden costs, and two segments of the process will leap out - the cost of consultants and the cost of making in-house improvements for the sake of passing certification. Most of these costs can be controlled by careful selection f the right consultant in the first place.

537 SPC Acceptance of Hobbing & Shaping Machines (September/October 1991)

Today, as part of filling a typical gear hobbing or shaping machine order, engineers are required to perform an SPC acceptance test. This SPC test, while it is contractually necessary for machine acceptance, is not a machine acceptance test. It is a process capability test. It is an acceptance of the machine, cutting tool, workholding fixture, and workpiece as integrated on the cutting machine, using a gear measuring machine, with its work arbor and evaluation software, to measure the acceptance elements of the workpiece.

538 Good Gears Start With Good Blanks (November/December 1987)

The quality of the finished gear is influenced by the very first machining operations of the blank. Since the gear tooth geometry is generated on a continuously rotating blank in hobbing or shaping, it is important that the timed relationship between the cutter and workpiece is correct. If this relationship is disturbed by eccentricities of the blank to its operating centerline, the generated gear teeth will not be of the correct geometry. During the blanking operations, the gear's centerline and locating surfaces are established and must be maintained as the same through the following operations that generate the gear teeth.

539 New Energy - Same Challenges (January/February 2012)

Uncertainty casts a shadow over future business opportunities for manufacturers serving the new energy markets.

540 Beveloid & Hypoloid Gears (May 2011)

Beveloids are helical gears with nonparallel shafts, with shaft angles generally between 5 degrees and 15 degrees. This is part VI in the Tribology Aspects in Angular Transmission Systems Series

541 Economics of CNC Gear Hobbing (March/April 1987)

NC and CNC metal cutting machines are among the most popular machine tools in the business today, There is also a strong trend toward using flexible machining centers and flexible manufacturing systems. The same trend is apparent in gear cutting. Currently the trend toward CNC tools has increased, and sophisticated controls and peripheral equipment for gear cutting machines are now available; however, the investment in a CNC gear machine has to be justified on the basis of economic facts as well as technical advantages.

542 Robotic Gear Deburring System Automates Chamfering (November/December 2009)

Compass Automation unveiled its Robotic Deburring System at Gear Expo 2009.

543 AGMA Foundation--A Dream Fulfilled (July 2010)

Arlin Perry, president of Comer Industries, talks about his tenure as chairman of the AGMA Foundation and its role in supporting the industry.

544 AGMA--American Name, International Association (May 2010)

AGMA Voices is a new feature brought to you by Gear Technology in cooperation with the American Gear Manufacturers Association. AGMA Voices will give you opinions, insight and information presented by various AGMA staff members, board members, committee heads and volunteers. In this column, Gear Technology will bring you guest editorials from the gear industry’s leading association.

545 Basic Gear Noise Short Course Covers Fundamentals (August 2008)

More than 1,350 engineers and technicians have attended the basic course at Ohio State's GearLab.

546 Study of the Correlation Between Theoretical and Actual Gear Fatigue Test Data on a Polyamide (June 2008)

In the past two years DSM has been conducting fatigue tests on actual molded gears in order to provide design data.

547 In Memoriam: Donald R. McVittie (March/April 2008)

It is with regret we report that Donald R. McVittie passed away January 20, 2008.

548 Making It in America: U.S. Manufacturing Is Alive, Well and Prospering (September/October 2005)

Most firms in the gear industry we've talked to over the past year are making more gears than ever, generating more sales, and filling up their schedule books into next year and beyond.

549 Don't Sell Us Short! (November/December 1987)

How is it that we woke up one day in the early 1980s to find that apparently American industry was suddenly inefficient, our workforce unproductive and our management inept? Almost overnight industry found its sales dropping dramatically, while for many companies foreign competition became excruciatingly intense. This sudden change in the economic climate proved fatal for many companies and has been nearly as hard on our collective morale. In a country used to winning, we began to hear ourselves talked of as losers.

550 Technical Calendar (July/August 1986)

October 5-8, 1986 AGMA Fall technical Conference & Gearing Exhibit September 17-19, 1986 Ohio State University Gear Noise Seminar November 11-13, 1986 SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic November 19-21, 1986 Seminar: Gear System Design for Minimum Noise

551 Gears Are Amazing (May/June 2005)

Or, should we say, aMAZEing ??

552 Computer Aided Design for Gear Shaper Cutters (November/December 1987)

Computer programs have been developed to completely design spur and helical gear shaper cutters starting from the specifications of the gear to be cut and the type of gear shaper to be used. The programs generate the working drawing of the cutter and, through the use of a precision plotter, generate enlarge scaled layouts of the gear as produced by the cutter and any other layouts needed for its manufacture.

553 Describing Nonstandard Gears - An Alternative to the Rack Shift Coefficient (January/February 1988)

The use of dimensionless factors to describe gear tooth geometry seems to have a strong appeal to gear engineers. The stress factors I and J, for instance, are well established in AGMA literature. The use of the rack shift coefficient "x" to describe nonstandard gear proportions is common in Europe, but is not as commonly used in the United States. When it is encountered in the European literature or in the operating manuals for imported machine tools, it can be a source of confusion to the American engineer.

554 The Relationship of Measured Gear Noise to Measured Gear Transmission Errors (January/February 1988)

Vehicle gear noise testing is a complex and often misunderstood subject. Gear noise is really a system problem.(1) most gearing used for power transmission is enclosed in a housing and, therefore, little or no audible sound is actually heard from the gear pair.(2) The vibrations created by the gears are amplified by resonances of structural elements. This amplification occurs when the speed of the gear set is such that the meshing frequency or a multiply of it is equal to a natural frequency of the system in which the gears are mounted.

555 AMT Expects Increase in Attendees Over 2004 (July/August 2006)

Lines at McCormick Place's Starbucks concession stand will probably be a little longer at IMTS 2006, but the show's organizers won't be complaining.

556 Labor Pains in the American Gear Industry--Any Relief in Sight (January/February 2007)

Lack of skilled workers mirrors U.S. manufacturing's decline.

557 Steadfast and Streamlined: Can Lean Soften the Economic Blow (August 2009)

Two high-volume gear production cells grace the shop floor at Delta Research Corporation in Livonia, Michigan. Thanks to lean manufacturing, these cells have never shipped a defective part to a customer since they were developed over three years ago.

558 American Manufacturing - Can It Be Saved (November/December 2009)

If anyone should ever need convincing that the state of American manufacturing is in ongoing decline, consider this: the state of Michigan has the highest concentration of engineers in the country, yet also has the highest unemployment rate. But there are ripples of hope out there as grassroots and otherwise organized groups are fighting the good fight in an attempt to reverse that trend.

559 Dynamic Analysis of Straight and Involute Tooth Form (July/August 1985)

The effect of load speed on straight and involute tooth forms is studied using several finite-element models.

560 Technological Fundamentals of CBN Bevel Gear Finish Grinding (November/December 1985)

The bevel gear grinding process, with conventional wheels, has been limited to applications where the highest level of quality is required.

561 Editorial (July/August 1985)

Despite increased overseas competition, there doesn't seem to be an urge among Americans to attend technical conferences.

562 Influence of Geometrical Parameters on the Gear Scuffing Criterion - Part I (March/April 1987)

The load capacity rating of gears had its beginning in the 18th century at Leiden University when Prof. Pieter van Musschenbroek systematically tested the wooden teeth of windmill gears, applying the bending strength formula published by Galilei one century earlier. In the next centuries several scientists improved or extended the formula, and recently a Draft International Standard could be presented.

563 Helical Gears With Circular Arc Teeth: Simulation of Conditions of Meshing and Bearing Contact (July/August 1987)

Circular arc helical gears have been proposed by Wildhaber and Novikov (Wildhaber-Novikov gears). These types of gears became very popular in the sixties, and many authors in Russia, Germany, Japan and the People's Republic of China made valuable contributions to this area. The history of their researches can be the subject of a special investigation, and the authors understand that their references cover only a very small part of the bibliography on this topic.

564 Notes From the Editor's Desk (July/August 1986)

The last two months have been both a time of difficulty and of growth for Gear Technology. Unexpectedly, I found myself in the hospital having surgery, and consequently out of commission for several weeks. At the same time, two individuals on our staff lost family members, and most of this period saw us getting ready for this preshow IMTS issue while being seriously short-staffed.

565 Deburring & Finishing Gears with Power Brushes (March/April 1989)

Why Brushes? In this age of hi-tech, robots, automatic machines, machining cells, etc., is there a niche somewhere for power brushes? Let me answer by asking another question. What tool does the gear manufacturer have in his arsenal that allows him to deburr green gears, hardened gears, hobbed gears, ground gears and shaved gears? What tool allows him to deburr powder metal gears - green and sintered - brass gears, bronze gears, stainless gears made of exotic materials such as inconel, waspaloy, or hastaloy, and fiber and plastic gears? How about spur gears, helical gears, sprockets, both internal and external splines, clutch teeth and pump gears?

566 Gear Generating Using Rack Cutters (October/November 1984)

Universal machines capable of cutting both spur and helical gears were developed in 1910, followed later by machines capable of cutting double helical gears with continuous teeth. Following the initial success, the machines were further developed both in England and France under the name Sunderland, and later in Switzerland under the name Maag.

567 Viewpoint (July/August 1986)

Since we are a high volume shop, we were particularly interested in Mr. Kotlyar's article describing the effects of hob length on production efficiency which appeared in the Sept/Oct issue of Gear Technology. Unfortunately, some readers many be unnecessarily deterred from applying the analysis to their own situations by the formidabilty of the mathematical calculations. I am making the following small suggestion concerning the evaluation of the constant terms.

568 Asymmetric Gears: Parameter Selection Approach (June/July 2012)

In many gear transmissions, a tooth load on one flank is significantly higher and is applied for longer periods of time than for the opposite one; an asymmetric tooth shape reflects this functional difference. This paper describes an approach that rationalizes the degree of asymmetry (or asymmetry factor K) selection to meet a variety of operating conditions and requirements for custom gear drives.

569 Shaper Cutters-Design & Applications Part 1 (March/April 1990)

Gear shaping is one of the most popular production choices in gear manufacturing. While the gear shaping process is really the most versatile of all the gear manufacturing methods and can cut a wide variety of gears, certain types of gears can only be cut by this process. These are gears closely adjacent to shoulders; gears adjacent to other gears, such as on countershafts; internal gears, either open or blind ended; crown or face gears; herringbone gears of the solid configuration of with a small center groove; rack; parts with filled-in spaces or teeth, such as are used in some clutches.

570 Shaper Cutters - Design & Application - Part 2 (May/June 1990)

Cutter Sharpening Cutter sharpening is very important both during manufacturing and subsequently in resharpening after dulling. Not only does this process affect cutter "over cutting edge" quality and the quality of the part cut, but it can also affect the manner in which chip flow takes place on the cutter face if the surface finished is too rough or rippled.

571 Gear Grinding Fundeamentals (September/October 1989)

This article deals with certain item to be taken into consideration for gear grinding, common problems that arise in gear grinding and their solutions. The discussion will be limited to jobbing or low-batch production environments, where experimental setup and testing is not possible for economic and other reasons.

572 A Second Rate Society - Never (August/September 1984)

What was once recognized as the unique genius of America is now slipping away from us and, in many areas, is now seen as a "second rate" capability. Unless action is taken now, this country is in real danger of being unable to regain its supremacy in technological development and economic vigor. First Americans must understand the serious implications of the problem; and second, we must dedicate ourselves to national and local actions that will ensure a greater scientific and technological literacy in America.

573 Endurance Limit for Contact Stress in Gears (October/November 1984)

With the publishing of various ISO draft standards relating to gear rating procedures, there has been much discussion in technical papers concerning the various load modification factors. One of the most basic of parameters affecting the rating of gears, namely the endurance limit for either contact or bending stress, has not, however, attracted a great deal of attention.

574 Spur Gear Fundamentals (January/February 1989)

Gears are toothed wheels used primarily to transmit motion and power between rotating shafts. Gearing is an assembly of two or more gears. The most durable of all mechanical drives, gearing can transmit high power at efficiencies approaching 0.99 and with long service life. As precision machine elements gears must be designed.

575 Single Flank Testing of Gears (May/June 1984)

Presumably, everyone who would be interested in this subject is already somewhat familiar with testing of gears by traditional means. Three types of gear inspection are in common use: 1) measurement of gear elements and relationships, 2) tooth contact pattern checks and 3) rolling composite checks. Single Flank testing falls into this last category, as does the more familiar Double Flank test.

576 An Invitation To Be A Champion (November/December 1988)

Recent history has taught us that global competition has become tougher and is a major concern of American gear manufacturers from abroad have invaded American markets with products designed in an environment where management of technology has been practiced effectively. If American companies intend to compete in the changing world market, they must acquire the technologies that will allow them to do so.

577 IMTS 1986 - The World of Manufacturing Technology (July/August 1986)

September 3-11 the 1986 International Machine Tool Show, "The World of Manufacturing Technology", will be held at the McCormick Place Exposition Center in Chicago. More that 1000 exhibits from over thirty countries are planned. These exhibits will present a complete range of machine-tool products from 2-story high presses to complete manufacturing systems, lathes, lasers, CAD/CAM systems and robotics.

578 Taming The Autocratic Boss (September/October 1991)

Dictatorships can be stifling. In an autocratic organization, employees seldom participate in decisions that affect them. By establishing a collaborative environment, you allow everyone to play a role in making your organization a success.

579 Calculation of Optimum Tooth Flank Corrections for Helical Gears (September/October 1988)

The load carrying behavior of gears is strongly influenced by local stress concentrations in the tooth root and by Hertzian pressure peaks in the tooth flanks produced by geometric deviations associated with manufacturing, assembly and deformation processes. The dynamic effects within the mesh are essentially determined by the engagement shock, the parametric excitation and also by the deviant tooth geometry.

580 Better Gears & Splines With Metrology (July 2007)

What does it mean to make "better" gears? Better gears more closely resemble the intended design parameters.

581 Gear Research Institute (May 2013)

The essence of designing gears is often by necessity risk-averse, given that many of them are used in applications where loss of life is a distinct possibility. The Gear Research Institute (GRI) at The Pennsylvania State University conducts risk reduction testing with the same goal in mind - whether it be gears in fighter jets, Ferris wheels, tanks, or countless other gear-reliant vehicles and machinery.

582 Gear Surface Durability Development to Enhance Transmission Power Density (July/August 2002)

Gear pitting is one of the primary failure modes of automotive transmission gear sets. Over the past years, many alternatives have been intended to improve their gear surface durability. However, due to the nature of new process development, it takes a length of time and joint efforts between the development team and suppliers to investigate and verify each new approach.

583 Gear Design Optimization for Low Contact Temperature of a High Speed, Non Lubricated Spur Gear Pair (May 2013)

A gear design optimization approach applied to reduce tooth contact temperature and noise excitation of a high-speed spur gear pair running without lubricant. Optimum gear design search was done using the Run Many Cases software program. Thirty-one of over 480,000 possible gear designs were considered, based on low contact temperature and low transmission error. The best gear design was selected considering its manufacturability.

584 Design of a Flexible and Lean Machining Cell, Part I (June/July 2013)

Although a cell is dedicated to produce a single part family, it must have the requisite equipment capabilities, routing flexibility, cross-trained employees and, to the extent possible, minimal external process dependencies. Cells are often implemented in job shops since they provide the operational benefits of flowline production.

585 Stress of Planet Gears with Thin Rims (March/April 1994)

This article discusses the relationships among the fillet stress on a thin rim planet gear, the radial clearance between the gear rim and the gear shaft, the tooth load, the rim thickness, the radius of curvature of the center line of the rim, the face width and the module.

586 Engineering Questions - SME has the Answers with Knowledge Edge (August 2013)

The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) has been gathering, validating and sharing manufacturing knowledge for more than 80 years. Traditionally, SME resources were purchased by individuals for their own personal use or by colleges and universities as textbooks. Recently, these same colleges and universities were looking for digital resources to provide to their instructors and students. Companies were requesting SME content digitally for their employees as well.

587 Tooth Root Optimization of Powder Metal Gears - Reducing Stress from Bending and Transient Loads (June/July 2013)

This paper will provide examples of stress levels from conventional root design using a hob and stress levels using an optimized root design that is now possible with PM manufacturing. The paper will also investigate how PM can reduce stresses in the root from transient loads generated by abusive driving.

588 Hope Springs Eternal (March/April 2004)

As I write this editorial, much of America seems frozen solid. It snowed again here in Chicago yesterday, and last night the wind chill was –30ºF (–34ºC). It’s been cold like this for more than a week, and the forecasters are predicting more of the same. After a while, such a deep freeze can be depressing.

589 What's All the Buzz About (July 2007)

The 17-year cicadas created quite a buzz in the Chicagoland area this June. Will Gear Expo 2007 create the same kind of buzz in the gear industry?

590 Carbide Hobbing Case Study (May/June 2002)

Bodine Electric Co. of Chicago, IL., has a 97-year history of fine-and medium-pitch gear manufacturing. Like anywhere else, traditions, old systems, and structures can be beneficial, but they can also become paradigms and obstacles to further improvements. We were producing a high quality product, but our goal was to become more cost effective. Carbide hobbing is seen as a technological innovation capable of enabling a dramatic, rather than an incremental, enhancement to productivity and cost savings.

591 Powder Metal Magic (August 2012)

Capstan Atlantic, located in Wrentham, Massachusetts, produces powder metal gears, sprockets and complex structural components. The company has provided unique powder metal products in a variety of industries including automotive, business machines, appliances, lawn and garden equipment and recreational vehicles.

592 Design of a Flexible and Lean Machining Cell, Part II (August 2013)

Job shops may be ill-advised to undertake a complete reorganization into FLEAN (Flexible and Lean) cells. A FLEAN cell would (i) be flex-ible enough to produce any and all orders for parts that belong in a specific part family and (ii) utilize lean to the maximum extent possible to eliminate waste.

593 Liebherr Touts Technology at Latest Gear Seminar (June/July 2013)

For two days in Saline, Michigan, Liebherr's clients, customers and friends came together to discuss the latest gear products and technology. Peter Wiedemann, president of Liebherr Gear Technology Inc., along with Dr.-Ing. Alois Mundt, managing director, Dr.-Ing. Oliver Winkel, head of application technology, and Dr.-Ing. Andreas Mehr, technology development shaping and grinding, hosted a variety of informative presentations.

594 Wind Turbine Market Leads Hansen Transmissions to India (June 2007)

When Belgium-based Hansen Transmissions was under the ownership of Invensys plc in the late 1990s, the parent company was dropping not-so-subtle hints that the industrial gearbox manufacturer was not part of its long-term plans. Yet Hansen’s CEO Ivan Brems never dreamed that, less than a decade later, he would be working for an Indian company.

595 You Want It When (July 2009)

What do glam and avant garde rock star Brian Eno, AGMA and Seattle Gear Works have in common? Admittedly, not much. But there is a connection of sorts.

596 How Gear Hobbing Works (March/April 2013)

Hobbing is one of the most fundamental processes in gear manufacturing. Its productivity and versatility make hobbing the gear manufacturing method of choice for a majority of spur and helical gears.

597 Gear Milling on Non-Gear Dedicated Machinery (July 2009)

Imagine the flexibility of having one machine capable of milling, turning, tapping and gear cutting with deburring included for hard and soft material. No, you’re not in gear fantasy land. The technology to manufacture gears on non gear-dedicated, mult-axis machines has existed for a few years in Europe, but has not yet ventured into mainstream manufacturing. Deckel Maho Pfronten, a member of the Gildemeister Group, took the sales plunge this year, making the technology available on most of its 2009 machines.

598 Gears without Standards - But Tons of Fun! (November/December 2012)

If you enjoy working with your hands—without doubt a large segment of Gear Technology’s audience—you must go to robives.com. There you will find one of the most clean-but-serious fun websites on the Internet. It is where you will learn—or re-learn, in some cases—how to create things from paper. Origami, you’re thinking? Nah—mere child’s play.

599 How to Minimize Power Losses in Transmissions, Axles and Steering Systems (September 2012)

By increasing the number of gears and the transmission-ratio spread, the engine will run with better fuel efficiency and without loss of driving dynamics. Transmission efficiency itself can be improved by: using fuelefficient transmission oil; optimizing the lubrication systems and pumps; improving shifting strategies and optimizing gearings; and optimizing bearings and seals/gaskets.

600 A Bicycle with Real Gears (May/June 2003)

The Addendum team was in Chicago in early March, for the National Manufacturing Week show, when it saw something unusual: a bicycle with gears. Real gears, Spiral bevel gears, in fact.

601 Effects of Axle Deflection and Tooth Flank Modification on Hypoid Gear Stress Distribution and Contact Fatigue Life (August 2009)

As is well known in involute gearing, “perfect” involute gears never work perfectly in the real world. Flank modifications are often made to overcome the influences of errors coming from manufacturing and assembly processes as well as deflections of the system. The same discipline applies to hypoid gears.

602 Large Scores and Radial Cracks on Case-Hardened Worms (May/June 2003)

In the last couple of years, many research projects dealt with the determination of load limits of cylindrical worm gears. These projects primarily focused on the load capacity of the worm wheel, whereas the worm was neglected. This contribution presents investigations regarding damages such as large scores and cracks on the flanks of case-hardened worms.

603 Romax Technology Launches Gearbox and Driveline Design Software Package (November/December 2012)

Romax Technology, the gearbox, bearing and driveline engineering specialist, has launched a new design software package that will increase speed, quality, creativity and innovation when designing gearboxes and drivelines. Called Concept, the new product delivers on the Romax vision of streamlining the end-to-end, planning-to-manufacture process with open, easy to use software solutions. It has been developed in close collaboration with engineers in the largest ground vehicle, wind energy and industrial equipment companies around the globe.

604 Morphology of Micropitting (November/December 2012)

Understanding the morphology of micropitting is critical in determining the root cause of failure. Examples of micropitting in gears and rolling-element bearings are presented to illustrate morphological variations that can occur in practice.

605 Hob Tool Life Technology Update (March/April 2009)

The method of cutting teeth on a cylindrical gear by the hobbing process has been in existence since the late 1800s. Advances have been made over the years in both the machines and the cutting tools used in the process. This paper will examine hob tool life and the many variables that affect it. The paper will cover the state-of-the-art cutting tool materials and coatings, hob tool design characteristics, process speeds and feeds, hob shifting strategies, wear characteristics, etc. The paper will also discuss the use of a common denominator method for evaluating hob tool life in terms of meters (or inches) per hob tooth as an alternative to tool life expressed in parts per sharpening.

606 Renaissance Man (January/February 2004)

I lost a good friend in October—one that many of you might know. Carlo Costi of Sogimex S.A.S. in Caponago (Milano), Italy, came out of the EMO show in Milan on October 28, caught a taxi and called his wife, Mariella, to tell her that he wasn’t feeling well. He died—in the taxi—on the phone—talking to his wife. He was 60 years old.

607 GT Extras (March/April 2013)

A sampling of newsletter articles and videos related to gear manufacturing from March/April 2013.

608 Predicting the Heat-Treat Response of a Carburized Helical Gear (November/December 2002)

Using the DANTE software, a finite element simulation was developed and executed to study the response of a carburized 5120 steel helical gear to quenching in molten salt. The computer simulation included heat-up, carburization, transfer and immersion in a molten salt bath, quenching, and air cooling. The results of the simulation included carbon distribution of phases, dimensional change, hardness, and residual stress throughout the process. The predicted results were compared against measured results for hardness, dimensions and residual stress. The excellent agreement between predictions and measured values for this carburized 5120 steel gear provides a basis for assessing the various process parameters and their respective importance in the characteristics of not only these heat-treated parts, but of other compositions and shapes.

609 Why Do You Read Gear Technology (September/October 2009)

A year ago, we sent out a small e-mail survey with one simple question: “Why do you read Gear Technology?” At that time, we were extremely gratified, even somewhat overwhelmed, by the enthusiastic and appreciative response of our readers, and I wrote about the survey and the results in my editorial in the September/October 2008 issue. When we sent out the survey this year with the same question, you’d think we would have been prepared for the results. We weren’t. If anything, our readers are even more appreciative than they were a year ago.

610 The OSU Gear and Power Transmission Research Laboratory: Where Innovation Thrives (March/April 2013)

When, in 1980, OSU professor Donald R. Houser created the Gear and Power Transmission Research Laboratory - then known as the Gear Dynamics and Gear and Power Transmission Laboratory (GearLab) - he did so with the seed money provided by just three companies. Thirty-three years out, the lab has continued to grow, impress and—most importantly - succeed; it now boasts a roster of some 50 sponsoring companies and government agencies.

611 Recent Inventions and Innovations in Induction Hardening of Gears and Gear-Like Components (March/April 2013)

This paper examines the expanding capabilities of induction hardening of gears through methods like spin hardening or tooth-by-tooth techniques.

612 Philly Gear: A Long Life, A New Direction (January/February 2004)

Large marine gearboxes. More than a year in production, each weighing 125,000 pounds, the gearboxes were for U.S. Navy amphibious ships, for combining the power of 10,000 hp diesel engines to drive propeller shafts. They were also the last major gear products shipped from Philadelphia Gear Corp.’s King of Prussia factory.

613 Experience with Large, High-Speed Load Gears (July 2007)

The main theme of this article is high-capacity, high-speed load gears in a power transmission range between 35 MW and 100 MW for generators and turbo-compressors driven by gas or steam turbines.

614 Low Loss Gears (June 2007)

In most transmission systems, one of the main power loss sources is the loaded gear mesh. In this article, the influences of gear geometry parameters on gear efficiency, load capacity, and excitation are shown.

615 High-Performance Sintered-Steel Gears for Transmissions and Machinery: A Critical Review (August 2012)

Except for higher-end gear applications found in automotive and aerospace transmissions, for example, high-performance, sintered-steel gears match wrought-steel gears in strength and geometrical quality. The enhanced P/M performance is due largely to advances in powder metallurgy over last two decades, such as selective surface densification, new materials and lubricants for high density and warm-die pressing. This paper is a review of the results of a decade of research and development of high- performance, sintered-steel gear prototypes.

616 Reinventing Cutting Tool Production at Gleason (May 2013)

Investment in advanced new manufacturing technologies is helping to reinvent production processes for bevel gear cutters and coarse-pitch hobs at Gleason - delivering significant benefits downstream to customers seeking shorter deliveries, longer tool life and better results.

617 Automotive Transmission Design Using Full Potential of Powder Metal (August 2013)

For metal replacement with powder metal (PM) of an automotive transmission, PM gear design differs from its wrought counterpart. Indeed, complete reverse-engineering and re-design is required so to better understand and document the performance parameters of solid-steel vs. PM gears. Presented here is a re-design (re-building a 6-speed manual transmission for an Opel Insignia 4-cylinder, turbocharged 2-liter engine delivering 220 hp/320 N-m) showing that substituting a different microgeometry of the PM gear teeth -- coupled with lower Young’s modulus -- theoretically enhances performance when compared to the solid-steel design.

618 Basic Spur Gear Design (November/December 1988)

Primitive gears were known and used well over 2,000 years ago, and gears have taken their place as one of the basic machine mechanisms; yet, our knowledge and understanding of gearing principles is by no means complete. We see the development of faster and more reliable gear quality assessment and new, more productive manufacture of gears in higher materials hardness states. We have also seen improvement in gear applications and design, lubricants, coolants, finishes and noise and vibration control. All these advances push development in the direction of smaller, more compact applications, better material utilization and improved quietness, smoothness of operation and gear life. At the same time, we try to improve manufacturing cost-effectiveness, making use of highly repetitive and efficient gear manufacturing methods.

619 What - A June Issue (June 2007)

Just like most of the gear industry, we're extremely busy here at Gear Technology. While many of you are working hard to produce more gears, we're doing the same with magazines.

620 Effect of Non-Metallic Inclusions on Bending Fatigue Performance in High Strength 4140 Steel (March/April 2018)

Three samples of quenched and tempered 4140 steel, with varying levels of oxygen and sulfur, were submitted to a series of bending fatigue tests.

621 The Gear Industry Needs You (May 2016)

your life and in your professional career is an inflection point for you to take stock of where you came from and where you are going.

622 Improved Broaching Steel Technology (July 2016)

Broaching is a machining technique commonly used to cut gear teeth or cam profiles for the high volume manufacture of power transmission parts used in vehicles (Refs. 1–2). This article shows how the right gear blank material can make all the difference if you want to get more parts out of each tool.

623 Influence of Hobbing Tool Generating Scallops on Root Fillet Stress Concentrations (July 2016)

While designing gear and spline teeth, the root fillet area and the corresponding maximum tensile stress are primary design considerations for the gear designer. Root fillet tensile stress may be calculated using macro-geometry values such as module, minor diameter, effective fillet radius, face width, etc.

624 Our Next Leader (November/December 2016)

No, not that president! I mean Matt Croson, the new president of the American Gear Manufacturers Association, who started in June and has been busy getting to know the gear industry and AGMA's members.

625 Repair of Large, Surface-Degraded Industrial Gears - a New Approach (January/February 2017)

This paper presents a new approach to repair industrial gears by showing a case study where pressure angle modification is also considered, differently from the past repairing procedures that dealt only with the modification of the profile shift coefficient. A computer program has been developed to automatically determine the repair alternatives under two goals: minimize the stock removal or maximize gear tooth strength.

626 Shifting Fortunes (March/April 2017)

Amidst the energy industry's uncertain future, gearbox manufacturers are focusing on supplying the aftermarket.

627 MicroPulse and MicroShift for Ground Bevel Gearsets (July 2017)

Grinding of bevel and hypoid gears creates on the surface a roughness structure with lines that are parallel to the root. Imperfections of those lines often repeat on preceding teeth, leading to a magnification of the amplitudes above the tooth mesh frequency and their higher harmonics. This phenomenon is known in grinding and has led in many cylindrical gear applications to an additional finishing operation (honing). Until now, in bevel and hypoid gear grinding, a short time lapping of pinion and gear after the grinding operation, is the only possibility to change the surface structure from the strongly root line oriented roughness lines to a diffuse structure.

628 The Multifunctional Option (August 2017)

Toyoda's new GS300H5 Gear Skiving Center is the first in the world to equip a skiving function to a general purpose horizontal machining center (HMC), through which mass production of gear parts is achieved. CNC controls and a high speed rotary table were developed specifically to achieve high-speed, multifunctional machining, as a compact and lightweight product, simple in programming functions.

629 Cleaner Steels Provide Gear Design Opportunities (November/December 2017)

Gear designers face constant pressure to increase power density in their drivetrains. In the automotive industry, for example, typical engine torque has increased significantly over the last several decades. Meanwhile, the demands for greater fuel efficiency mean designers must accommodate these increased loads in a smaller, more lightweight package than ever before. In addition, electric and hybrid vehicles will feature fewer gears, with fewer transmission speeds, running at higher rpms, meaning the gears in those systems will have to endure life cycles far beyond what is typical with internal combustion engines.

630 Annual Report (May 2018)

At most family reunions, everyone gets along, everyone puts on a good face, and everyone celebrates their togetherness. The AGMA annual convention held at the end of April was a lot like that.

631 Practical Approach to Determining Effective Case Depth of Gas Carburizing (March/April 2016)

Effective case depth is an important factor and goal in gas carburizing, involving complicated procedures in the furnace and requiring precise control of many thermal parameters. Based upon diffusion theory and years of carburizing experience, this paper calculates the effective case depth governed by carburizing temperature, time, carbon content of steel, and carbon potential of atmosphere. In light of this analysis, carburizing factors at various temperatures and carbon potentials for steels with different carbon content were calculated to determine the necessary carburizing cycle time. This methodology provides simple (without computer simulation) and practical guidance of optimized gas carburizing and has been applied to plant production. It shows that measured, effective case depth of gear parts covering most of the industrial application range (0.020 inch to over 0.250 inch) was in good agreement with the calculation.

632 Sensitivity Study of Press Quench Process and Concept of Tooling Design for Reduced Distortion by Modeling (July 2018)

Press quenching is designed to harden steel gears while minimizing distortion, and the process is especially applied for hardening large diameter thin-wall gears, face gears and bevel gears. The dimensional control aims at maintaining flatness, out-of-round, straightness and consistency of radial size. The press quench tooling and the process design have been mainly experience-based, using a trial and error approach for implementation of new processes, new gear materials and gear configurations.

633 Deburring - The Underestimated Task (September/October 2018)

Deburring or chamfering of gear teeth is gaining attention in practical settings. And with a view to make the production sequence as efficient as possible, it is becoming increasingly important to be able to implement the deburring tasks directly on the cutting machine after spiral cutting.

634 Moving Heat Treating In-Line (March/April 2019)

Single Piece Flow Streamlines Production for High-Volume Gear Manufacturers.

635 New Consideration of Non-Metallic Inclusions Calculating Local Tooth Root Load Carrying Capacity of High-Strength, High-Quality Steel Gears (March/April 2019)

The effects of non-metallic inclusions in steel matrix on tooth root strength based on theoretical approach of Murakami.

636 The Additive Advantage (September/October 2019)

How 3-D printing is changing the powder metal performance game.

637 Gear Technology - To Be Continued (November/December 2019)

When I started Gear Technology more than 35 years ago, my intention was to create something of lasting value for the gear industry. It was a way of giving back to the industry that had been so good to me and my family.

638 A Comparative Study of Polymer Gears Made of Five Materials (November/December 2019)

The wear behavior of polymer gears made of five different materials has been investigated using an existing polymer gear test rig. Step loading tests at a constant speed of 1,000 rpm were performed. Significant differences in failure modes and performance have been observed for the five polymer gear materials for gear engagements of gears, with the same material as each other.

639 Industry News (January/February 2020)

Kapp Niles celebrates young inventors, Solar Atmospheres expands, Klingelnberg increases training programs, Liebherr celebrates 50 years in the USA, Timken Expands Southeast regional repair facility and more news for the gear industry.

640 CMM for Gear Inspection (June 2020)

Gear inspection has long been a highly specialized costly investment and an overall challenging part of the gear manufacturing process. Given that complicated gages, testers, and CNC equipment all go into creating high quality gears, companies may want to invest in a CMM to streamline inspection.

641 Happy Birthday! (May 2016)

The 25th anniversary is the silver. The 50th is the gold. The 75th is the diamond. But what symbolizes the 100th?

642 The Watch That Does Everything, Plus Tells Time (September/October 2015)

There’s a silly ongoing joke in the 2002 family film Spy Kids 2 (a movie that I’m admittedly not very proud I’ve seen, but hey, I was 12 at the time) involving a super advanced secret agent watch that does everything but tell time.

643 Light-Weight Design for Planetary Gear Transmissions (September 2013)

There is a great need for future powertrains in automotive and industrial applications to improve upon their efficiency and power density while reducing their dynamic vibration and noise initiation. It is accepted that planetary gear transmissions have several advantages in comparison to conventional transmissions, such as a high power density due to the power division using several planet gears. This paper presents planetary gear transmissions, optimized in terms of efficiency, weight and volume.

644 Innovative Induction Hardening Process with Pre-heating for Improved Fatigue Performance of Gear Component (July 2014)

Contact fatigue and bending fatigue are two main failure modes of steel gears, while surface pitting and spalling are two common contact fatigue failures -- caused by alternating subsurface shear stresses from the contact load between two gear mates. And when a gear is in service under cyclic load, concentrated bending stresses exist at the root fillet -- the main driver of bending fatigue failures. Induction hardening is becoming an increasingly popular response to these problems, due to its process consistency, reduced energy consumption, clean environment and improved product quality -- but not without issues of its own (irregular residual stresses and bending fatigue). Thus a new approach is proposed here that flexibly controls the magnitude of residual stress in the regions of root fillet and tooth flank by pre-heating prior to induction hardening. Using an external spur gear made of AISI 4340 as an example, this new concept/process is demonstrated using finite element modeling and DANTE commercial software.

645 US Gear Industry Doing Well, but Challenges Await (November/December 2013)

If you are like most navigators of the printed page, the first thing you read in this final 2013 issue of Gear Technology was our State of the Gear Industry Survey. And who would blame you? It’s not Sabermetrics, but once you’ve read it you’ll have a pretty clear snapshot of last year and a peek into the next. But if you also like to get a little closer to the bone about things, what follows are the collected opinions of five well-regarded people in the gear industry speaking to a number of issues with relevance.

646 Design and Optimization of Planetary Gears Considering All Relevant Influences (November/December 2013)

Light-weight construction and consideration of available resources result in gearbox designs with high load capacity and power density. At the same time, expectations for gear reliability are high. Additionally, there is a diversity of planetary gears for different applications.

647 Understanding Oil Analysis: How it Can Improve Reliability of Wind Turbine Gearboxes (November/December 2013)

Historically, wind turbine gearbox failures have plagued the industry. Yet an effective oil analysis program will increase the reliability and availability of your machinery, while minimizing maintenance costs associated with oil change-outs, labor, repairs and downtime. Practical action steps are presented here to improve reliability.

648 Learn to Work, Work to Earn (January/February 2014)

Apprenticeship programs are back in the USA - sort of.

649 30 Years of Calculation (June 2014)

Examining the history of software in mechanical engineering

650 Orwell Inc. Promises All Things Optimistic with the BBMS (June 2014)

The Addendum team thought it fitting to celebrate George Orwell's 1984 with the 30th Anniversary of Gear Technology. We do not condone the extreme tactics discussed in this fictional press release unless instructed by the proper authorities.

651 The Next Transformation (March/April 2014)

Every so often manufacturing is jolted out of its inertia by a transformative technology – one that fundamentally changes not only the way products are made, but also the economics of the business.

652 Born to Blog (March/April 2014)

Blogging is BIG and getting bigger all the time. There doesn’t exist, for example, a news, industry, or entertainment entity that does not have at least one resident blogger. And now, since January -- we have ours.

653 Loaded Behavior of Gears Made of Fiber-Reinforced PA6 (July 2014)

This paper presents an original method for computing the loaded mechanical behavior of fiber reinforced polymer gears. Although thermoplastic gears are unsuitable for application transmitting high torque, adding fibers can significantly increase their performance. The particular case of polyamide 6 + 30% glass fibers is studied in this paper.

654 Additives: Anti-Wear vs Anti-Scuff (August 2014)

A reader asks: While I have read a reasonable amount of the literature on the pros and cons of anti-wear and anti-scuff additives, I find that the more I read, the more confused I become. I could use some clarity in my life.

655 An Arena of Color, Light and Concepts (August 2015)

When you look at the floor plan for the Cobo Center (Detroit, MI) from Oct. 20-22, the names on the lineup really shouldn’t come as a great surprise.

656 Micropitting of Large Gearboxes: Influence of Geometry and Operating Conditions (September/October 2014)

The focus of the following presentation is two-fold: 1) on tests of new geometric variants; and 2) on to-date, non-investigated operating (environmental) conditions. By variation of non-investigated eometric parameters and operation conditions the understanding of micropitting formation is improved. Thereby it is essential to ensure existent calculation methods and match them to results of the comparison between large gearbox tests and standard gearbox test runs to allow a safe forecast of wear due to micropitting in the future.

657 Simulation of Deviations in Hobbing and Generation Grinding (September/October 2014)

The hobbing and generation grinding production processes are complex due to tool geometry and kinematics. Expert knowledge and extensive testing are required for a clear attribution of cause to work piece deviations. A newly developed software tool now makes it possible to simulate the cutting procedure of the tool and superimpose systematic deviations on it. The performance of the simulation software is illustrated here with practical examples. The new simulation tool allows the user to accurately predict the effect of errors. With this knowledge, the user can design and operate optimal, robust gearing processes.

658 Small-Module Gear Design (November/December 2014)

Gears with a diametral pitch 20 and greater, or a module 1.25 millimeters and lower, are called fine-pitch or low-module gears. The design of these gears has its own specifics.

659 Fabrication of Directly Designed Gears with Symmetric and Asymmetric Teeth (November/December 2014)

When compared with the traditional gear design approach - based on pre-selected, typically standard generating rack parameters - the alternative Direct Gear Design method provides certain advantages for custom, high-performance gear drives.

660 On the Cutting Edge (January/February 2015)

Sentences that start off with some variance of “I don’t want to brag, but…” are generally a good indicator that it’s precisely what the speaker intends to do and typically end with bold proclamations that are immediately and eminently quotable — the kind of quotes perfect for beginning a feature story with an eye-catching artistic flourish.

661 Hub of the Gear Industry (January/February 2015)

The name Gleason is practically synonymous with gear manufacturing. Since the company was founded in 1865, the technology of gear manufacturing has been its focus, its core and its competitive advantage.

662 Prediction of Surface Zone Changes in Generating Gear Grinding (March/April 2015)

One process for hard finishing gears is generating gear grinding. Due to its high process efficiency, generating gear grinding has replaced other grinding processes such as profile grinding in batch production of small- and middle-sized gears. Yet despite the wide industrial application of generating gear grinding, the process design is based on experience along with time- and cost-intensive trials. The science-based analysis of generating gear grinding demands a high amount of time and effort, and only a few published scientific analyses exist. In this report a thermo-mechanical process model that describes influences on the surface zone in generating gear grinding is introduced.

663 Times Arent A-Changin for Broaching, and Thats Just Fine (May 2015)

In 1964, a young and tidy Bob Dylan sang away in that infamous voice of his, all nasally and grating yet wonderfully distinct, opining to the fervent masses: “The times, they are a-changin.”

664 Gear Grinding is Getting Easier, Better, Faster, Stronger (June 2015)

Liebherr is well-known as one of the world’s largest privately owned companies — a titan in heavy industry specializing in cranes, trucks and mammoth earth moving and mining equipment.

665 Determining Bull Gear Wear (July 2015)

We are currently experiencing wear on the bull gear on our converter at the steel plant. We want to be able to draw the original gear profile to compare this with the worn tooth before we decide on the next steps. I have attempted this, but there is a correction factor given and I am unsure how to apply this. Could someone give advice on this? Please find attached the PDF’s for the bull gear and the pinion gear. They are old drawings! The wear is on the wheel.

666 The Replacements - Taking Steps to Strengthen the Future Skilled Workforce (January/February 2009)

For years, politicians, educators and business leaders have generated various ideas to revitalize U.S. manufacturing and engineering. These include manufacturing initiatives, internal training programs and an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in the classroom. The declining expertise in these fields, however, continues to be a growing problem in every facet of manufacturing and engineering.

667 Consideration of Moving Tooth Load in Gear Crack Propagation Predictions (January/February 2002)

Effective gear designs balance strength, durability, reliability, size, weight, and cost. Even effective designs, however, can have the possibility of gear cracks due to fatigue. In addition, truly robust designs consider not only crack initiation, but also crack propagation trajectories. As an example, crack trajectories that propagate through the gear tooth are the preferred mode of failure compared to propagation through the gear rim. Rim failure will lead to catastrophic events and should be avoided. Analysis tools that predict crack propagation paths can be a valuable aid to the designer to prevent such catastrophic failures.

668 Hypoid Gears: Tribology Aspects in Angular Transmission Systems, Part VII (June/July 2011)

Hypoid gears are the paragon of gearing. To establish line contact between the pitches in hypoid gears, the kinematically correct pitch surfaces have to be determined based on the axoids. In cylindrical and bevel gears, the axoids are identical to the pitch surfaces and their diameter or cone angle can be calculated simply by using the knowledge about number of teeth and module or ratio and shaft angle. In hypoid gears, a rather complex approach is required to find the location of the teeth—even before any information about flank form can be considered. This article is part seven of an eight-part series on the tribology aspects of angular gear drives.

669 Corporate News (July/August 1995)

New Names and Faces

670 Gear Shaving Basics, Part I (November/December 1997)

Gear shaving is a free cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.

671 Carl Zeiss CMM Guides Andrew Tool with Complex Mars Rover Project (March/April 2011)

At Andrew Tool, CMMs have been an integral part of their manufacturing processes for years, but they had never faced a project with such intricate measurements, tight tolerances, heat treatments and a very short time frame requirement.

672 Optimal Modifications of Gear Tooth Surfaces (March/April 2011)

In this paper a new method for the introduction of optimal modifications into gear tooth surfaces - based on the optimal corrections of the profile and diameter of the head cutter, and optimal variation of machine tool settings for pinion and gear finishing—is presented. The goal of these tooth modifications is the achievement of a more favorable load distribution and reduced transmission error. The method is applied to face milled and face hobbed hypoid gears.

673 Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Ausrolled Surfaces in Gear Steels (March/April 1995)

Ausforming, the plastic deformation of heat treatment steels in their metastable, austentic condition, was shown several decades ago to lead to quenched and tempered steels that were harder, tougher and more durable under fatigue-type loading than conventionally heat-treated steels. To circumvent the large forces required to ausform entire components such as gears, cams and bearings, the ausforming process imparts added mechanical strength and durability only to those contact surfaces that are critically loaded. The ausrolling process, as utilized for finishing the loaded surfaces of machine elements, imparts high quality surface texture and geometry control. The near-net-shape geometry and surface topography of the machine elements must be controlled to be compatible with the network dimensional finish and the rolling die design requirements (Ref. 1).

674 Micropitting of Big Gearboxes: Influence of Flank Modification and Surface Roughness (May 2011)

Most research on micropitting is done on small-sized gears. This article examines whether those results are also applicable to larger gears.

675 Multi-Metal Composite Gear-Shaft Technology (January/February 1995)

A research program, conducted in conjunction with a U.S. Army contract, has resulted in the development of manufacturing technology to produce a multi-metal composite gear/shaft representing a substantial weight savings compared to a solid steel component. Inertia welding is used to join a steel outer ring to a light-weight titanium alloy web and/or shaft through the use of a suitable interlayer material such as aluminum.

676 The Effect of Straight-Sided Hob Teeth (November/December 2010)

It is well known that hobs with straight-sided teeth do not cut true involutes. In this paper, the difference between the straight side of a hob tooth and the axial profile of an involute worm is evaluated. It is shown that the difference increases as the diametral pitch increases, to the extent that for fine-pitch gearing, the difference is insignificant.

677 New Innovations in Hobbing - Part II (November/December 1994)

The first part of this article, which ran in the September/October 1994 issue, explained the fundamentals of gear hobbing and some of the latest techniques, including methods of hob performance analysis and new tool configurations, being used to solve specific application problems. In this issue, the author continues his exploration of hobbing by describing the effects of progress on requirements in accuracy, as well as the latest in materials, coating and dry hobbing.

678 Real-World Job Training the Lean Way -- And Loving It (September 2011)

Make no mistake -- lean manufacturing is here to stay. And no wonder. As a fiercely competitive global economy continues to alter companies’ “Main Street” thinking, that relatively new dynamic is spurring the need for “I-need-it-yesterday” production output. And for increasingly more industries -- big or small -- that means getting as lean as you can, as fast as you can.

679 Size and Material Influence on the Tooth Root, Pitting, Scuffing and Wear Load-Carrying Capacity of Fine-Module Gears (September 2011)

In this study, limiting values for the load-carrying-capacity of fine-module gears within the module range 0.3–1.0 mm were determined and evaluated by comprehensive, experimental investigations that employed technical, manufacturing and material influence parameters.

680 A Comparison of ISO 4156-ANSI B92.2M - 1980 With Older Imperial Standards (September/October 1994)

The purpose of this article is to discuss ISO 4156/ANSI B92.2M-1980 and to compare it with other, older standards still in use. In our experience designing and manufacturing spline gauges and other spline measuring or holding devices for splined component manufacturers throughout the world, we are constantly surprised that so many standards have been produced covering what is quite a small subject. Many of the standards are international standards; others are company standards, which are usually based on international standards. Almost all have similarities; that is, they all deal with splines that have involute flanks of 30 degrees, 37.5 degrees or 45 degrees pressure angle and are for the most part flank-fitting or occasionally major-diameter-fitting.

681 Load-Sharing Model for Polymer Cylindrical Gears (November/December 2011)

This paper presents an original method to compute the loaded mechanical behavior of polymer gears. Polymer gears can be used without lubricant, have quieter mesh, are more resistant to corrosion, and are lighter in weight. Therefore their application fields are continually increasing. Nevertheless, the mechanical behavior of polymer materials is very complex because it depends on time, history of displacement and temperature. In addition, for several polymers, humidity is another factor to be taken into account. The particular case of polyamide 6.6 is studied in this paper.

682 Flank Breakage on Gears for Energy Systems (November/December 2011)

Gear flank breakage can be observed on edge zone-hardened gears. It occurs, for example, on bevel gears for water turbines, on spur gears for wind energy converters and on single- and double-helical gears for other industrial applications.

683 Gear Faces in Unlikely Places (November/December 2010)

The Addendum team uncovers gear industry bigwigs caught by the paparazzi on the covers of OTHER magazines.

684 Cylkro Face Gears (November/December 2010)

Dutch design and Swiss ingenuity cause transmission breakthrough. Updated examples of Cylkro face gears in action.

685 It's Still the Economy, Stupid! (September/October 1993)

Two items of interest have crossed my desk in the last couple of weeks. One of them is a copy of a speech by Harry E. Figge, Jr., Chairman and CEO of Figge, International Inc., and the other is an article by Peter Brimelow in the July 19, 1993, issue of Forbes. The two items are directly related to one another, the Brimelow article being a response to the points raised in Figge's speech and in much grater detail in his book, Bankruptcy 1995: The Coming Collapse of America and How to Stop It. Both the speech and the response are well worth our attention.

686 Heat Treating Challenges for the Future (March/April 1996)

The heat treating of gears presents a difficult challenge to both the heat treater and the gear manufacturer. The number and variety of variables involved in the manufacturing process itself and the subsequent heat treating cycle create a complex matrix of factors which need to be controlled in order to produce a quality product. A heat treater specializing in gears or a gear manufacturer doing his own heat treating must have a clear understanding of these issues in order to deliver a quality product and make a profit at the same time. The situation also presents a number of areas that could benefit greatly from continued research and development.

687 Alternative Lubrication Methods for Large Open Gear Drives (September/October 1996)

The type of lubricant and the method of applying it to the tooth flanks of large open gears is very important from the point of view of lubrication technology and maintenance. When selecting the type of lubricant and the application method, it is important to check whether it is possible to feed the required lubricant quantity to the load-carrying tooth flanks, This is necessary to avoid deficient lubrication, damage to the gear and operational malfunctions. It is important to determine the type of lubricant, which may be fluid or grease-like. The consistency of the lubricant will have a direct impact on the ability of the lubrication system to feed adequately the lubricant to the gear. The interactions between the common types of lubricant and the lubrication application methods for open gear drives are shown in Fig. 1.

688 Reassembling Gear Drive History (November/December 2009)

Getting rid of personal mementos is an arduous housekeeping ritual for some of us; every last gear has a memory. One man’s trash is another man’s gold, after all, or in some cases, one failed business is a forgotten piece of personal and mechanical genealogy. Such is the case of the Hill-Climber chainless bicycle, the remains of which were pulled from a family junk pile after nearly half a century.

689 Where Are We Now (January/February 2010)

The struggles of the manufacturing economy in 2009 are well documented. Even among those of us with long careers, most of us have never seen activity come to a screeching halt the way it did last year. 2009 was tough on all of us. So, what should we expect in 2010?

690 Profile Shift in External Parallel Axis Cylindrical Involute Gears (November/December 2001)

Early in the practice of involute gearing, virtually all gears were made with the teeth in a standard relationship to the reference pitch circle. This has the advantages that any two gears of the same pitch, helix angle and pressure angle can operate together, and that geometry calculations are relatively simple. It was soon realized, though, that there are greater advantages to be gained by modifying the relationship of the teeth to the reference pitch circle. The modifications are called profile shift.

691 Generating Precision Spur Gears By Wire EDM (May/June 1996)

Over the past decade, the wire electrical discharge machine (EDM) has become an increasingly important tool for machining non-standard shapes. It has even been used to cut gears and gear cavities for plastic molds. While generally accepted as a quick and versatile method for cutting spur gears, the EDM gear has lacked the precision of a mechanically machined or ground gear. We suspected that many of the errors associated with these gears were caused by inexact setup procedures, poor tool path control and improper cutting parameters. We decided to test the potential for the wire EDM to make the most accurate gear possible.

692 Gear Terms You Didn't Know About (May/June 1996)

The word gear, in various forms, has been in use since around A.D. 1200, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. Last issue we brought you Shakespearean gears. Now we'd like to show you some of the uses Americans have given our favorite word (from the Random House Dictionary of American Slang).

693 Crowning Techniques in Aerospace Actuation Gearing (August 2010)

One of the most effective methods in solving the edge loading problem due to excess misalignment and deflection in aerospace actuation gearing is to localize tooth-bearing contact by crowning the teeth. Irrespective of the applied load, if the misalignment and/or deflection are large enough to cause the contact area to reduce to zero, the stress becomes large enough to cause failure. The edge loading could cause the teeth to break or pit, but too much crowning may also cause the teeth to pit due to concentrated loading. In this paper, a proposed method to localize the contact bearing area and calculate the contact stress with crowning is presented and demonstrated on some real-life examples in aerospace actuation systems.

694 Engagement of Metal Debris into Gear Mesh (September/October 2010)

A series of bench-top experiments was conducted to determine the effects of metallic debris being dragged through meshing gear teeth. A test rig that is typically used to conduct contact fatigue experiments was used for these tests. Several sizes of drill material, shim stock and pieces of gear teeth were introduced and then driven through the meshing region. The level of torque required to drive the “chip” through the gear mesh was measured. From the data gathered, chip size sufficient to jam the mechanism can be determined.

695 The SERCOS Interface Standard (January/February 1996)

Today motion control systems are migrating from analog to digital technology at an ever increasing rate because digital technology at an ever-increasing rate because digital drives provide performance equal to or exceeding that of analog drives, plus information to run your machine more effectively and manage your quality program and your business. Most of this data is simply not available from analog drives.

696 Optimizing Gear Geometry for Minimum Transmission Error, Mesh Friction Losses and Scuffing Risk Through Computer- Aided Engineering (August 2010)

Minimizing gear losses caused by churning, windage and mesh friction is important if plant operating costs and environmental impact are to be minimized. This paper concentrates on mesh friction losses and associated scuffing risk. It describes the preliminary results from using a validated, 3-D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program to optimize cylindrical gears for low friction losses without compromising transmission error (TE), noise and power density. Some case studies and generic procedures for minimizing losses are presented. Future development and further validation work is discussed.

697 Avoiding Interference In Shaper-Cut Gears (January/February 1996)

In the process of developing gear trains, it occasionally occurs that the tip of one gear will drag in the fillet of the mating gear. The first reaction may be to assume that the outside diameter of the gear is too large. This article is intended to show that although the gear dimensions follow AGMA guidelines, if the gear is cut with a shaper, the cutting process may not provide sufficient relief in the fillet area and be the cause of the interference.

698 The Next Step in Bevel Gear Metrology (January/February 1996)

In recent years, gear inspection requirements have changed considerably, but inspection methods have barely kept pace. The gap is especially noticeable in bevel gears, whose geometry has always made testing them a complicated, expensive and time-consuming process. Present roll test methods for determining flank form and quality of gear sets are hardly applicable to bevel gears at all, and the time, expense and sophistication required for coordinate measurement has limited its use to gear development, with only sampling occurring during production.

699 Enterprise Excellence: Are We There Yet (September/October 2010)

When the term, “what you see is what you get” is applied in the computer industry, it means that users or customers are able to see their end results without the encumbrances of complicated software code that enables this function. Software works behind the scenes ultimately to produce transparency and the desired effects. In many ways, this concept should be extended to the relationships that exist between suppliers and buyers and even among internal company departments.

700 Questions To Keep You Up At Night (November/December 1995)

Sometimes in the pressure to meet deadlines and handle the Crisis of the Day, we lose sight of the forest for the trees. As a partial cure for this syndrome, I recently reviewed the six interviews with gear industry leaders that have appeared in our pages during the last year, trying to get a grasp of a larger picture. It struck me with renewed force how six men, each with a lifetime of experience in this business, see the gear industry forest the same way.

701 What's the Big Attraction - IMTS 2010 (September/October 2010)

The great thing about a trade show the size of IMTS is the amount of options available to attendees. If you’re into cars, fighter jets, machine tools, fighting robots, manufacturing relics or simply the latest technology advancements in a particular industry, you’ll find it at IMTS 2010.

702 What is ISO 9000 and Why Should I Care (March/April 1994)

What follows is the first of three articles we will be running on ISO 9000 and what it means for the gear industry. This first article will cover what ISO 9000 is, what some of its benefits - and problems - are, and whether your company should be a candidate for this certification process. In our next issue, we will consider the important question of how, when, and if to hire an ISO 9000 consultant. The final article in this series will discuss ways to save money while streamlining the certification process in your company.

703 The Art of Involutes (January/February 2012)

The Forest City Gear booth at Gear Expo featured a wide variety of gears utilized in medical equipment, Indy cars, fishing reels, even the recently launched Mars Rover. Scattered among Forest City’s products in Cincinnati were some unique gear sculptures created by an artist that finds more inspiration from the pages of industrial magazines than art galleries.

704 The Broaching of Gears (March/April 1997)

Broaching is a process in which a cutting tool passes over or through a part piece to produce a desired form. A broach removes part material with a series of teeth, each one removing a specified amount of stock.

705 Application of Miner's Rule to Industrial Gear Drives (January/February 1990)

We need a method to analyze cumulative fatigue damage to specify and to design gear drives which will operate under varying load. Since load is seldom constant, most applications need this analysis.

706 Transmission Errors and Bearing Contact of Spur, Helical, and Spiral Bevel Gears (July/August 1990)

An investigation of transmission errors and bearing contact of spur, helical, and spiral bevel gears was performed. Modified tooth surfaces for these gears have been proposed in order to absorb linear transmission errors caused by gear misalignment and to localize the bearing contact. Numerical examples for spur, helical, and spiral bevel gears are presented to illustrate the behavior of the modified gear surfaces with respect to misalignment and errors of assembly. The numerical results indicate that the modified surfaces will perform with a low level of transmission error in non-ideal operating environments.

707 Efficient Methods for the Synthesis of Compound Planetary Differential Gear Trains for Multiple Speed Ratio Generation (July/August 1990)

This article presents an efficient and direct method for the synthesis of compound planetary differential gear trains for the generation of specified multiple speed ratios. It is a train-value method that utilizes the train values of the integrated train components of the systems to form design equations which are solved for the tooth numbers of the gears, the number of mating gear sets and the number of external contacts in the system. Application examples, including vehicle differential transmission units, rear-end differentials with unit and fractional speed ratios, multi-input functions generators and robot wrist joints are given.

708 Finishing of Gears by Ausforming (November/December 1987)

Almost all machines or mechanical systems contain precision contact elements such as bearings, cams, rears, shafts, splines and rollers. These components have two important common requirements: first, they must possess sufficient mechanical properties, such as, high hardness, fatigue strength and wear resistance to maximize their performance and life; second, they must be finished to close dimensional tolerances to minimize noise, vibration and fatigue loading.

709 FZG Rig-Based Testing of Flank Load-Carrying Capacity Internal Gears (June/July 2012)

Micropitting, pitting and wear are typical gear failure modes that can occur on the flanks of slowly operated and highly stressed internal gears. However, the calculation methods for the flank load-carrying capacity have mainly been established on the basis of experimental investigations of external gears. This paper describes the design and functionality of the newly developed test rigs for internal gears and shows basic results of the theoretical studies. It furthermore presents basic examples of experimental test results.

710 Selection of Hobbing Data (November/December 1987)

The art of gear hobbing has advanced dramatically since the development and introduction of unique machine and tool features such as no backlash, super rigidity, automatic loading of cutting tools, CNC controls, additional machine power and improved cutter materials and coatings. It is essential to utilize all these features to run the machine economically.

711 Surface Fatigue Life on CBN and Vitreous Ground Carburized and Hardened AISA 9310 Spur Gears (January/February 1990)

Spur gear surface endurance tests were conducted to investigate CBN ground AISI 9310 spur gears for use in aircraft applications, to determine their endurance characteristics and to compare the results with the endurance of standard vitreous ground AISI 9310 spur gears. Tests were conducted with VIM-VAR AISI 9210 carburized and hardened gears that were finish ground with either CBN or vitreous grinding methods. Test conditions were an inlet oil temperature of 320 K (116 degree F), an outlet oil temperature of 350 K (170 degree F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The CBN ground gears exhibited a surface fatigue life that was slightly better than the vitreous ground gears. The subsurface residual stress of the CBN ground gears was approximately the same as that for the standard vitreous ground gears for the CBN grinding method used.

712 White Etching Areas on Case-Hardened Gears (September/October 1989)

The phenomenon of white layers, which arises from high stress, can be observed under a microscope after the white layers have been treated with a weak nitric acid solution. Their occurrences in zones of high shear stress can provide qualitatively valuable indications of the size and direction of the stress, and they can point out possible starting points for flank damage. An investigation of this phenomenon is described.

713 AGMA, ISO, and BS Gear Standards Part I - Pitting Resistance Ratings (November/December 1990)

A study of AGMA 218, the draft ISO standard 6336, and BS 436: 1986 methods for rating gear tooth strength and surface durability for metallic spur and helical gears is presented. A comparison of the standards mainly focuses on fundamental formula and influence factors, such as the load distribution factor, geometry factor, and others. No attempt is made to qualify or judge the standards other than to comment on the facilities or lack of them in each standard reviewed. In Part I a comparison of pitting resistance ratings is made, and in the subsequent issue, Part II will deal with bending stress ratings and comparisons of designs.

714 A New Method of Designing Worm Gears (July/August 1989)

The first part of this article describes the analytical design method developed by the author to evaluate the load capacity of worm gears. The second part gives a short description of the experimental program and testing resources being used at CETIM to check the basic assumptions of the analytical method; and to determine on gears and test wheels the surface pressure endurance limits of materials that can be used for worm gears. The end of the article compares the results yielded by direct application of the method and test results.

715 Estimating Hobbing Times (July/August 1989)

Hobbing is a continuous gear generation process widely used in the industry for high or low volume production of external cylindrical gears. Depending on the tooth size, gears and splines are hobbed in a single pass or in a two-pass cycle consisting of a roughing cut followed by a finishing cut. State-of-the-art hobbing machines have the capability to vary cutting parameters between first and second cut so that a different formula is used to calculate cycle times for single-cut and double-cut hobbing.

716 The Use of Boundary Elements For The Determination of the AGMA Geometry Factor (January/February 1988)

The geometry factor, which is a fundamental part of the AGMA strength rating of gears, is currently computed using the Lewis parabola which allows computation of the Lewis form factor.(1) The geometry factor is obtained from this Lewis factor and load sharing ratio. This method, which originally required graphical construction methods and more recently has been computerized, works reasonably well for external gears with thick rims.(2-6) However, when thin rims are encountered or when evaluating the strength of internal gears, the AGMA method cannot be used.

717 The Wafer Shaper Cutter (March/April 1989)

In 1985 a new tooling concept for high volume gear production was introduced to the gear manufacturing industry. Since then this tool, the wafer shaper cutter, has proven itself in scores of applications as a cost-effective, consistent producer of superior quality parts. This report examines the first high-production installation at the plant of a major automotive supplies, where a line of twenty shapers is producing timing chain sprockets.

718 Design of Internal Helical Gears (March/April 1989)

In principal, the design of internal helical gear teeth is the same as that for external helical gears. Any of the basic rack forms used for external helical gears may be applied to internal helical gears. The internal gear drive, however, has several limitations; not only all those which apply to external gears, but also several others which are peculiar to internal gears. As with external gears, in order to secure effective tooth action, interferences must be avoided. The possible interferences on an internal gear drive are as follows: 1. Involute interference. To avoid this, all of the working profile of the internal tooth must be of involute form.

719 High Speed Hobbing of Gears With Shifted Profiles (July/August 1988)

The newer profile-shifted (long and short addendum) gears are often used as small size reduction gears for automobiles or motorcycles. The authors have investigated the damage to each cutting edge when small size mass-produced gears with shifted profiles are used at high speeds.

720 Involutometry (September/October 1988)

Involute Curve Fundamentals. Over the years many different curves have been considered for the profile of a gear tooth. Today nearly every gear tooth uses as involute profile. The involute curve may be described as the curve generated by the end of a string that is unwrapped from a cylinder. (See Fig. 1) The circumference of the cylinder is called the base circle.

721 Give Your Gears a Break - Select the Right Coupling! (May/June 1987)

How important is the right choice of coupling in determining successful machine design? Consider the following example. A transmission of appropriate size was needed to transfer the speed of the engine driver to that of the driven generator. The transmission was properly selected and sized to endure the rated power requirements indefinitely, but after only a short time in operation, it failed anyway. What happened? The culprit in the case was a coupling. It provided the necessary power and protection against misalignment but it lacked the ability to isolate the gears from the torque peaks of the diesel engine.

722 The Winds of Change (January/February 1991)

Nashville - One of the highlights of this year's SME Advanced Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic was a tour of the new GM Saturn automobile manufacturing plant outside the city. There in the Tennessee hills is a hopeful vision of the future of the American automobile industry. It may well be the future of American large-scale manufacturing in general.

723 Ask the Expert - Bevel Gear Mounting (March/April 2012)

I am currently writing a design procedure for the correct method for setting up bevel gears in a gearbox for optimum performance...

724 Viewpoint (January/February 1986)

As I travel around the country visiting with many of our customers, I am finding that not only are we, as an advertiser in the journal, meeting our advertising needs, but you are also meeting those very high ideals that you put before us during that meeting.

725 Initial Design of Gears Using an Artificial Neural Net (May/June 1993)

Many CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems have been developed and implemented to produce a superior quality design and to increase the design productivity in the gear industry. In general, it is true that a major portion of design tasks can be performed by CAD systems currently available. However, they can only address the computational aspects of gear design that typically require decision-making as well. In most industrial gear design practices, the initial design is the critical task that significantly effects the final results. However, the decisions about estimating or changing gear size parameters must be made by a gear design expert.

726 Practical Optimization of Helical Gears Using Computer Software (May/June 1993)

The aim of this article is to show a practical procedure for designing optimum helical gears. The optimization procedure is adapted to technical limitations, and it is focused on real-world cases. To emphasize the applicability of the procedure presented here, the most common optimization techniques are described. Afterwards, a description of some of the functions to be optimized is given, limiting parameters and restrictions are defined, and, finally, a graphic method is described.

727 Precision Forged Spiral Bevel Gears (August/September 1984)

A recent U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command project, conducted by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories. successfully developed the methodology of CAD/CAM procedures for manufacturing dies (via EDM) for forging spiral bevel gears. Further, it demonstrated that precision forging of spiral bevel gears is a practical production technique. Although no detailed economic evaluation was made in this study, it is expected that precision forging offers an attractive alternative to the costly gear cutting operations for producing spiral bevel gears.

728 The Process of Gear Shaving (May/June 1984)

Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.

729 Effect of Shot Peening on Surface Fatigue Life of Carburized and Hardened AISI 1910 Spur Gears (January/February 1986)

Gear surface fatigue endurance tests were conducted on two groups of 10 gears each of carburized and hardened AlSI 9310 spur gears manufactured from the same heat of material

730 Investigation of Gear Rattle Phenomena (September/October 1992)

The acceptance by discerning customers of passenger cars is dependent upon both the actual noise lever and the subjective noise character. The subjective noise character itself can contain, among other features, undesirable noise phenomena which become apparent at certain points in the vehicle operating range. One such critical phenomenon is gear rattle, which is mainly present under low speed, high load conditions. Due to changes in the angular velocity of the crankshaft, gear rattle under driving conditions occurs at the unloaded gears and splines.

731 Notes From the Editors Desk (March/April 1986)

Sitting down to write my comments for this issue, one event filled my thoughts-the transformation and uninhibited euphoria that overcame Chicago, and the whole Midwest, by the Bears reaching and winning the Superbowl.

732 Industry Shows Shift Emphasis (January/February 1987)

A change has taken place within the industry that is going to have an enormous effect on the marketing, sales, and purchasing of gear manufacturing and related equipment. This change was the American Gear Manufacturers' Association, first biennial combination technical conference and machine tool minishow.

733 Notes From the Editor's Desk (May/June 1986)

This issue of Gear Technology, The Journal of Gear Manufacturing, marks the end of our second year of publication. As we approach our third year, it is time to review our statement of purpose. Gear Technology's primary goal was and is to be a reference source and a forum for the American Gear industry, and to advance gear technology throughout the world.

734 A Wheel Selection Technique for Form Gear Grinding (May/June 1986)

Until recently, form gear grinding was conducted almost exclusively with dressable, conventional abrasive grinding wheels. In recent years, preformed, plated Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) wheels have been introduced to this operation and a considerable amount of literature has been published that claim that conventional grinding wheels will be completely replaced in the future. The superior machining properties of the CBN wheel are not disputed in this paper.

735 Design Guidelines for High-Capacity Bevel Gear Systems (January/February 1992)

The design of any gearing system is a difficult, multifaceted process. When the system includes bevel gearing, the process is further complicated by the complex nature of the bevel gears themselves. In most cases, the design is based on an evaluation of the ratio required for the gear set, the overall envelope geometry, and the calculation of bending and contact stresses for the gear set to determine its load capacity. There are, however, a great many other parameters which must be addressed if the resultant gear system is to be truly optimum. A considerable body of data related to the optimal design of bevel gears has been developed by the aerospace gear design community in general and by the helicopter community in particular. This article provides a summary of just a few design guidelines based on these data in an effort to provide some guidance in the design of bevel gearing so that maximum capacity may be obtained. The following factors, which may not normally be considered in the usual design practice, are presented and discussed in outline form: Integrated gear/shaft/bearing systems Effects of rim thickness on gear tooth stresses Resonant response

736 To Market, To Market (November/December 1991)

A few months ago at the AGMA management seminar, I was surprised by the feverish note taking that went on at a presentation on marketing. The sight reminded me that while many of us in the gear industry are good engineers, designers, and mangers, we are often not as familiar - or comfortable - with less concrete concepts, such as marketing.

737 Optimum Shot Peening Specification - I (November/December 1991)

Shot peening is widely recognized as a prove, cost-effective process to enhance the fatigue characteristics of metal parts and eliminate the problems of stress corrosion cracking. Additional benefits accrue in the areas of forming and texturizing. Though shot peening is widely used today, the means of specifying process parameters and controlling documents for process control are not widely understood. Questions regarding shot size, intensity, and blueprint specification to assure a high quality and repeatable shot peening process are continually asked by many design and materials engineers. This article should answer many of the questions frequently asked by engineering professionals and to further assist companies interested in establishing a general shot peening specification.

738 Curvic Coupling Design (November/December 1986)

Curvic Couplings were first introduced in 1942 to meet the need for permanent couplings and releasing couplings (clutches), requiring extreme accuracy and maximum load carrying capacity, together with a fast rate of production. The development of the Curvic Coupling stems directly from the manufacture of Zerol and spiral bevel gears since it is made on basically similar machines and also uses similar production methods. The Curvic Coupling can therefore lay claim to the same production advantages and high precision associated with bevel gears.

739 The Competitive Edge (November/December 1986)

Now that the new tax bill has been passed, the time has come to begin evaluating how it will affect investment strategies in the machine tool business. Your first reaction may be to think that any motivation to invest in capital improvements in your company is gone, because both the investment tax credit and the accelerated depreciation on capital investment have been removed from the tax law. After all, if Uncle Sam is not going to help us out through some short term tax gains, why should we bother? Can we afford to bother?

740 Meshing of a Spiral Bevel Gear Set With 3-D Finite Element Analysis (March/April 1997)

Recent advances in spiral bevel gear geometry and finite element technology make it practical to conduct a structural analysis and analytically roll the gear set through mesh. With the advent of user-specific programming linked to 3-D solid modelers and mesh generators, model generation has become greatly automated. Contact algorithms available in general purpose finite element codes eliminate the need for the use and alignment of gap elements. Once the gear set it placed in mesh, user subroutines attached to the FE code easily roll it through mesh. The method is described in detail. Preliminary result for a gear set segment showing the progression of the contact line load is given as the gears roll through mesh.

741 Rudolf Diesel - Man of Motion and Mystery (July 2020)

You have to admit, having an engine named after you is a singularly impressive achievement.

742 Roto Flo's Servo-Actuated CNC to Debut at IMTS (September/October 2008)

Most anyone that has been in the gear industry—or any machining and tooling oriented business, for that matter—is probably at least somewhat familiar with the Roto-Flo workhorse line of hydraulic-actuated spline and thread rolling machines. After all, they’ve been at it for decade

743 Dontyne Debuts GATES Software (November/December 2007)

Dontyne Systems, a U.K. company founded by Michael Fish and David Palmer, recently unveiled a new software program for its Gear Production Suite.

744 The New Freedoms: Bevel Blades (September/October 2007)

Today, because of reduced cost of coatings and quicker turnaround times, the idea of all-around coating on three-face-sharpened blades is again economically viable, allowing manufacturers greater freedoms in cutting blade parameters, including three-face-sharpened and even four-face-sharpened blades.

745 A Bard of Science (July/August 2000)

Oliver E Saari was an engineer with two great professional loves in his life - writing and gear design, and he was devoted to each in their turn. The same original thinking that informed his fiction, giving life to tales of space exploration, the evolution of man, and many other topics, let him to become one of the great pioneers in gear design.

746 Chicago's Movable Bridges (September/October 2007)

Chicago has been known as many things over the years—“Hog Butcher to the World,” “The City That Works,” “The Windy City” and “The City of Big Shoulders” among them. Although perhaps lesser known, add “City of Bridges” to the list.

747 Microsecond Heat Treatment of Gears (March/April 2000)

The performance of metal surfaces can be dramatically enhanced by the thermal process of rapid surface melting and re-solidification (RMRS). When the surface of a metal part (for instance, a gear) is melted and re-solidified in less than one thousandth of a second, the resulting changes in the material can lead to: Increased wear and corrosion resistance, Improved surface finish and appearance, Enhanced surface uniformity and purity, and Sealing of surface cracks and pores.

748 Low Vibration Design on A Helical Gear Pair (January/February 2000)

Helical gear pairs with narrow face width can be theoretically classified into three categories over the contact ration domain whose abscissa is the transverse contact ration and whose ordinate is the overlap contact ratio. There is a direct relation between vibration magnitude and shaft parallelism deviation. To clarify the effect of the tooth deviation types on the vibration behavior of helical gear pairs, performance diagrams on vibration are introduced. the acceleration levels of gear pairs are shown by contour lines on the contact ratio domain. Finally, the performance of gears with bias-in and bias-out modifications is discussed considering the effect of the shaft parallelism deviation with use of the developed simulator on a helical gear unit. It becomes clear that there is an asymmetrical feature on the relation between the vibration magnitude of a gear pair and the direction of each deviation.

749 Reverse Engineering of Pure Involute Cylindrical Gears Using Conventional Measurement Tools (January/February 2000)

Designing a gear set implies a considerable effort in the determination of the geometry that fulfills the requirements of load capacity, reliability, durability, size, etc. When the objective is to design a new set of gears, there are many alternatives for the design, and the designer has the freedom to choose among them. Reverse engineering implies an even bigger challenge to the designer, because the problem involves already manufactured gears whose geometry is generally unknown. In this case, the designer needs to know the exact geometry of the actual gears in order to have a reference for the design.

750 Gears On Ice (January/February 2000)

Saginaw, Michigan, may be home to the only gear operation in the world that requires the use of a Zamboni machine. It may also be the only place in the world where teeth on the Gears are optional.

751 Triumph of Planning (September/October 2000)

Normandy overwhelmed me when I first went there several years ago. I was sobered by the sea of white crosses in the cemeteries, I was inspired by the memorials and their tales of courageous soldiers battling impossible odds, and I was horrified by the visions of carnage that came to me as I stood on the scarred beaches of one of the most significant conflicts in human history.

752 Cast Iron: A Solid choice for Reducing Gear Noise (September/October 1999)

Material selection can play an important role in the constant battle to reduce gear noise. Specifying tighter dimensional tolerances or redesigning the gear are the most common approaches design engineers take to minimize noise, but either approach can add cost to the finished part and strain the relationship between the machine shop and the end user. A third, but often overlooked, alternative is to use a material that has high noise damping capabilities. One such material is cast iron.

753 Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue Performance--Part II (March/April 2007)

This is part II of a two-part paper that presents the results of extensive test programs on the RCF strength of PM steels.

754 Gearbox Speed Reducer Helps Fan Technology for "Greener" Jet Fuel Efficiency (August 2008)

Today’s ever-evolving global economic engine is, in many ways, a wonderful phenomenon; you know—a rising-tide-lifting-all-boats, trickle-down-theory-of-economics dynamic at work.

755 Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue Performance (January/February 2007)

This article summarizes results of research programs on RCF strength of wrought steels and PM steels.

756 Beachfront Gear Manufacturing (January/February 2007)

Lots of us became interested in gears while taking drafting classes in high school.

757 Development of Gear Technology and Theory of Gearing (July/August 1999)

I must admit that after thumbing through the pages of this relatively compact volume (113 pages, 8.5 x 11 format), I read its three chapters(theory of gearing, geometry and technology, and biographical history) from rear to front. It will become obvious later in this discussion why I encourage most gear engineers to adopt this same reading sequence!

758 ASM Bringing the Heat to Gear Expo (July 2009)

Gear making and heat treating pair together like a fine cabernet and filet mignon. Now for the first time, the two industries are embracing this symbiotic relationship by co-locating their industry events this fall in Indianapolis. ASM International’s 2009 Heat Treating Society Conference and Exposition and Gear Technology’s favorite trade show, Gear Expo, are teaming up September 14–17 at the Indiana Convention Center in Indianapolis.

759 The Effect of Manufaturing Microgeometry Variations on the Load Distribution Factor and on Gear Contact and Root Stresses (July 2009)

Traditionally, gear rating procedures consider manufacturing accuracy in the application of the dynamic factor, but only indirectly through the load distribution are such errors in the calculation of stresses used in the durability and gear strength equations. This paper discusses how accuracy affects the calculation of stresses and then uses both statistical design of experiments and Monte Carlo simulation techniques to quantify the effects of different manufacturing and assembly errors on root and contact stresses.

760 Detailed Computer Model of Gearbox Reduces Design Time (March/April 2006)

LMS International helped a Fiat subsidiary develop a new, dynamic vibro-acoustic prediction method to reduce design time and engineering costs through accurate prediction of gear noise in the design phase.

761 Influence of Coatings and Surface Improvements on the Lifetime of Gears (July/August 2004)

Surface coatings or finishing processes are the future technologies for improving the load carrying capacity of case hardened gears. With the help of basic tests, the influence of different coatings and finishing processes on efficiency and resistance to wear, scuffing, micropitting, and macropitting is examined.

762 Influence of Relative Displacements Between Pinion and Gear on Tooth Root Stresses of Spiral Bevel Gears (July/August 1985)

The manufacturing quality of spiral bevel gears has achieved a very high standard. Nevertheless, the understanding of the real stress conditions and the influences. of certain parameters is not satisfactory.

763 An International Wind Turbine Gearbox Standard (July 2009)

Industrial gear standards have been used to support reliability through the specification of requirements for design, manufacturing and verification. The consensus development of an international wind turbine gearbox standard is an example where gear products can be used in reliable mechanical systems today. This has been achieved through progressive changes in gear technology, gear design methods and the continual development and refinement of gearbox standards.

764 Siemens Plant Management 101 (May 2012)

Once upon a time there was a computer. This computer served as a conduit to waste a great deal of time through social networking and online video games. Still, there was always potential to turn these rather sedentary activities into something more positive and useful to mankind. Siemens may have stumbled upon such a concept.

765 What "Ease-Off" shows about Bevel and Hypoid Gears (September/October 2001)

The configuration of flank corrections on bevel gears is subject to relatively narrow restrictions. As far as the gear set is concerned, the requirement is for the greatest possible contact zone to minimize flank compression. However, sufficient reserves in tooth depth and longitudinal direction for tooth contact displacement should be present. From the machine - and particularly from the tool - point of view, there are restrictions as to the type and magnitude of crowning that can be realized. Crowning is a circular correction. Different kinds of crowning are distinguished by their direction. Length crowning, for example, is a circular (or 2nd order) material removal, starting at a reference point and extending in tooth length or face width.

766 Longitudinal Tooth Contact Pattern Shift (May 2012)

After a period of operation, high-speed turbo gears may exhibit a change in longitudinal tooth contact pattern, reducing full face width contact and thereby increasing risk of tooth distress due to the decreased loaded area of the teeth. But this can be tricky—the phenomenon may or may not occur. Or, in some units the shift is more severe than others, with documented cases in which shifting occurred after as little as 16,000 hours of operation. In other cases, there is no evidence of any change for units in operation for more than 170,000 hours. This condition exists primarily in helical gears. All recorded observations here have been with case-carburized and ground gear sets. This presentation describes phenomena observed in a limited sampling of the countless high-speed gear units in field operation. While the authors found no existing literature describing this behavior, further investigation suggests a possible cause. Left unchecked and without corrective action, this occurrence may result in tooth breakage.

767 Service Behavior of PVD-Coated Gearing Lubricated with Biodegradable Synthetic Ester Oils (January/February 2004)

The following article is concerned with the analysis of the wear-reducing effect of PVD-coatings in gearings. Standardized test methods are used, which under near-real conditions enable statements to be made about the different forms of damage and wear (micropitting, macropitting, scuffing).

768 This Room's a Mesh! (July/August 2004)

It’s not likely to be found in any of this summer’s catalogues, but the gear bed from The Rusted Lava Art Shop could lead to sweet dreams.

769 Low Pressure Carburizing with High Pressure Gas Quenching (March/April 2004)

High demands for cost-effectiveness and improved product quality can be achieved via a new low pressure carburizing process with high pressure gas quenching. Up to 50% of the heat treatment time can be saved. Furthermore, the distortion of the gear parts could be reduced because of gas quenching, and grinding costs could be saved. This article gives an overview of the principles of the process technology and the required furnace technology. Also, some examples of practical applications are presented.

770 The Design and Manufacture of Machined Plastic Gears (May/June 1985)

The use of plastic gearing is increasing steadily in new products. This is due in part to the availability of recent design data. Fatigue stress of plastic gears as a function of diametral pitch, pressure angle, pitch line velocity, lubrication and life cycles are described based on test information. Design procedures for plastic gears are presented.

771 Water Powered Machinery (January/February 2001)

In one of my many visits to northern New York state, which included the St. Lawrence River (Thousand Islands Region) and the Adirondack Mountains, I visited Croghan, a village on the Beaver River, which is fed by the Stillwater Resevoir in the Adirondack Mountains. At the base of a dam within the village, I found the remnants of a water turbine and a bevel gear drive system. Having worked for The Gleason Works for many years, I was intrigued by the remains of the bevel gears, which appeared to have had wooden teeth at one time.

772 Gear Expo: Changing with the Times (September/October 2009)

"One of the reasons AGMA has been successful over our 93-year history is that the association’s agenda, programs and activities reflect the voices of our members," says Joe T. Franklin, Jr., AGMA President.

773 In-Situ Measurement of Stresses in Carburized Gears via Neutron Diffraction (May 2009)

This paper presents the results of research directed at measuring the total stress in a pair of statically loaded and carburized spur gears. Measurements were made to examine the change in total stress as a function of externally applied load and depth below the surface.

774 Green Gravy (January/February 2009)

Step right up! Get your U.S. government gravy here! We’re the U.S. Treasury Department’s Troubled Asset Relief Program, and we’re printing money like we’re—well—the U.S. reasury. If you’ve got trouble, then get your assets in line!

775 IMTS is Coming to Chicago (July/August 2004)

Like many businesses in this economic cycle, the IMTS marketing team is forced to look for clever ways to make a profit.

776 How Gears Provide the Gallop in Carousel Horses (January/February 2008)

As far back as the 12th century, men in Turkey and Arabia played a game referred to as carosello or garosello by Spanish and Italian crusaders.

777 Gear Grinding With Dish Wheels (September/October 1999)

The grinding of gears with dish wheels (Maad type grinding machines) is widely viewed as the most precise method of gear grinding because of the very short and simple kinematic links between the gear and the tool, and also because the cutting edges of the wheels represent planar surfaces. However, in this grinding method, depending on the parameters of the gears and one of the adjustments (such as the number of teeth encompassed by the grinding wheels), so-called overtravel at the tip or at the root of the teeth being ground generally occurs. When this happens, machining with only one wheel takes place. As a result, the profile error and the length of the generating path increases while productivity decreases.

778 What's on Your iPod (March/April 2006)

Songs with gear-related lyrics, courtesy of the Addendum team.

779 New Approach to Computerized Design of Spur and Helical Gears (January/February 2005)

Applying "Dynamic Block Contours" allows the designer to predict gear quality at the earliest stage of the design process.

780 Worm Gear Measurement (September/October 1997)

Several articles have appeared in this publication in recent years dealing with the principles and ways in which the inspection of gears can be carried out, but these have dealt chiefly with spur, helical and bevel gearing, whereas worm gearing, while sharing certain common features, also requires an emphasis in certain areas that cause it to stand apart. For example, while worm gears transmit motion between nonparallel shafts, as do bevel and hypoid gears, they usually incorporate much higher ratios and are used in applications for which bevel would not be considered, including drives for rotary and indexing tables in machine tools, where close tolerance of positioning and backlash elimination are critical, and in situations where accuracy of pitch and profile are necessary for uniform transmission at speed, such as elevators, turbine governor drives and speed increasers, where worm gears can operate at up to 24,000 rpm.

781 Structural Analysis of Asymmetrical Teeth: Reduction of Size and Weight (September/October 1997)

The present article contains a preliminary description of studies carried out by the authors with a view toward developing asymmetrical gear teeth. Then a comparison between numerous symmetrical and asymmetrical tooth stress fields under the same modular conditions follows. This leads to the formulation of a rule for similar modules governing variations of stress fields, depending on the pressure angle of the nonactive side. Finally a procedure allowing for calculations for percentage reductions of asymmetrical tooth modules with respect to corresponding symmetrical teeth, maximum ideal stress being equal, is proposed. Then the consequent reductions in size and weight of asymmetrical teeth are assessed.

782 Latest Generation of Quieter Plastic Gears Can Take the Heat (November/December 2005)

Ten years ago, most mainstream gear manufacturers didn't even consider plastics as an option, especially in higher power applications.

783 Sounds Like a Job for Toolman (November/December 2005)

While the rest of the exhibitors were selling machinery, the Addendum team scoured the floor of Gear Expo in a quest to find quirky things at the show.

784 The Gear Mix (July/August 2005)

A word puzzle from the Addendum team.

785 Operational Condition and Superfinishing Effect on High-Speed Helical Gearing System Performance (March/April 2008)

An experimental effort has been conducted on an aerospace-quality helical gear train to investigate the thermal behavior of the gear system. Test results from the parametric studies and the superfinishing process are presented.

786 A New Approach to Heat Treating Parts Washing (March/April 1999)

New innovations in the management of hear treating parts washers and yielding powerful, unexpected benefits. Simply, cost effective shop floor practices are being combined in new ways to deliver big quality improvements and significant help to the bottom line. Employing these steps early in the process can dramatically cut waste hauling expenses and greatly reduce environmental liabilities while continuously producing cleaner parts.

787 Gear Data Exchange Format (March/April 2005)

VDI has created a data exchange format that allows for the electronic exchange of all geometric parameters for cylindrical gears.

788 Obtaining Meaningful Surface Roughness Measurements on Gear Teeth (July/August 1997)

Surface roughness measuring of gear teeth can be a very frustrating experience. Measuring results often do not correlate with any functional characteristic, and many users think that they need not bother measuring surface roughness, since the teeth are burnished in operation. They mistakenly believe that the roughness disappears in a short amount of time. This is a myth! The surface indeed is shiny, but it still has considerable roughness. In fact, tests indicate that burnishing only reduces the initial roughness by approximately 25%.

789 Positive Trends, Hot Products, Minor Quibbles and Other Notes From Gear Expo 97 (January/February 1998)

Notes from Detroit...Overall, Gear Expo 97, the AGMA biennial trade show, was a success. While attendance may not have been what some people had hoped for, the quality of the attendees was high. Serious buyers came and brought their checkbooks.

790 Production Increase When Hobbing with Carbide Hobs (January/February 1998)

We are all looking for ways to increase production without sacrificing quality. One of the most cost-effective ways is by improving the substrate material of your hob. Solid carbide hobs are widely used in many applications throughout the world. LMT-Fette was the first to demonstrate the use of solid carbide hobs in 1993 on modern high-speed carbide (HSC) hobbing machines. Since then the process of dry hobbing has been continuously improving through research and product testing. Dry hobbing is proving to be successful in the gear cutting industry as sales for dry hobbing machines have steadily been rising along with the dramatic increase in sales of solid carbide hobs.

791 Running Gear (January/February 2005)

The Addendum team has seen the future of running, and it's geared.

792 Advances in Quenching - A Discussion of Present and Future Technologies (March/April 2005)

Heat treating and quenching are arguably the most critical operations in the manufacture of gears. This article examines causes of distortion in heat treating and quenching.

793 The Kinematics of Conical Involute Gear Hobbing (July 2008)

Conical involute gears, also known as beveloid gears, are generalized involute gears that have the two flanks of the same tooth characterized by different base cylinder radii and different base helix angles.

794 Gleason's Genesis 130SV Gear Shaving Machine (May/June 2006)

The 130SV shaving machine from Gleason is the newest of the company's Genesis family of gear production equipment.

795 Product Liability for Engineers (July/August 1998)

This textbook, written for college level engineering students, gives a basic grounding in the complexities of product liability law. It also provides useful information to those of us involved in the manufacturing of gears and gear systems in that the fundamental concepts apply to all types of manufacturers.

796 Marine Gears: Special Aspects for High Performance (May/June 2006)

A gearbox that absorbs 30 percent of external forces, transmits power from two engines operating at different speeds, and uses gears that meet several design and specification standards at the same time...

797 Effects of Planetary Gear Ratio on Mean Service Life (July/August 1998)

Planetary gear transmissions are compact, high-power speed reducers that use parallel load paths. The range of possible reduction ratios is bounded from below and above by limits on the relative size of the planet gears. For a single-plane transmission, the planet gear has no size of the sun and ring. Which ratio is best for a planetary reduction can be resolved by studying a series of optimal designs. In this series, each design is obtained by maximizing the service life for a planetary transmission with a fixed size, gear ratio, input speed, power and materials. The planetary gear reduction service life is modeled as a function of the two-parameter Weibull distributed service lives of the bearings and gears in the reduction. Planet bearing life strongly influences the optimal reduction lives, which point to an optimal planetary reduction ratio in the neighborhood of four to five.

798 Back in the Good Old Days (September/October 1998)

Come with us now to those thrilling days of yesteryear...Ok, this is not the Cisco Kid, but we do have a little game for you. Guess the year the following advertisements and excerpt were printed - they all appeared in a dingle issue of Machinery Magazine.

799 Galleria Gears (November/December 2006)

For those of us in the gear industry, the concept of gear design is all about involutes, ratios and diameters. Alexander Kirberg has a different vision.

800 Constant Innovation Keeps Suppliers to Race Car Manufacturers Earning Trophies (May/June 2006)

When the fans start screaming at the Daytona 500, they're cheering for Jeff Gordon. Only the die-hard racing fan can appreciate the gearing and engineering that goes into each race car.

801 Gears on the Firing Line (November/December 1998)

Air compressors are a good example of industrial machinery with components that rotate at very high speeds, up to 80,000 rpm. They are subject to very high rotational forces and often variable loads. Strong, high-precision gears for the power transmission trains that drive the impellers are critical components of machinery operating under such conditions.

802 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Power Honing on Gear Surface Topography (January/February 1999)

Gear noise associated with tooth surface topography is a fundamental problem in many applications. Operations such as shaving, gear grinding and gear honing are usually used to finish the gear surface. Often, gears have to be treated by a combination of these operations, e.g. grinding and honing. This is because gear honing operations do not remove enough stock although they do create a surface lay favorable for quiet operation. See Fig. 1 for typical honing process characteristics. Gear grinding processes, on the other hand, do remove stock efficiently but create a noisy surface lay.

803 Technical Calendar (September/October 1988)

September 27-29. American Society for Metals 11th Annual Heat Treating Conference October 10-12. AGMA Fall Technical Meeting. Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, LA November 1-3. SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic, Sheraton Meridian, Indianapolis, IN

804 Advantage AGMA: Technical Committees Build Knowledge and Experience in Gear Industry (September/October 2008)

The world is full of acronyms. At work, the inbox reveals e-mails from the AWEA, SAE, MPIF and AMT. On the weekends, Saturday mornings are consumed by activities involving the AYSO, PTA, YMCA or DMV. It’s a struggle to determine what organization does what and why we should care in the first place.

805 Aerospace Gearing Research - An Update (June 2009)

A look at several American organizations doing cutting edge gear-related research for aerospace applications.

806 From Russia, With Teeth (May/June 2002)

In a little-known incident, Soviet machinists at Mil Helicopter worked in 1988 and 1989 on a special project to be used against Americans.

807 Relief Valve (September/October 2002)

Some of the pressure on American manufacturers seems to be letting up. This is welcome relief, considering the squeeze they have been under for the past few years.

808 IMTS 2004 Sneak Preview (July/August 2004)

There’s a bustle of activity as exhibitors prepare for America’s most significant manufacturing trade show. The red carpets are ready, the lights are being tested, and the crowds are gathering with anticipation. Amid the excitement, Gear Technology has managed to sneak under the usher’s ropes to provide you with this advance look at some of the gear-related products and technologies that will be featured at IMTS 2004.

809 Contact Surface Topology of Worm Gear Teeth (March/April 1988)

Among the various types of gearing systems available to the gear application engineer is the versatile and unique worm and worm gear set. In the simpler form of a cylindrical worm meshing at 90 degree axis angle with an enveloping worm gear, it is widely used and has become a traditional form of gearing. (See Fig. 1) This is evidenced by the large number of gear shops specializing in or supplying such gear sets in unassembled form or as complete gear boxes. Special designs as well as standardized ratio sets covering wide ratio ranges and center distanced are available with many as stock catalog products.

810 Windpower 2009 Relocates in Light of Record Growth (January/February 2009)

It’s not too often a trade show so far surpasses organizers’ expectations for size that it must be relocated. This was just the dilemma the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) faced with the Windpower 2009 Conference and Exhibition, which was originally scheduled to take place in Minneapolis, but will now be held at McCormick Place, Chicago.

811 HMC Lassos World's Largest Gear Grinder (June 2008)

Hofler Rapid 6000 Makes North American Debut at Highway Machine Company.

812 Your Tax Dollars at Work: U.S. Commerce Department, Your Boots on the Ground Overseas (May 2010)

Easily one of the central issues affecting U.S. manufacturing is what one might call the exports deficit—the inability of American companies to sell products to, for instance, Asian markets, developing countries and other ports of call—due to what they perceive to be unfair trade agreements and or policies.

813 Are We Going the Way of the Mayans and Romans (March/April 2010)

A review of "A Nation on Borrowed Time," a book by Joe Arvin and Scott Newton about the decline of America's ability to create wealth through manufacturing, and its effect on the overall economy.

814 Optimism in Wind Abounds (January/February 2009)

Big gears and wind turbines go together like bees and honey, peas and carrots, bread and butter and—well, you get the idea. Wind isn’t just big right now, it’s huge. The wind industry means tremendous things for the energy dependent world we live in and especially big things for gear manufacturers and other beleaguered American industries.

815 Is the Manufacturing Comeback Just an Illusion (May 2014)

A great deal of attention has been paid to the decline of manufacturing in America, and I've been accused of being a town crier since the 1980s, when I began to see our nation lose its edge to foreign competition. My concerns have proven well-founded.

816 Hybrid, Alternative Drivetrains Take Center Stage at CTI Symposium (May 2010)

As the automotive industry continues to reinvent itself, new transmission technologies are at the forefront of this effort, and there is a whirlwind of new developments being detailed at the German Car Training Institute’s Automotive Transmissions and Drive Trains Symposium North America.

817 Gear Applications All the Rage at Windpower 2010 (June 2010)

Capitalizing on a burgeoning new technology where gears are of great import, the gear community gathered en masse at the American Wind Energy Association’s Windpower Expo 2010.

818 An Approach to Pairing Bevel Gears from Conventional Cutting Machine with Gears Produced on 5-Axis Milling Machine (June 2015)

Developed here is a new method to automatically find the optimal topological modification from the predetermined measurement grid points for bevel gears. Employing this method enables the duplication of any flank form of a bevel gear given by the measurement points and the creation of a 3-D model for CAM machining in a very short time. This method not only allows the user to model existing flank forms into 3-D models, but also can be applied for various other purposes, such as compensating for hardening distortions and manufacturing deviations which are very important issues but not yet solved in the practical milling process.

819 A United Europe Will Be A Long Time coming (May/June 1991)

Pride. Awe. Relief. Admiration. These were some of the emotions with which I, like most Americans, greeted the end of the Persian Gulf War. I was proud of our country for saying it would do a job and then doing it with a minimum of loss and a maximum of effectiveness; I was awed by the terrifying efficiency of our weapons and relieved that our casualties were so light; and I was filled with admiration at the skill with which one of the most complex logistical military operations of the century was carried out.

820 Gear Crack Propagation Investigations (November/December 1997)

A common design goal for gears in helicopter or turboprop power transmission is reduced weight. To help meet this goal, some gear designs use thin rims. Rims that are too thin, however, may lead to bending fatigue problems and cracks. The most common methods of gear design and analysis are based on standards published by the American Gear Manufacturers Association. Included in the standards are rating formulas for gear tooth bending to prevent crack initiation (Ref. 1). These standards can include the effect of rim thickness on tooth bending fatigue (Ref 2.). The standards, however, do not indicate the crack propagation path or the remaining life once a crack has started. Fracture mechanics has developed into a useful discipline for predicting strength and life of cracked structures.

821 Machine Tool Memories (July 2018)

A recent visit to the Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation, located in Dearborn, Michigan, helped remind this editor how different the manufacturing floor looked when the Ford Model-T was first being produced in the early 1900s.

822 Sigma Pool Hosts Gear Seminar, WZL Event (July 2007)

More than 120 attendees from the American gear community congregated in Saline, MI, in June for the 2007 Sigma Pool Gear Seminar.

823 The IMTS 2000 Primer (July/August 2000)

Founded in 1927 as the Machine Tool Show and held every two years, the International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) has grown into the largest manufacturing trade show in both North and South America. The statistics for the 1998 show offer a glimpse of the magnitude. Over 1,440 exhibitors showed off 60 million pounds of machinery and went through 5 million pounds of display materials during the week long show. The show organizers themselves sent out 2,632,560 promotional pieces. Twenty-three foreign machine tool associations participated. It took 4,600 trucks to get everything to McCormick Place for the show. There were 450 journalists covering the event, which was attended by 121,764 people. There was $1,034.618,000 worth of business transacted on the show floor of IMTS 1998.

824 Management on the High Seas (May/June 2000)

Most Navy brass would say that Commander D. Michael Abrashoff ran a loose ship. But his style of empowering his crew by delegating authority is changing the way the Navy thinks about management. His speech at the recent annual meeting of the American Gear Manufacturers Association offered a simple, common-sense approach that can be applied not only to running a ship, but also to gear manufacturing or any other industry.

825 Guest Editorial (May/June 1984)

At a time when there are many pressures on the Gear Industry and its representative Association, the American Gear Manufacturers Association, it seems particularly appropriate that Gear Technology - The Journal of Gear Manufacturing appears. AGMA is particularly pleased to have the opportunity to write the first editorial for this magazine.

826 Best of Times, Worst of Times (November/December 2011)

An American renaissance in manufacturing is needed—and long overdue.

827 Finding Tomorrow's Leaders Today (March/April 1995)

The passage last year of both NAFTA and GATT has gone a long way toward leveling the playing field for American manufacturers and other hoping to compete in the global economy. Add to this news the fact that the domestic economy keeps growing, and it seems as though good times are ahead for the gear industry.

828 The Skinny on Lean Manufacturing (June 2007)

While universally known as a Japanese “invention” that was popularized by Toyota, lean in fact traces its roots to the work of post-World War II American occupation forces in Japan.

829 Manufacturing Method of Large-Sized Spiral Bevel Gears in Cyclo-Palloid System Using Multi-Axis Control and Multi-Tasking Machine Tool (August 2011)

In this article, the authors calculated the numerical coordinates on the tooth surfaces of spiral bevel gears and then modeled the tooth profiles using a 3-D CAD system. They then manufactured the large-sized spiral bevel gears based on a CAM process using multi-axis control and multi-tasking machine tooling. The real tooth surfaces were measured using a coordinate measuring machine and the tooth flank form errors were detected using the measured coordinates. Moreover, the gears were meshed with each other and the tooth contact patterns were investigated. As a result, the validity of this manufacturing method was confirmed.

830 Hey Brother, Can You Spare Some Time (March/April 2010)

How you can get involved in a grassroots movement to save American manufacturing--and the American economy.

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67 Mastercam’s Latest CNC Software Enhanced to Provide Multi-Axis Toolpaths (April 20, 2006)
The new Maintenance Release 2 (MR2) software from Mastercam introduces new capabilities including multi-axis toolpaths and Mastercam X a... Read News

68 Mahr Custom RPM Gage Designed for Dynamic Measurement of Cylindrical Parts (January 31, 2017)
The MarSolutions team at Mahr Federal has developed a customized RPM gage for the dynamic measurement of cylindrical parts such as commut... Read News

69 Koepfer America Launches Large Capacity CNC Hob Sharpening Machine (August 7, 2007)
Koepfer America developed the new KFS250 CNC hob sharpening machine, which is  based on its KFS100 series.  The KFS250 series h... Read News

70 Gleason Renames its Plastic Gears Division (June 30, 2015)
Gleason Corporation recently announced a new name for its plastic gears division: Gleason Plastic Gears. The division was formerly k... Read News

71 Kapp Named North American Distributor for R&P Metrology (March 15, 2013)
Kapp Technologies has announced it will be the distributor of Rauth-Pumm Metrology Equipment (R&P) for North America. Rauth-Pumm Metr... Read News

72 Klas Forsström Named Global President of Sandvik Coromant (October 21, 2011)
On September 1, 2011 Klas Forsström took over the position of global president of Sandvik Coromant, a supplier of cutting tools... Read News

73 Congressman Roskam Visits Overton Chicago Gear (May 16, 2011)
Overton Chicago Gear (OCG) had the pleasure to greet their Illinois representative recently.  Congressman Peter Roskam, 6th District... Read News

74 Manufacturing Summer Camps Entice America's Youth (March 2, 2011)
Nuts, Bolts and Thingamajigs (NBT) and the National Association for Community College Entrepreneurship (NACCE) have partnered togeth... Read News

75 Schafer Gear Welcomes Basham and Miller (March 30, 2012)
Jeffery Basham has joined Schafer Gear Works, Inc., as advanced manufacturing engineer in the company's South Bend office. Basha... Read News

76 Automotive Supplier Purchases AFC-Holcroft Walking Beam Furnace (July 2, 2012)
A Tier One automotive supplier located in the Eastern Central region of the United States has purchased a new Walking Beam Furnace with &... Read News

77 Linamar Acquires Famer Group (February 25, 2011)
Linamar Corporation recently announced it has completed its acquisition of the assets of the Famer Group, a privately-owned French manufa... Read News

78 Coord3 Introduces Universal CMM to North American Market (December 19, 2012)
Earlier this year, Coord3 launched its all new ‘Universal’ line of CMM machines at the Control Expo show in Stuttgart, German... Read News

79 AFC Holcroft Names Disler President and CEO (January 8, 2013)
AFC-Holcroft is pleased to name William Disler as president and CEO, effective December, 2012. In his new position as president and CEO o... Read News

80 ERIKS Acquires Diamond Gear Company (January 14, 2011)
ERIKS U.K. has acquired the activities of the Diamond Gear Company (DGC), Ltd., located in Houston, Texas. DGC is a manufacturer of ... Read News

81 Sandvik Names New Director, Business Services (December 8, 2010)
Sandvik Coromant recently announced that Mike Verkamp has been named the company's new director, business services. In this position,... Read News

82 ATI Stellram Introduces Milling Cutter (November 18, 2010)
ATI Stellram recently introduced a new chevron-style milling cutter, the Stellram 5230VS12, designed specifically for machining titanium ... Read News

83 Solar Atmospheres Names Jones VP of Operations (February 28, 2013)
Solar Atmospheres recently named Jamie Jones as its new vice president of operations. Jones has been with the company for nineteen years ... Read News

84 MAG Acquiring Samputensili Gear Hobbing Line (October 11, 2010)
MAG, a manufacturing technology company, has acquired the gear hobbing and chamfering/deburring product line of Samputensili GmbH in Chem... Read News

85 Metal Powder Society Names Fellows (May 23, 2011)
APMI International, professional society for the powder metallurgy (PM) industry, has named William R. Gasbarre, marketing/sales director... Read News

86 GMTA Hires Manger of Controls Engineering and Programming (October 11, 2013)
Effective October 1, Maik Schminke was named manager of controls engineering and programming at the Ann Arbor facility of GMTA. According... Read News

87 Röhm GmbH Names North American CEO (November 11, 2013)
Röhm GmbH, a global leader in the design and manufacture of high-quality clamping and gripping technology, recently appointed Matthe... Read News

88 Sandvik Sponsors Program to Benefit Workshops for Warriors (November 19, 2013)
In honor of Veteran’s Day, Sandvik Coromant recently sponsored a carbide recycling program to benefit the Workshops for Warriors (W... Read News

89 Adams Company Invests in Gear Measurement System (October 7, 2010)
The Adams Company, a custom manufacturer of bevel, helical, spur, worm gears and shafts, are continuing to acquire the latest equipm... Read News

90 Mastercam Certified for Autodesk Inventor (May 18, 2010)
CNC Software, developer of Mastercam CAD/CAM software, recently announced that its Mastercam X4 CAD/CAM software has been certified for A... Read News

91 PTG Engineer Secures 2014 AMTRI Scholarship (February 18, 2014)
The Manufacturing Technologies Association (MTA) awards dinner, held at Birmingham’s International Convention Centre on February 6,... Read News

92 American Axle Announces Agreement with FormTech (February 4, 2009)
American Axle & Manufacturing (AAM) recently announced a purchase agreement with FormTech Industries LLC. The agreement has American ... Read News

93 Solar Manufacturing Names President (December 2, 2008)
James M. Nagy has been appointed president of Solar Manufacturing, Inc. He became vice president of operations in 2002 after joining the ... Read News

94 Artur Pajak named VP of EFD Induction Group (January 26, 2015)
EFD Induction Group, a maker of induction-based industrial heating solutions, recently announced the appointment of Artur Pająk... Read News

95 William M. Davies Career and Technical High School Renews Machine Technology Program Accreditation (February 5, 2015)
Keeping up with industry standards, William M. Davies Career and Technical High School has renewed the accreditation of its Machine ... Read News

96 Camshaft Inspection Gage Measures Up to 200 Parts-Per-Hour (November 24, 2008)
The Adcole 1310 is a high-speed camshaft inspection gage with sub-micron accuracy measuring camshafts for rise error and chattermark dete... Read News

97 Fairfield's James R. Dammon Center Opens in Indiana (February 13, 2008)
Fairfield Manufacturing Company, Inc. officially opened the James R. Dammon Center with a ribbon-cutting ceremony in December of 2007. Ac... Read News

98 Romax Opens New Offices in North America and Japan (August 9, 2007)
Romax Technology announced the opening of its new offices in Tokyo and Troy, MI.In addition, the company hired Hayao Yazawa as ... Read News

99 IMTS Ranks Among Top 50 Trade Shows (February 5, 2013)
The International Manufacturing Technology Show (IMTS) has been named among an elite group of tradeshows as part of Trade Show Executive ... Read News

100 DoAll Founder, Ingersoll President Added to American Precision Hall of Fame (December 16, 2003)
The American Precision Museum named four new members to their Hall of Fame. These individuals join 43 leaders in the American machine too... Read News

101 Dillon Offers Same Day Shipment on Largest Selection of Standard Jaws (August 27, 2019)
Touting the industry’s largest selection of standard jaws in stock for immediate shipment, Dillon Manufacturing’s hard and so... Read News

102 Gleason Gear Trainer Webinars Available for Streaming (August 4, 2020)
In March 2020 Gleason launched its “Home Trainer Webinar Series” in order to support customers in their home offices during C... Read News

103 Walter Presents Vibration-Damping Technology for Machining (April 27, 2020)
With Accure·tec, Walter provides a damping system specially for turning and milling using tools with a long projection length. The... Read News

104 Gleason Announces Hobbing Machine with Integrated Chamfer Hobbing (October 19, 2018)
The new Genesis 160HCD Hobbing Machine for cylindrical gears integrates a newly developed process for chamfer cutting. Chamfer Hobbing ... Read News

105 Kennametal Expands Turret Adapted Clamping Units (December 4, 2019)
Kennametal has announced an expansion of the turret adapted clamping units (TACU): ER-ready driven units in conjunction with a line of so... Read News

106 TDM Systems Announces North American Smart Manufacturing Initiative (March 5, 2019)
TDM Systems Inc. has announced a new smart manufacturing initiative in North America. A team of TDM experts will spearhead the initi... Read News

107 Helios Introduces TM 1000-CNC Gear Deburring and Chamfering Machine (June 29, 2020)
Helios Gear Products has announced the latest technology improvement to its Tecnomacchine (“TM”) series of gear deburring and... Read News

108 A3 Webinar Examines Automated System Purchases (January 6, 2020)
A3 will present the webinar "How to Purchase an Automated System," on January 9, 2019 from 12:00 - 1:00 ET. This webinar will h... Read News

109 LK Metrology Launches Latest Version of CAMIO CMM Software (December 3, 2018)
Metrology software has challenges in most application environments—and LK Metrology’s new 8.5 version of their CAMIO CMM soft... Read News

110 Dougherty Named Vice President of Sales at AFC-Holcroft (November 13, 2018)
Tracy Dougherty has been named vice president of sales at AFC-Holcroft. The announcement was made by William Disler, president and CEO.Ac... Read News

111 Index Names Iniram Precision Machine Tool as Northeast Distributor (March 4, 2020)
Effective February 21, 2020, Index has named Iniram Precision Machine Tool as its distributor of record for Connecticut, Maine, Massachus... Read News

112 LK Metrology Reaches Out to Medical Manufacturers with CMM Assistance Program (April 22, 2020)
Brian Samson, North American managing director for LK Metrology is announcing a special CMM Assistance Program they have developed to sup... Read News

113 Anthony Machine and Kennametal Team-Up to Reduce Setup Times (April 9, 2019)
For more than three decades, Kennametal’s KM brand of quick-change tooling has been making machine shops more efficient. As thous... Read News

114 AMB 2018 Meets and Exceeds Expectations (October 1, 2018)
The AMB 2018 trade fair closed its doors recently. "Exhibitors, visitors and, of course, Messe Stuttgart are very happy – the ... Read News

115 Paul Carlson Named CEO of Tolomatic, Inc. (February 25, 2020)
Paul Carlson has been named president and chief executive officer of Tolomatic, Inc.  Carlson has more than 30 years of manufacturin... Read News

116 Grieve Offers Cooling Chamber (March 21, 2019)
No. 807 is a cooling chamber from Grieve, currently used for cooling oven trucks of steel parts at the customer’s facility. Works... Read News

117 CMTS 2019: Index and Mitcham Machine Tools (July 30, 2019)
At CMTS 2019, Index and Mitcham Machine Tools will be demonstrating how to increase output per operator via integrated automation and sin... Read News

118 Turbo Chamfer Mills Increase Versatility (April 22, 2011)
Seco Tools has announced a new line of Super Turbo chamfer mills designed to provide high metal removal rates while reducing production c... Read News

119 Kitagawa NorthTech Hires David Hawking as National Sales and Marketing Manager for North America (April 9, 2015)
Kitagawa NorthTech recently announced the hiring of David Hawking in the company’s newly created post of national sales and marketi... Read News

120 Doug Glenn Appointed Seco/Warwick's Director of Sales and Marketing for North America (April 6, 2015)
Seco/Warwick Corporation recently announced the appointment of Doug Glenn as the North American director of sales and marketing.“Do... Read News

121 AMB Sets Bar High for 2012 Trade Show (April 1, 2011)
More visitors, an increasingly international character, a top-quality accompanying program; AMB 2012 has set its sights high. When it ope... Read News

122 Cleaning Technologies Names Buse CFO (January 16, 2013)
Cleaning Technologies Group, LLC announced that Helene M. Buse has been named chief financial officer effective January 1, 2013. Buse wil... Read News

123 Cleveland Gear Names Edward McTernan Vice President of Sales and Marketing (March 27, 2015)
Cleveland Gear recently named Edward McTernan the vice president of sales and marketing. McTernan was formally product manager for the m... Read News

124 AMT Reports October Cutting Tool Consumption Totals $196 million (December 16, 2014)
October U.S. cutting tool consumption totaled $193.6 million, according to the U.S. Cutting Tool Institute (USCTI) and AMT – The As... Read News

125 Norton Abrasives Announces Brand Standards Program (December 3, 2012)
Norton Abrasives, a brand of Saint-Gobain Abrasives, has announced the introduction of a new global Norton brand standards program. The s... Read News

126 CGTech Developing NC Programs for 20 Years (June 2, 2008)
With two decades of business and growth under its belt, CGTech, a developer of NC program simulation and analysis software, celebrates ... Read News

127 Tooling U-SME's Competency Framework Now Available (January 12, 2015)
Tooling U-SME, a company specializing in manufacturing training and development, recently launched a new industry resource – Toolin... Read News

128 AFC-Holcroft Ships Heat Treating Furnace to Stamping Manufacturer (January 21, 2015)
A large stamping manufacturer has ordered a mesh belt austempering furnace system from AFC-Holcroft, a manufacturer of heat treating furn... Read News

129 Ipsen Expands Sales Engineering Team (June 24, 2019)
Ipsen USA recently embarked on an initiative to double the number of Regional Sales Engineers (RSEs) by year-end. Ipsen’s RSEs enga... Read News

130 Paresh Shah Named Operations Manager of Schafer Industries (March 9, 2015)
Bipin Doshi, president of Schafer Industries  recently announced the appointment of Paresh Shah as operations manager of the company... Read News

131 Walter USA Introduces Ceramic Inserts (December 7, 2012)
Walter USA, LLC has introduced a new series of ceramic inserts directed at machining high-temp alloys such as Inconel, Waspalloy and Stel... Read News

132 Linamar Gear Adds 27th UBQ Furnace From AFC-Holcroft (January 21, 2015)
Canadian auto parts supplier Linamar Gear, located in Guelph, Ontario, has expanded their manufacturing capacity with the addition of a n... Read News

133 German Machine Tools of America Releases the Präwema SynchroFine 205 HS (February 13, 2015)
Now available from German Machine Tools of America (GMTA), the Präwema SynchroFine 205 HS gear honing machine features direct-driven... Read News

134 North American Robotics Market has Strongest Year Ever in 2014 (February 6, 2015)
Robot orders and shipments in North America set new records in 2014, according to Robotic Industries Association (RIA), the industry&rsqu... Read News

135 Hamai Appoints G Technologies for North American Sales Distribution (February 11, 2020)
Hamai Co., Ltd. is proud to announce the appointment of new sales representation in North America. The appointment is effective January 1... Read News

136 Punch Powertrain Names Chief Technology Officer (May 29, 2020)
Punch Powertrain, an independent supplier of innovative and clean powertrains for leading automotive manufacturers worldwide, has named G... Read News

137 American Wera Represents MAE in North America (December 14, 2011)
Effective October 1, 2011, an agreement was reached by American Wera, Inc. here and MAE Götzen GmbH of Erkrath, Germany for represen... Read News

138 Gear Research Institute Introduces New Leadership Team (May 1, 2015)
GRI recently introduced its new leadership team, including Jack Masseth as president. Masseth has been on GRI's board for a number of... Read News

139 American Broach President Dies (May 24, 2007)
Ed Kokmeyer, former president of American Broach & Machine Co., died. Funeral arrangements are being handled by: Nie Funeral Ho... Read News

140 Speedgrip Chuck Acquired by Stratford-Cambridge Group (December 21, 2015)
Speedgrip Chuck, Inc. has been acquired by an affiliate of the Stratford-Cambridge Group. Speedgrip was founded in 1946 and operates and... Read News

141 Gleason Renames Distech Systems to Gleason Automation Systems (December 18, 2015)
Gleason Corporation announced a new name and operating structure for Distech Systems effective January 1, 2016. The automation business w... Read News

142 Linamar Expands Gear Facility (March 28, 2007)
Linamar Corp. announced plans to add 100,000 square feet to its existing facility to accommodate new and future gear manufacturing progra... Read News

143 Jergens Adds OK-Vise Clamping Systems to its Lineup (December 9, 2015)
Jergens, Inc. announced the addition of OK-Vise clamping systems to its range of workholding solutions. At the heart of the product offer... Read News

144 Koepfer America K-Powered CNC Gear Hobbing Machine Provides Next Step in Repowering Old Models (November 11, 2015)
Koepfer America recently completed the next step in its K-Repowered CNC re-control program with the first K160 Repowered CNC Gear Hobbing... Read News

145 Dillon Jaw Boring Rings Allow Better Grip on Large Diameter Chucks (April 12, 2019)
Dillon Jaw Forming rings, or Jaw Boring Rings, provide uniform pressure on jaws for a more consistent bore on large diameter chucks. They... Read News

146 Christian Dalton Hired as Expanite's North American Sales Manager (October 12, 2015)
Since the opening of the 6500 ft2 production-, laboratory- and test center in Hillerød, Denmark, in 2013, Expanite has been experi... Read News

147 Adcole Model 1310S Inline Camshaft Gage Features Sub-Micron Accuracy (September 30, 2015)
Adcole Corporation recently introduced a new high-speed, fully automated end-of-line camshaft measuring machine that features sub-micron ... Read News

148 LMT Focuses on Excellence Workshop at AMB 2012 (September 28, 2012)
It all began some weeks ago, when a film team set off in search of excellent performance on LMT's behalf. They struck gold and were a... Read News

149 USCTI and AMT Cutting Tool Market Report Finds Cutting Tool Consumption Down 6% in July (September 23, 2015)
July U.S. cutting tool consumption totaled $177.5 million, according to the U.S. Cutting Tool Institute (USCTI) and AMT – the Assoc... Read News

150 James Petiprin Named Regional Sales Manager of EMAG (September 11, 2015)
EMAG recently introduced James Petiprin as the new regional sales manager representing Michigan and Ohio, as well as eastern Pennsylvania... Read News

151 Seco Tools Names Director of Customer Experience (April 15, 2019)
To maximize customer engagement and satisfaction, Seco Tools has named Bill Barcelona as director of customer experience. In this new rol... Read News

152 Waterjet Service Inc. Changes Name to WSI Waterjet Systems International (November 1, 2012)
WSI Waterjet Systems International (formerly named Waterjet Service Inc.) , the globally established, recommended and trusted designer, m... Read News

153 FARO Sponsors Team at Porsche Supercup (May 31, 2007)
FARO Technologies, manufacturers of portable CAM2 solutions, is sponsoring the newly established Team of HISAQ Competition during the 200... Read News

154 ITAMCO Offers Industrial Bluetooth Transmitter (October 12, 2012)
Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies (ITAMCO) has released the iBlue—the first handheld bluetooth transmitter t... Read News

155 Scott Shea Named New Chief Operating Officer of CRP Industries (July 17, 2015)
CRP Industries Inc. recently named Scott Shea its new chief operating officer (COO). Daniel N. Schildge, CEO of CRP Industries Inc., note... Read News

156 Gary Hulihan Named EMCO Maier/Mecof President (July 16, 2015)
EMCO Maier/EMCO Mecof Corporation (Novi, MI) recently named Gary Hulihan its new president, according to Dr. Stefan Hansch, EMCO Group CE... Read News

157 Kennametal Offers Hard Turning Innovation (November 27, 2019)
Kennametal recently announced its latest innovation in hard turning-KBH10B and KBH20B PcBN grades, double-sided inserts for materials up ... Read News

158 Joel Radner Named Sales Manager of Seco's Round Tool Division (July 2, 2015)
Seco Tools, LLC recently named Joel Radner sales manager for its round tools division in North America. Radner brings more than seven yea... Read News

159 AMT Member Named ASME Congressional Fellow (June 22, 2020)
AMT – The Association For Manufacturing Technology has announced that vice president and chief technology officer Tim Shinbara was ... Read News

160 Samputensili Acquires Gear Shaving Machine Technology Company Sicmat (June 26, 2015)
Samputensili recently announced the acquisition of Sicmat S.p.A., a company specializing in gear shaving machine technology.Due to the sy... Read News

161 John Oller Named Engineering Manager at Rj Link (October 16, 2014)
Rj Link International Inc. is pleased to announce that John Oller has been named as Engineering Manager. Oller will be responsible for en... Read News

162 Hainbuch Produces Large Mandrel With Significant Clamping Range for China (July 9, 2007)
Hainbuch GmbH produced a workholder that weights 1.3 tons and features a clamping range of up to 420 mm.According to the company's pr... Read News

163 Machine Tool Builders and Hamai Sign Distribution Agreement (June 11, 2020)
Machine Tool Builders Inc. (MTB) of Machesney Park Illinois and Hans Grass president of G-Technologies have teamed up to formally announc... Read News

164 Schunk Offers Miniature Clamping Module for Compact Applications (February 7, 2020)
Schunk has developed a completely sealed miniature clamping module specifically for compact applications in the metal cutting industry, a... Read News

165 Adcole Names Reece President and CEO (August 4, 2014)
Adcole Corporation, a manufacturer of special purpose machines for measuring engine components such as camshafts, crankshafts, and piston... Read News

166 EMO Hannover 2019: Samputensili (August 1, 2019)
Samputensili will present exciting world premieres, numerous innovations, and state-of-the-art products both for machine tools and cuttin... Read News

167 IMTS 2018 Preview: Rohm Products of America (June 6, 2018)
At IMTS 2018, Röhm Products of America will present a wide range of workholding solutions that lead to higher levels of efficiency... Read News

168 Kahraman Presented 2009 Alumni Award (April 27, 2010)
Dr. Ahmet Kahraman was recently awarded the 2009 Alumni Award for Distinguished Teaching from the Department of Mechanical Engineering at... Read News

169 LMT and Liebherr Extend Agreement for ChamferCut-CG and ChamferCut-IG (September 17, 2019)
LMT Tools and Liebherr-Verzahntechnik GmbH are collaborating to continue the success story of the patented ChamferCut method. On the very... Read News

170 Destaco Launches New Power Clamp Series (March 23, 2020)
Destaco is pleased to announce the launch and availability of its Model 84A40-1/84A50-1 Power Clamps. Despite their very compact double-a... Read News

171 Sandvik Offers MCT Program Online (November 11, 2013)
Sandvik Coromant is pleased to announce its interactive Metal Cutting Technology (MCT) e-Learning program is now available. This comprehe... Read News

172 Kennametal Expands Carbide End Mill Line (October 3, 2019)
Kennametal has announced the latest addition to its best-selling HARVI line of high-performance solid end milling tools, the HARVI I TE f... Read News

173 Dillon Manufacturing Hard Jaws Feature Diamond-Shaped Serrations (March 3, 2020)
Hard Jaws from Dillon Manufacturing, Inc., feature diamond shaped serrations for increased pull down effect which reduces part slippage a... Read News

174 Yamazen Distributes the MAF-150E (November 5, 2013)
Yamazen Inc. is pleased to announce the U.S. debut and distribution of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) series of table-type horiz... Read News

175 Hammar Joins Huffman Corporation (June 1, 2010)
Huffman Corporation recently announced that it has added a key resource to their senior management team to address growth in the flight a... Read News

176 Delcam Launching Next-Gen Software Version at IMTS (June 9, 2010)
Delcam will launch the 2011 version of its FeatureCAM CAM system at the IMTS exhibition in Chicago. The release will incorporate a more m... Read News

177 Seco/Warwick Introduces Super IQ Furnace to North American Market (October 8, 2019)
Seco/Vacuum Technologies, Seco/Warwick Group’s company, is pleased to introduce to the North American market Super IQ (integral que... Read News

178 Solar Carburizes 60 Inch Diameter Gear (June 18, 2010)
Solar Atmospheres, Souderton, Pa, recently announced it has successfully vacuum carburized a large gear required for a defense appli... Read News

179 Roger Jones Named President of ASM Heat Treating Society (September 30, 2013)
Roger A. Jones, corporate president of Solar Atmospheres, has been named president of the ASM Heat Treating Society (HTS) for the 2013-20... Read News

180 Reishauer Corp. Announces Changes to Sales Team (March 16, 2010)
Reishauer recently announced the appointment of Ben Cernohous to the position of regional sales manager for machines and diamond/CBN dres... Read News

181 MecWash System Boasts High Contaminant Removal Rate (September 10, 2013)
MecWash Systems introduces BladeWash aqueous parts washers.  Developed specifically for cleaning the internal cooling channels in tu... Read News

182 Kohl Named President of HAINBUCH America (August 31, 2010)
Hank Kohl has recently been named president of HAINBUCH America. Kohl has more than 25 years of experience in the machine tool industry. ... Read News

183 FANUC America Opens New Robotics and Automation Facility (October 22, 2019)
FANUC America held a grand opening celebration at its new 461,000 square-foot North Campus robotics and automation facility in Auburn Hil... Read News

184 ATI Stellram Adjusts Product Portfolio (July 23, 2013)
ATI Stellram announces the closing of its acquisition of the Assembled Threading Tools product lines of Greenfield Industries, Inc. The G... Read News

185 Metal Powder Society Names Fellows (July 15, 2013)
APMI International, professional society for the powder metallurgy (PM) industry, has named Olle Grinder, consultant, PM technology AB, a... Read News

186 AMT Applauds Manufacturing Legislation (October 4, 2010)
The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT) recently released a statement supporting President Obama's signing of the Small Bu... Read News

187 Arrow Gear and Motoman Robotics Offers Chamfering/Deburring Solutions (October 6, 2010)
PerfectEdge, a complete, full function robotic solution, meets the challenges of tight tolerance chamfering, deburring or finishing proce... Read News

188 Marposs Celebrates 50 Years in North America (June 20, 2013)
Marposs Corp. commemorated the 50th anniversary of its founding in North America during March 2013. Marposs is one of the world’s l... Read News

189 United Grinding Partners with Dynamic Machine (March 18, 2020)
United Grinding North America Inc. announced it has entered into a partnership with Dynamic Machine of Detroit, a Troy, Michigan-based CN... Read News

190 ITAMCO Releases DI Hardenability Calculator (March 26, 2013)
ITAMCO has released another app in its popular series. The method of Jominy hardenability calculation from the chemical Ideal Diameter* (... Read News

191 Hainbuch Names Woods President (May 20, 2013)
Hainbuch America Corporation has announced that James Woods has been appointed president for its Germantown, Wisconsin based company. Woo... Read News

192 Mazak Welcomes LNS to VIP Program (November 5, 2010)
Mazak has announced the certification of LNS, a manufacturer of bar feeding equipment, as a new member of Mazakʼs Value Inspired Par... Read News

193 Seco Tools Acquires NC Industries and Diamond Tool Coating (January 10, 2011)
Seco Tools has signed an agreement to acquire the American companies NC Industries (NCI) and Diamond Tool Coating (DTC). NCI is a produce... Read News

194 Sandvik Teams With Star SU for Gear Milling (January 16, 2014)
Sandvik Coromant has teamed up with Star SU on an extended basis. Beginning as an authorized OEM agent, and now a national channel partne... Read News

195 AMT Applauds Bloom Appointment (February 9, 2011)
The Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT) applauds President Obama's creation of a new post overseeing manufacturing policy.... Read News

196 IMTS Preview: Okuma America Corporation (June 16, 2014)
Okuma’s MA-12500H horizontal machining center will be on display for the first time at the 2014 International Manufacturing Technol... Read News

197 IMTS Preview: Hwacheon Machinery America (August 25, 2014)
Hwacheon Machinery America (Booth S-8129) will demonstrate its high-precision machining centers for die-mold applications. Hwacheon&rsquo... Read News

198 Anthony Fedor and Scott Caccamise Buy Rochester Gear (March 22, 2007)
Anthony Fedor and Scott Caccamise have purchased the stock and real estate of Rochester Gear. The company is a manufacturer of preci... Read News

199 Dontyne Systems Establishes North American Support Facility (January 31, 2013)
Dontyne Systems, supplier of gear design software and systems, has recently established a North American support facility.  Dr. Mich... Read News

200 AMT Reports on Manufacturing Technology Orders (July 18, 2014)
May U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $351.93 million according to AMT – The Association For Manufacturing Technology. T... Read News

201 IMTS Preview: Wenzel America (July 18, 2014)
Wenzel America’s metrology expertise will be highlighted in three separate booths across two pavilions. Their cutting edge, 3-D Sca... Read News

202 IMTS Preview: Yama Seiki (July 18, 2014)
The Yama Seiki-Goodway GV-1 series vertical turning centers accomplish the demanding turning applications of today and tomorrow. GV-1 Ser... Read News

203 IMTS Preview: CAMWorks (July 18, 2014)
Geometric will preview its latest release of CNC programming automation solution, CAMWorks 2015, in Booth E-3320, IMTS 2014 in Chicago. I... Read News

204 AFC-Holcroft Names New Authorized Refractory Contractor (December 2, 2008)
AFC-Holcroft, a manufacturer of heat treating furnaces, has named Northern Refractory its authorized refractory contractor. Controlled At... Read News

205 Sandvik Coromant Offers Versatile Chamfer Cutter (June 26, 2014)
When milling a beveled edge, eliminate frequent tool changes by using one versatile tool for chamfering multiple types of materials. Grea... Read News

206 Amsted Seals and Forming Acquires Clark Seals Ningbo (November 8, 2019)
Amsted Seals and Forming has acquired Clark Seals Ningbo, to be renamed Amsted Seals Ningbo (ASN). The IATF-certified seal production fac... Read News

207 TCI Precision Metals Offers Rapid Response Program for Blanks (March 30, 2020)
In accordance with Governor Newsom’s executive order, N-33-20, TCI Precision Metals remains open and in full operation to help miti... Read News

208 AFC-Holcroft Names Managing Director for European Operations (March 25, 2020)
AFC-Holcroft, headquartered in Wixom, Michigan, USA, has named Marek Kedzierzynski their new managing director of European operations. Ke... Read News

209 Kennametal Offers KOR 5 for Aluminum Roughing for Aerospace Applications (November 7, 2019)
Kennametal has recently introduced the KOR 5 solid carbide end mill for aluminum roughing for aerospace applications. It is designed for ... Read News

210 ABI Research Names Siemens a Leader in Manufacturing Simulation Software (February 27, 2020)
Industry experts at ABI Research, a global tech market advisory firm, recently named Siemens a leader in manufacturing simulation softwar... Read News

211 Xspect Solutions Launches Rent2Measure Program (June 8, 2009)
Manufacturers can rent brand new Wenzel X-Orbit CMMs with no long-term purchase commitment in Xspect Solution's Rent2Measure program.... Read News

212 Walter Introduces Ceramic Grades for Turning Operations (February 14, 2013)
Walter USA, LLC has introduced WIS10 and WWS20, two new ceramic grades that deliver superior results particularly when turning high-temp ... Read News

213 5ME Named Partner in THINC (April 2, 2014)
5ME has been named a Partner in THINC by Okuma America, joining more than 40 technology leaders focused on developing specialized manufacturing systems... Read News

214 Extensible CAD joins PTC PartnerAdvantage Program (January 5, 2010)
Extensible CAD Technologies announced they have joined the PTC PartnerAdvantage Program at the Silver tier in a strategic move to integra... Read News

215 Ipsen to Exhibit at MRO Americas (March 17, 2014)
Ipsen announced that the company will exhibit at the 19th annual MRO Americas Conference & Exhibition, April 8-10, 2014 at the Phoenix Convention Center... Read News

216 MHI Welcomes Wegryn-Jones to Sales Team (March 6, 2014)
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries – Machine Tool Division is pleased to announce the employment of Ross Wegryn-Jone... Read News

217 AMT Applauds New Manufacturing Hubs (March 5, 2014)
Speaking to the importance to expand innovation and create job opportunities for Americans, President Obama recently announced the next e... Read News

218 L.S. Starrett Company Releases Made in America Tribute (August 27, 2019)
The L.S. Starrett Company has recently released an engaging special-edition brochure that heralds the company’s history and commitm... Read News

219 Ritchie Named Vice President, Sales Engineering Machine Tools (January 20, 2010)
Mark Ritchie was named vice president, sales engineering machine tools of Star-SU LLC, effective January 11, 2010. His duties include man... Read News

220 Linamar Purchases AFC-Holcroft Furnace System (February 25, 2013)
Linamar, a multi-national supplier of automotive components, assemblies and castings, has purchased a new Batch Integral Quench System fr... Read News

221 ITAMCO Named Autodesk Inventor of the Month (February 4, 2014)
When discussing machinery, let’s consider for a moment the gear: That humble, mechanical cogwheel that quietly goes about its job o... Read News

222 Samputensili SG 160 Sky Grind Introduces Dry Grinding of Gears to Star SU Line (December 24, 2015)
Samputensili has recently launched a world premiere at EMO Milan 2015. The new machine, the SG 160 Sky Grind, is designed to eliminate th... Read News

223 Samputensili Invests 4.7 Million Euros in Ennvironmentaly Friendly Manufacturing Facility (March 9, 2007)
Samputensili S.p.A. announced an investment of 4.7 million euros for the building of a new manufacturing facility of Ortona (Chieti, Ital... Read News

224 Taraman Named Board of Directors President (November 3, 2010)
Khalil S. Taraman, Ph.D, FSME, PE and D.I.T. chair of manufacturing engineering, Lawrence Technological University (LTU), Southfield, Mic... Read News

225 Kennametal Develops Vibration-Free Boring System (December 6, 2018)
Kennametal has developed a new boring system that boasts an effective anti-chatter mechanism, and also offers an extensive range of index... Read News

226 MAG Named New Partner in MIT Program (September 30, 2011)
MAG IAS joins manufacturing leaders as the newest partner in MIT's prestigious Leaders for Global Operations (LGO) graduate program, ... Read News

227 Mitutoyo America Corporation Announces Personnel Changes (March 31, 2017)
Mitutoyo America Corporation (MAC) has announced organizational changes. For the past 10 years, Shigeyuki Sasaki has provided leader... Read News

228 AMT Reports Manufacturing Technology Consumption on Best Pace Since 2000 (January 14, 2006)
September U.S. manufacturing technology consumption totaled $407.21 million, according to AMTDA, the American Machine Tool Distributors&#... Read News

229 Philadelphia Gear Opens Dubai Sales Office, Names New Manager (January 30, 2006)
Philadelphia Gear Corp. opened a new sales office in Dubai, United Arab Emirates in November. James Aston was appointed as Middle East re... Read News

230 Ajax Tocco Magnethermic Announces Three New Members of Aftermarket Sales Team (March 13, 2017)
Ajax Tocco Magnethermic has added three members to their aftermarket sales team. They welcome Emil Weatherbee as an aftermarket sales eng... Read News

231 Romax Named Gold Sponsor for VDI Conference (March 23, 2012)
Romax Technology is pleased to announce it has become a gold sponsor of the International VDI Conference, Transmissions in Vehicles. ... Read News

232 Seco/Warwick Walking Beam Furnace Commissioned at NHK Springs India (March 8, 2017)
Seco/Warwick has recently commissioned a 3.96 ton per hour capacity Walking Beam Furnace at NHK Springs India Ltd., Andhra Pradesh, India... Read News

233 Siemens Announces Lifelong Educational Advantage Program for Workforce Development in Secondary and Technical Schools (March 8, 2017)
Siemens announced the launch of a new workforce development program for secondary and technical schools across America called LEAP - the ... Read News

234 Hainbuch America Hires Brian Eaton as Regional Sales Manager for Northeastern U.S. (March 3, 2017)
Hainbuch America has announced that Brian Eaton has joined their team as regional sales manager for the northeast region, covering the st... Read News

235 American Axle Adds to Aftermarket Product Portfolio (April 2, 2006)
American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings announced the expansion of its aftermarket product portfolio at the 2006 Automotive Aftermarket Pr... Read News

236 Jaworek Joins Seco/Warwick Thermal Team (September 13, 2011)
Seco/Warwick Corporation recently announced that Katanya Jaworek has been added to Seco/Warwick's Thermal Team sales staff as a sales... Read News

237 Kitagawa NorthTech Names Kevin Bennett Vice President of Sales and Marketing (February 6, 2017)
Kitagawa NorthTech, Inc. has named Kevin Bennett Vice President of Sales and Marketing. In his new post for the company, Bennett will be ... Read News

238 Samputensil Introduces High Capacity Grinding Machine (January 6, 2006)
The new 250G generating grinding machine from Samputensili, introduced at EMO 2005 was developed to achieve a shorter cycle time. Acco... Read News

239 Allegro MicroSystems New Motor Driver Completes Product Family (April 4, 2006)
Allegro MicroSystems announced a new DMOS full-bride motor driver to complement their parallel input DC motor driver family. Designed... Read News

240 Stama Highlights Vertical-Spindle Mill-Turn Series (December 26, 2018)
The MT 733 series from Stama (Chiron Group) allows all six sides of a workpiece to be machined on a single five-axis center. The machinin... Read News

241 Two-Piece Balanced Gear Clamps From Sterling Feature Balanced Design (April 5, 2006)
A new series of two-piece clamps for retaining gears on shafts, introduced by Sterling Instrument, provide easy installation when neither... Read News

242 Sandvik Coromat and Camito Sign Cooperative Agreement (April 6, 2006)
Sandvik Coromant and Camito signed a cooperation agreement for further mutual development and improvement of the technology for machining... Read News

243 New Depressed Center Wheels Introduced by Camel Grinding Wheels (April 6, 2006)
CGW-Camel Grinding Wheels has introduced Fast Cut Series Aluminum Oxide Type 27 Depressed Center Wheels with N-grade bond for right angle... Read News

244 Samputensili Appoints Gear Technology Manager (January 3, 2017)
Samputensili recently announced the recent appointment of Dr. Ing. Deniz Sari to the newly created position of gear technology manager fo... Read News

245 Asahi America Introduces Plastic Gear Operator (April 7, 2006)
Plasgear from Asahi America is a thermoplastic gear operator from Asahi America. According to the company’s press release, the P... Read News

246 Weiler Abrasives Expands Small Diameter Cutting Wheel Offering (January 10, 2019)
Weiler Abrasives has expanded its offering of small diameter cutting and snagging wheels for high-speed die grinders to include Tiger AO,... Read News

247 AMT and AMTDA Explore Product-Service Integration (August 24, 2011)
The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT) and the American Machine Tool Distributors' Association (AMTDA) have announce... Read News

248 Dillon Offers Large Diameter Chucks (January 14, 2019)
Dillon Manufacturing specializes in premium chuck jaw products for large diameter (15-60 inch) chucks. Matching specialized workholding t... Read News

249 Joe Gentile Named to PMPA Technical Board (December 7, 2016)
Joe Gentile, Product Manager for Hangsterfer's Laboratories of Mantua, N.J. was named First Vice-Chair of the Technical Members Board... Read News

250 AGMA Promotes Blassingame to Vice President, Education Services (January 18, 2019)
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) is pleased to announce the promotion of Casandra Blassingame to vice president, educat... Read News

251 Mahr Federal Millimar C1200 Digital IC Amplifier Redesigned with Increased Application Range and User Security (April 19, 2017)
Several new features have been added to Mahr Federal's popular Millimar C1200 Digital IC amplifier, increasing its application range ... Read News

252 Bodine Introduces New Family of Gearmotors (April 19, 2005)
The family of gearmotors includes a Quinsulation five-stage insulation system designed to meet NEMA MG 1-1993, Section IV, Part 31. The i... Read News

253 Beth Ann Jones Named President of Independent Lubricant Manufacturers Association (November 30, 2016)
Beth Ann Jones, vice president and general counsel for Hangsterfer's Laboratories, was named President of the Independent Lubricant M... Read News

254 Heller Appoints Stephen Pegram Vice President of Sales for North America (December 12, 2017)
Heller Machine Tools have announced that Stephen Pegram has joined the company as Vice President of Sales for North America. He will be b... Read News

255 Elgin Community College Joins ICATT Apprenticeship Program (June 6, 2018)
The Industry Consortium for Advanced Technical Training (ICATT) Apprenticeship Program is proud to announce its newest Network College,... Read News

256 Zoller Inaugurates New North American Headquarters (June 4, 2018)
Zoller Inc. inaugurated its new North American Headquarters on May 18th, 2018 in the presence of the Zoller family, esteemed architect ... Read News

257 New Hydrodynamic Brake from Voith Turbo (January 27, 2004)
Voith Turbo has designed a new industrial retarder (hydrodynamic brake) for simulating various load conditions of diesel engines. Four... Read News

258 Sandvik and Hofler Team Up in Schaumburg Productivity Center (November 22, 2011)
The collaboration between Sandvik Coromant and Höfler Maschinenbau began in 2009. Since then it has developed into several joint act... Read News

259 Gear Motions Announces Retirement of Samuel R. Haines (January 30, 2018)
Samuel R. Haines has retired from his position as CFO of Gear Motions, Inc. effective at the end of 2017, following 44 years of... Read News

260 Croson Re-Elected to NAM Association Council (January 23, 2018)
AGMA President Matt Croson was elected to the National Association of Manufacturer’s (NAM) Council of Manufacturing Associations (C... Read News

261 Hamilton Sundstrand Awarded Contract for Trent 1000 Engine (April 16, 2004)
The Rolls-Royce Co. selected Hamilton Sundstrand to design and manufacture the gearbox system for the Trent 1000 engine that is being dev... Read News

262 DMG Mori USA Appoints James Nudo as President (January 5, 2018)
DMG Mori USA has announced the appointment of James V. Nudo as the new president of their organization. Nudo has been with DMG Mori for o... Read News

263 Promotions at American Axle and Manufacturing (April 17, 2004)
American Axle has made numerous appointments at their executive level. Yogendra N.Rahangdale was named chairman of the operating comm... Read News

264 Magna Donates $100,000 to Tsunami Relief (January 5, 2005)
Magna International will provide $100,000 to the Canadian Red Cross for victimsof the earthquake and tsunami disaster in South Asia. ... Read News

265 Forest City Gear Expands Small Diameter ID/OD Grinding Capability (December 13, 2017)
Forest City Gear has expanded its capabilities for the hard finishing of smaller diameter gears with particularly tight ID and length tol... Read News

266 Röhm Presents Clamping and Gripping Technologies at EMO 2017 (November 28, 2017)
Röhm exhibited several of the company's latest product developments at EMO 2017. Innovations that drew the greatest interest fro... Read News

267 Kennametal Releases Latest Helical Milling Cutter (October 17, 2018)
Kennametal recently released its newest helical milling cutter, the Harvi Ultra 8X.Using a 95 mm (3.74 in.) axial depth of cut, 20 mm (... Read News

268 KISSsoft KISSsys and GEMS Programs Now Directly Interface, Exchange Data (November 27, 2017)
KISSsys is KISSsoft‘s system add-on that enables you to model complete gear units and drive trains. KISSsoft calculates the service... Read News

269 Kennametal Offers Two Solutions for Roughing and Fine Finishing (November 15, 2017)
Kennametal is expanding the Mill 16 platform by introducing new cutter body styles, new insert geometries and grades, and a split case de... Read News

270 Brown Named Division President at Inductoheat (February 3, 2005)
Douglas R. Brown was promoted to president of the forging division at Inductoheat of Madison Heights, MI. According to the company'... Read News

271 New Clamping Devices for Tool and Hob Manufacturing from Toolink (February 9, 2005)
The K?nigdorn hydraulic expansion mandrels from Toolink Enginering manually clamp hobs located between centers on the machine. The system... Read News

272 American Stress Technologies Introduces New Inspection System (February 15, 2005)
For the gear manufacturer plagued with nightmares about the possibility of grinding damage, GearScan 600 from American Stress Technologie... Read News

273 Seco/Warwick Nominated for Hidden Champion of the Year Award (October 3, 2017)
Hidden Champion of the Year is a title granted to companies which effectively develop in the international environment. The elite of Hidd... Read News

274 Sicmat Releases Raso 200 Dynamic Shaving Machine (November 10, 2011)
The Raso 200 Dynamic has been developed to offer all the characteristics of a gear shaving machine with a competitive price. With a footp... Read News

275 Solar Atmospheres Awarded Gulfstream Approval (January 15, 2020)
Solar Atmospheres of Western Pennsylvania is proud to announce their recent Gulfstream approval for material process specifications GAMPS... Read News

276 Röhm 3/2 Jaw Chuck, Clamp Mounting Assembly Tool and Live Center Solutions to be Displayed at EMO 2017 (August 21, 2017)
Röhm Products of America will showcase its industry-leading workholding innovations at EMO 2017 in Hanover, Germany, September 18-23... Read News

277 Samputensili and Shanghai Tool Works Join Forces (April 16, 2005)
Antonio Maccaferri, president of Samputensili S.p.A. and Yang Jinchang, president of Shanghai Tool Works Co. Ltd. announced a joint ven... Read News

278 Seco Tools PCBN Insert Grade Family Expanded with Four New Hard Turning Grades (June 27, 2017)
Seco Tools has expanded its family of PCBN insert grades to cover the entire spectrum of hard part turning applications. Using a new bimo... Read News

279 New Chamfer/Deburring Machines from Star SU (April 18, 2005)
The S250CD, S250CDA and S250CDX chamfer/deburring machines from Star SU replace the older SCT and SM series in the U.S. market. The new C... Read News

280 Sandvik Material Offers Buy-Back Program for Recycling High-Alloy Steel (August 3, 2020)
Sandvik and its strategic business partner Stamicarbon have initiated a new project to recycle high alloy steel by offering fertilizer cu... Read News

281 Kitagawa-NorthTech Names Ed Johannesen Senior Manager of Engineering and Quality (December 2, 2016)
Kitagawa-NorthTech, Inc. has named Ed Johannesen as Senior Manager of Engineering and Quality. Johannesen will lead the design engineerin... Read News

282 Fozo Named Operations Manager at South Bend Gear (August 9, 2011)
Doug Fozo has been named operations manager for South Bend Gear, a new joint venture of Schafer Gear Works, Inc. with headquarters in Sou... Read News

283 Makino’s New Grinding Machining Center Grinds, Drills, Bores and Mills on the Same Machine (January 9, 2007)
Makino introduced the G5 Grinder horizontal machining center, capable of grinding, drilling, boring and milling all on the same machine.... Read News

284 American Wera Renamed German Machine Tools of America (August 7, 2012)
American Wera is now officially renamed German Machine Tools Of America (GMTA) and continues to represent various top-quality German meta... Read News

285 Marsh Bellofram Announces Management Hires (July 28, 2020)
The Marsh Bellofram Group of Companies announces two new hires to managerial positions. Mark Ambrose is the new regional sales manager of... Read News

286 Forbes Names Ricardo one of America's Leading Consulting Firms in the Automotive Industry (June 2, 2016)
Ricardo was recently listed in the Forbes America’s Best Management Consulting Firms 2016, a list identifying which management cons... Read News

287 ATI Stellram Releases Milling Products Catalog (June 24, 2011)
ATI Stellram introduces its new catalog featuring indexable milling cutters and inserts specifically designed and manufactured for machin... Read News

288 Hollingsworth Joins Kapp Technologies Sales Team (May 16, 2016)
Kapp Technologies has announced that Shane Hollingsworth has joined their sales team. Hollingsworth will represent Kapp Niles customers i... Read News

289 Kennametal Introduces HPX Solid Carbide Drill for Steel Applications (July 24, 2020)
Kennametal has introduced an expansion its solid carbide drilling portfolio, the HPX drill for high performance, large volume drilling in... Read News

290 The Broachman Joins American Broach & Machine (April 20, 2006)
Ken Nemec, a.k.a. "The Broachman", was hired by American Broach & Machine as marketing manager. According to the company's press r... Read News

291 Mahr Federal MarSolutions Engineered Metrology Team Assists Customers in Choosing Gaging Solutions (April 7, 2016)
Mahr Federal has established a special team within its Engineered Products Division to augment custom gage development directly with cust... Read News

292 Mahr Announces Stuart Manser as Director of Sales, Precision Gages for North America (April 4, 2016)
Mahr Federal has named Stuart Manser as Director of Sales, Precision Gages for North America. Reporting directly to Mahr Federal CEO Tony... Read News

293 AGMA Names Croson President (April 1, 2016)
AGMA has named Matthew E. Croson as its next president. Croson has more than two decades of leadership and communications experience in m... Read News

294 IMTS Preview: Hommel-Etamic (August 23, 2012)
Jenoptik Industrial Metrology will demonstrate the new Hommel-Etamic F435 and F455 automatic form measuring system at IMTS 2012. The syst... Read News

295 Furnaces North America 2020 Goes Virtual (July 8, 2020)
Due to COVID-19, FNA 2020 has transitioned into a virtual conference and trade show.  This development provides a great opportunity ... Read News

296 Koepfer America Gear School 2016 Offers Courses on Gear Basics (June 24, 2016)
Koepfer America recently completed Gear School 2016. This is known formally as the Fundamentals of Parallel Axis Gear Manufacturing semin... Read News

297 Koepfer’s Versatile MZ 130 Provides Same-Setup Gear Hobbing and Worm Milling (January 10, 2007)
Koepfer’s MZ130 hobbing and worm milling CNC machine from Monnier + Zahner was designed with versatility and ease of use in mind. ... Read News

298 Koepfer America Hires David Harroun as Sales Manager (March 8, 2016)
Koepfer America welcomes the addition of David Harroun in the position of sales manager. Harroun will strengthen the company’s sale... Read News

299 The Adams Company Invests in Turning Capabilities (March 1, 2016)
The Adams Company, a custom gear and shaft manufacturing company located in Dubuque, IA., recently announced the delivery of a new Okuma ... Read News

300 Ikona Gear Names New Vice President (January 31, 2007)
Joe Vosburgh was named executive vice president of Ikona Gear. Vosburgh will assume the overall responsibility for strategic planning... Read News

301 Seco T-Style Sialon Ceramic Inserts Expands Secomax CS100's Capabilities (February 23, 2016)
Seco has expanded the roughing and semi-finishing performance capabilities of its Secomax CS100 sialon ceramic grade by adding inserts wi... Read News

302 Sandvik Coromant CoroMill 390 With Size 07 Inserts Designed for Small Diameter Projects (February 22, 2016)
Available immediately, Sandvik Coromant offers a new end mill for small diameters. The CoroMill 390 with size 07 inserts is a versatile c... Read News

303 Conicity Technologies Named Alliance Partner for Department of Defense (February 2, 2007)
Conicity Technologies was named an alliance partner of the National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining (NCDMM). According ... Read News

304 TUV Rheinland Implements Excellence Center Program (July 6, 2020)
TUV Rheinland of North America has announced the expansion of its Excellence Center Program in the United States to support Product Testi... Read News

305 AMG Subsidiary ALD Vacuum Technologies Acquires ALD-Holcroft (February 18, 2016)
AMG Advanced Metallurgical Group N.V. has announced that ALD Vacuum Technologies has acquired the remaining 50 percent share of thei... Read News

306 Gear Motions Names New Vice President (February 16, 2016)
Gear Motions, a leading precision gear manufacturer, has named Paul Andruszko vice president of its Buffalo, New York, operations, which ... Read News

307 1,473 American Axle Employees Participated in Special Attrition Program (February 12, 2007)
American Axle & Manufacturing Holdings, Inc. announced that 1,473 UAW-represented employees agreed to participate in AAM's special at... Read News

308 Seco Adds to Executive and Management Teams (January 20, 2016)
On track for continued business growth, Seco has appointed new members to its executive and management teams. David Mrdjenovic is the com... Read News

309 Seco Tools Jabro-Solid2 JS554 Solid-Carbide End Mill Gains New Neck Diameter Options (November 15, 2016)
The Jabro-Solid2 JS554 range of solid-carbide end mills has improved its utility and versatility with smaller neck diameter options. Thes... Read News

310 ATI Stellram Introduces NL Turning Grades (May 2, 2013)
These five new Stellram NL turning grades are specifically engineered to provide optimum performance in a given application and workpiece... Read News

311 Riten Industries Disk Driver Designed for Holding Workpieces with 2-Inch Diameters or Less (June 30, 2016)
Riten has introduced a modified face driver specifically designed to hold workpieces with diameters of 2 inches or less. In lieu of indiv... Read News

312 American Wera Expands Operations (May 22, 2012)
American Wera represents various German metalworking machine builders, including Profilator, Pittler, Praewema, Diskus, WMZ and MAE. ... Read News

313 Rohm Cartridge Mandrel Offers High Accuracy for Internal Clamping (November 11, 2016)
Rohm Products of America recently introduced the lightweight, compact Agilis power-operated cartridge mandrel clamping system. This new m... Read News

314 Samputensili Master Gears Personalized to Customer or DIN Specifications (April 12, 2006)
Samputensili has introduced a range of master gears to determine work gear accuracy and setting masters to adjust checking equipment. ... Read News

315 Hainbuch America Announces Jim McCraw as Applications Engineer (November 8, 2016)
Hainbuch America has announced that Jim McCraw has joined their team as an Applications Engineer supporting their growing number of Regio... Read News

316 AGMA Foundation Revamps Fundraising Efforts (April 13, 2006)
Starting last year, the AGMA’s Foundation Committee redefined its mission. Kyle Seymour, president and CEO of Xtek Inc., is commi... Read News

317 Hainbuch America Announces Christian Yehle Regional Sales Manager for South Central Region (November 3, 2016)
Hainbuch America has announced that Christian Yehle has rejoined their team as regional sales manager for the South Central Region, cover... Read News

318 Jenoptik Automotive Offers Hommel-Etamic AG380 Pneumatic Snap Gage (October 27, 2016)
Jenoptik Automotive recently introduced the Hommel-Etamic AG380 pneumatic snap gage to quickly, cost-effectively and flexibly check a ran... Read News

319 Kennametal Mill 4-11 Indexable Shoulder Mill Designed for Smooth Cuts with Small Machining Centers (October 21, 2016)
Two years ago, Kennametal introduced a double-sided 90 degrees milling platform that eliminates this issue while providing manufacturers ... Read News

320 SECO-Warwick Shortlisted for Hidden Champions 2016 (October 20, 2016)
SECO/Warwick has been shortlisted for the title of Hidden Champions of HSBC Bank. HSBC Holding is the world's largest financial holdi... Read News

321 Walter WDN10 Diamond Inserts Offer Solution for High-Speed Machining of Non-Ferrous Materials (July 8, 2016)
The WDN10 from Walter, a high-performance and extremely wear-resistant polycrystalline diamond (PCD) insert delivers outstanding hardness... Read News

322 In Memoriam: Richard E. Breidenstein (May 10, 2012)
Dennis Richmond, vice president at Reishauer, recently commented on the passing of Richard E. Breidenstein: "The gear manufacturing ... Read News

323 TechAmerica Applauds Illinois Governor Pat Quinn (July 26, 2011)
TechAmerica recently applauded Illinois Governor Pat Quinn for signing Senate Bill 107, the Technology Development Act (TDA II), leg... Read News

324 AFC-Holcroft Opens Asian Office, Names Director (July 19, 2011)
AFC-Holcroft has opened a new regional office in Asia and has named Janusz Kowalewski as the managing director of Asian Operations. Kowal... Read News

325 Byers Named President of STLE (June 27, 2012)
Jerry Byers, manager of research and development for Cimcool Fluid Technology, is the new president of the Society of Tribologists a... Read News

326 Drake Manufacturing and TECNO.team Establish Sales Agreement for Europe (July 14, 2016)
Drake Manufacturing Services Co., LLC and TECNO.team GmbH have formally established a sales agreement for Europe, specifically Austria, B... Read News

327 mG miniGears Named One of Europe’s Fastest Growing Companies (April 15, 2006)
mG miniGears SpA of Padua announced that it has been listed No. 272 among the fastest growing European companies included in the 2006 Eur... Read News

328 GMTA Now Provides Samag Machining Centers to North America (July 20, 2016)
Now available from German Machine Tools of America (GMTA), a full line of Samag machining centers, including multi-spindle, horizontal ma... Read News

329 IMTS 2016: German Machine Tools of America (GMTA) (N-6924) (September 1, 2016)
Rasoma Machining Centers Now available from German Machine Tools of America (GMTA), a full line of Rasoma machining centers, includi... Read News

330 Mitutoyo America Announces Opening of 35,500-Square-Foot Facility (July 19, 2016)
Mitutoyo America Corporation announces the grand opening of the newly renovated M3 Solution Center in City of Industry, CA. This nea... Read News

331 AMT Reports April Manufacturing Technology Orders Down 16.6 Percent from 2015 (July 18, 2016)
Manufacturing technology orders for April 2016 were down 27.5 percent from the same month a year ago, according to the latest U.S. Manufa... Read News

332 Walter M4000 Family Helical Milling Cutters Expanded to Include Three New Models (July 15, 2016)
Walter has announced the addition of the M4256, M4257 and M4258 high-performance helical milling cutters to its M4000 family. The M4000 p... Read News

333 Wenzel America Upgrades Website (February 9, 2011)
Wenzel America, the U.S. branch of German measuring equipment manufacturer Wenzel Group, has expanded the resources and capabilities avai... Read News

334 FeatureCAM Helps Renishaw Turn Designers into Machinists (February 23, 2011)
Metrology and healthcare specialist Renishaw has been able to improve greatly the productivity of its rapid prototyping department by tur... Read News

335 Winshuttle Examines ERP Users in Latest Manufacturing Report (February 3, 2020)
The majority of manufacturers are under pressure to launch more products, faster than ever, and cite automating manual processes as the b... Read News

336 Renishaw Offers CMM Retrofit Program (November 16, 2010)
Renishaw is now offering certified coordinate measuring machine (CMM) retrofits to upgrade existing machines to state-of-the-art capabili... Read News

337 Gleason Announces Changes to European Sales Team (June 17, 2011)
Gleason Corporation today announced changes to their European Sales organization. Ralf Nierlein has been appointed vice president, sales ... Read News

338 ITAMCO Creates New Manufacturing Apps (December 21, 2010)
Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies (ITAMCO) recently released two manufacturing apps to assist those involved in the gear ind... Read News

339 Koepfer to Represent Drake in North America (September 28, 2011)
Drake Manufacturing Services Co. and Koepfer America, LLC have formally established a new sales agreement for North America. This agreeme... Read News

340 A3 Reports a Slight Increase in 2019 North American Robotic Orders (February 14, 2020)
The Robotic Industries Association (RIA), part of the Association for Advancing Automation (A3), recently announced 2019 North American r... Read News

341 Seco Tools Joins Mazak VIP Program (June 3, 2011)
Mazak has announced it has certified Seco Tools, a provider of metalcutting solutions for milling, turning, holemaking and toolholding, a... Read News

342 AMT Elects 2011-2012 Officers and Directors (March 16, 2011)
The Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT) recently elected its 2011-2012 officers and directors at its 2011 Annual Meeting in Ch... Read News

343 Siemens Mindsphere Named IoT Software Leader (February 7, 2020)
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) has the potential to significantly improve global productivity and growth, with Accenture esti... Read News

344 Grupo Mess Named Exclusive Buehler Distributor for Metallographic and Hardness Equipment in Mexico (January 20, 2020)
Buehler, an ITW Company announces a partnership with Grupo Mess, a leading Mexico supplier of scientific equipment and services specializ... Read News

345 IMTS Preview: JTEKT Toyoda Americas Corporation (July 6, 2018)
Combining lean thinking with cutting edge solutions, JTEKT Toyoda Americas Corporation plans to unveil six new machines of their 15 featu... Read News

346 Sandvik Coromant Launches ISO S Insert Program (October 19, 2010)
Sandvik Coromant recently launched more than 300 inserts in a new series of optimized ISO S turning geometries with easy-to-choose guidel... Read News

347 American Axle Announces Executive Appointments (April 14, 2006)
American Axle announced several executive appointments. John J. Bellanti was appointed vice president of manufacturing planning, capit... Read News

348 Northstar Aerospace Announces Executive Appointments to Accelerate Manufacturing Ramp-Up (May 24, 2007)
Northstar Aerospace announced several executive management changes in accordance with the company's plans to drastically accelerate i... Read News

349 Kaufer Named Sales Director at United Gear (May 24, 2007)
Paul Kaufer joined United Gear and Assembly of Hudson, WI, as director of sales and marketing. According to UGA's press release, ... Read News

350 Ikona Ships New Mud Pump Drives to North American Customers (February 23, 2007)
Ikona Gear made its first commercial shipments of its new Mud Pump Drives to major oil and gas companies in Canada and the U.S. Accord... Read News

351 Eaton Renews Chemical Mangement Program With Houghton (February 8, 2007)
Houghton FLUIDCARE(r), a division of Houghton International, signed a three-year agreement with Eaton Corp., Cleveland, OH, to provide a... Read News

352 Nireco America Introduces Geared Dancer Roll Potentiometer (April 29, 2006)
Nireco America Corp. introduced the Series 2699 geared dancer roll potentiometer. The heavy duty, high precision geared potentiometer is ... Read News

353 AMT Reports May Manufacturing Consumption Up 21 Percent (April 19, 2006)
Domestic manufacturing technology consumption totaled $319.4 million, according to the American Machine Tool Distributors' Associatio... Read News

354 Mixing Solutions Names New Managing Director (April 17, 2006)
John Brace was appointed managing director at Mixing Solutions. He will be responsible for its worldwide process agitation business in th... Read News

355 MAG Industrial Automation Systems Receives American Axle Supplier Award (April 17, 2006)
The Powertrain Technologies Group of MAG Industrial Automation Systems of Sterling Heights, Michigan, has received a Supplier Recogniti... Read News

356 GM, BMW and DaimlerChrysler Announce $1 Billion Hybrid Transmission Development Program (April 15, 2006)
A research alliance consisting of GM, BMW and DaimlerChrysler plans to invest more than $1 billion to develop a new hybrid transmission t... Read News

357 Schott Systeme Streamlines Gear Design Software (April 15, 2006)
Schotte Systeme published a new video outlining how one single universal function has been designed to consolidate both 2D and 3D move... Read News

358 Philadelphia Gear Named One of Pennsylvania’s Best Places to Work (April 15, 2006)
Philadelphia Gear Corp. will be honored at an awards ceremony Nov. 28 as one of the state's best places to work. According to the ... Read News

359 Chick Workholding Implements Consumer Design Program (April 14, 2006)
Chick Workholding Solutions invited the CNC marketplace to contribute to the design of its new CNC vise before it is released. The new... Read News

360 New President Named at Hangsterfer’s Laboratories (June 12, 2007)
Leslie Jones was appointed as president of Hangsterfer's Laboratories, effective May 1.According to a company press release, Jones st... Read News

361 Chuck Bunch Appointed NAM Chairman (April 11, 2006)
The National Association of Manufacturers Board of Directors today unanimously approved the nomination of Charles E. (Chuck) Bunch, chair... Read News

362 Parker Expands Its PowerStation Family (April 8, 2006)
Parker Automaton-CTC introduced the EPX10S, which is equipped with a 10" TFT, SVGA display and analog resistive touchscreen. It joins th... Read News

363 Magna Powertrain and Amtek Establish Joint Venture in India (April 3, 2006)
Magna Powertrain and Amtek Auto Ltd. today signed a joint venture agreement to establish a manufacturing facility outside of Delhi, India... Read News

364 TSA America Relocates, Appoints New Sales Manager (March 9, 2006)
Janice Thomas was appointed sales manager for the gear cutting tools product line of TSA America. According to the company's pres... Read News

365 KISSsoft and Geartech Jointly Develop New Software Program (January 19, 2006)
KISSsoft AG and GEARTECH Software are pleased to announce the introduction of a new and updated version of GEARCALC, a gear design pro... Read News

366 AMT Reports Manufacturing Technology Consumption on Best Pace Since 2000 (January 14, 2006)
September U.S. manufacturing technology consumption totaled $407.21 million, according to the American Machine Tool Distributors' ... Read News

367 American Wera Establishes New Program (January 10, 2006)
American Wera has initiated a new service with its German-based parent company, WERA Works Wuppertal, to support customers in setting up ... Read News

368 Koepfer Named North American Distributor for Wenzel Gear-Tec (April 13, 2005)
Koepfer America was selected as the exclusive North American distributor for the Gear-Tec products of Wenzel Precision GmbH. Wenzel Preci... Read News

369 New North American Subsidiary for Atlanta GmbH (April 13, 2005)
Atlanta GmbH in Bietingheim-Bissingen, Germany, announced the formation of its new North American subsidiary, Atlanta Drive Systems Inc.,... Read News

370 Pennex Extruded Products Names President (August 4, 2020)
Pennex Aluminum Company is pleased to announce that Chuck Stout has been promoted to president of the Pennex Extruded Products Division. ... Read News

371 Lube-It Announces EAM Connector for SAP (August 10, 2020)
Generation Systems, Inc. has announced the release of its advanced SAP/Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) interface. This software innovat... Read News

372 Volker Bartelt Named CEO of Pfaff-Silberblau (May 31, 2007)
Effective April 1, Volker Bartelt started as CEO of Pfaff-Silberblau Group, located in Derching/Friedburg, Germany. Bartelt will be t... Read News

373 QuesTek Announces High-Performance Stainless Steel Material for AM Applications (June 24, 2020)
QuesTek Innovations LLC, recently announced a stainless steel composition for powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (AM) for use eithe... Read News

374 Amorphology Joins AGMA (March 12, 2020)
Amorphology recently joined the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA). Amorphology applies advanced materials and manufacturing ... Read News

375 AMT Elects New Officers and Directors (December 2, 2008)
The Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT) elected its officers and directors at its annual meeting in Austin, Texas in October. ... Read News

376 Zeiss Offers DuraMax Gear and ACCURA CMM (October 8, 2010)
With DuraMax, Carl Zeiss offers a compact 3-D coordinate measuring machine. DuraMax Gear transitions DuraMax into a shop floor gear wheel... Read News

377 Mitsui Seiki Introduces Machining Centers to North America (September 27, 2010)
Mitsui Seiki recently introduced its line of large capacity, heavy duty, and configurable machining centers to North America at IMTS 2010... Read News

378 DGI Supply Wins ISA's American Eagle Award (May 24, 2010)
DGI Supply has been recognized for outstanding achievement in documented productivity savings for its manufacturing customers with the Am... Read News

379 Frenco Examines International Spline Interface Standard for Ebike Manufacturing (March 24, 2020)
The inspection method described in the International Spline Interface Standard (ISIS), uses a ring gage with two steps on the front side.... Read News

380 Joe LaRussa Named SME Director of Membership (March 31, 2010)
As of April 5, Joe LaRussa is assuming membership activity duties for the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) from Debbie Holton, w... Read News

381 Cutting Tool Sharpener Handles Large Diameter Hobs (February 11, 2010)
In response to market demand for a machine capable of sharpening large, heavy hobs, J. Schneeberger has developed the Corvus C500 Coarse ... Read News

382 Global restructuring of SAMP manufacturing locations (February 1, 2010)
Star SU partner SAMP S.p.a announced that it will consolidate, restructure and relocate its Chemnitz, Germany and Ortona, Italy manufactu... Read News

383 QC American Welcomes Division Manager (December 10, 2009)
Ross Wegryn-Jones was appointed vice president and division manager for QC American, a division of American Broach and Machine Company ba... Read News

384 Low-Foaming Cutting Fluid Resists Bacterial, Fungal Growth (May 8, 2009)
The KoolRite 2365 semi-synthetic cutting fluid from JTM Products, Inc. was designed for high-pressure applications that typically have fo... Read News

385 PM Association Names President (April 2, 2009)
Richard Pfingstler, president of Atlas Pressed Metals in DuBois, PA, has been appointed president of the Powder Metallurgy Parts Associat... Read News

386 Siemens Offers Sinumerik 828D CNC Through Fast Package Program (April 16, 2020)
To offer a fast solution to US-based machine tool builders, system integrators and retrofitters, Siemens is stocking typical system packa... Read News

387 Blaser Examines Coolant Options During Extended Production Stops (April 20, 2020)
The machines may not be running, but you need to monitor and maintain your metalworking fluid anyway. A production stop, triggered by a v... Read News

388 Iscar Releases Chamgun for Deep Hole Drilling (November 28, 2011)
Deep hole drilling is very popular in the automotive, die and mold and aerospace industries. Iscar took the gundrill technology one step ... Read News

389 Mico Names New International Sales and Marketing Consultant (November 24, 2008)
Mico Incorporated, a designer and manufacturer of hydraulic components, controls and brake systems, recently announced that Nigel Jenni... Read News

390 AMSC Partners with Shenyang Blower Works for Turbine Development (November 24, 2008)
American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) recently signed an agreement with Shenyang Blower Works Co., Ltd. to co-develop wind turbine... Read News

391 North America's Largest Gear Measuring Machine Purchased (October 21, 2008)
British Columbia-based Vancouver Gear Works Ltd. has placed an order for what is believed to be the largest gear measuring machine in N... Read News

392 Lenze-AC Tech Names Director of Engineering (April 30, 2008)
Jim Craig joins AC Technology, a member of the Lenze Group, as the new director of engineering. He will direct the design of all new pr... Read News

393 Hypertherm Adds Two Members to North American Team (February 13, 2008)
Hypertherm, a designer and manufacturer of plasma cutting technology, recently announced the appointment of John Brennan as North America... Read News

394 VMC Infimatic Control Compatible With Standard G Codes and Part Programs (February 13, 2008)
MAG Fadal recently announced its FX series will be available April 2008 with the Infimatic Freedom NC2000, a digital control for metal-cu... Read News

395 Tower Tech Announces Additions to Management Team (November 9, 2007)
Tower Tech Holdings Inc., a Wisconsin-based manufacturer of components for energy and infrastructure-related industries, recently announc... Read News

396 American Axle Forms Joint Venture with Sono Koyo (November 9, 2007)
American Axle and Manufacturing Holdings Inc. recently announced the formation of a joint venture with Sona Koyo Steering Systems Limited... Read News

397 Wenzel Opens North American Facility in Wixom, MI (October 31, 2007)
Wenzel GmbH of Germany, a large manufacturer of coordinate measuring machines (CMMs), opened a new 24,000-square-foot headquarters and ma... Read News

398 AMT Reports on Status of Manufacturing Technology Orders (May 14, 2020)
U.S. manufacturing technology orders increased 8% in March from the previous month to $301.2 million, according to the latest U.S. Manufa... Read News

399 Manufacturing Institute Examines Demand for Reskilled Workers (June 5, 2020)
During its 8-week shutdown resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, two students enrolled in the eKentucky Advanced Manufacturing Institute ... Read News

400 Fanuc America Introduces 5-Axis Simulation to CNC Training (June 15, 2020)
Fanuc America is expanding its CNC training offerings to include 5-axis simulation to further develop the next-gen manufacturing workforc... Read News

401 Davala Selected for Okuma America Scholarship (October 1, 2013)
Okuma America Corporation recently announced that Chris Davala has been chosen to receive one of ten scholarships given to current or tra... Read News

402 Mitutoyo America Corporation Announces New President (December 9, 2011)
Shigeyuki Sasaki has been appointed the new president at Mitutoyo America Corporation, headquartered in Aurora, Illinois. Sasaki has serv... Read News

403 AMT Reports January Cutting Tool Consumption Still Down (March 28, 2016)
January U.S. cutting tool consumption totaled $153.14 million according to the U.S. Cutting Tool Institute (USCTI) and AMT - The Associat... Read News

404 ITAMCO Connects Forklifts to Industrial Internet of Things via Sensors and Software (February 1, 2016)
Forklifts, the workhorses of the plant floor, are more valuable than ever at ITAMCO. The company has connected their forklifts to the Ind... Read News

405 Drake Manufacturing Offers Preventive Maintenance Program (March 5, 2019)
A machine tool investment is intended to boost productivity but also requires maintenance to ensure that it continues working at an optim... Read News

406 NTB, Siemens, Sandvik Coromant, Iscar and Kennametal Announce New Website for Learning About the GTC (February 19, 2016)
NTB Interstate University of Technology Buchs today announced a new website, gtc-tools.com, which provides information to the public on t... Read News

407 Gleason and Rochester Institute of Technology Announce New Doctoral Fellowship Program (February 24, 2016)
Gleason Corporation and the Kate Gleason College of Engineering at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) have announced the establishme... Read News

408 GMTA Offers Rasoma Machine Tools in North America (March 11, 2016)
German Machine Tools of America (GMTA) now offers a full line of Rasoma machining centers, including vertical turning centers, four-axis ... Read News

409 Rollomatic Inc. Appoints Daniel Franklin as Team Leader of Applications and Service (March 23, 2016)
Rollomatic Inc., a subsidiary of Rollomatic Holding Switzerland, has announced the appointment of Daniel Franklin as the new Service/Appl... Read News

410 Emuge FPC Mill-Drill Chucks Deliver Rigidity, Vibration Dampening and Machining Speed (March 31, 2016)
Emuge Corp., in partnership with Albrecht Precision Chucks, has introduced high precision/performance Emuge FPC Mill/Drill Chucks that pr... Read News

411 Precision Technologies Group Launches Program with Alliance Business School to Give MSc Students Global Perspective (January 12, 2016)
Precision Technologies Group (PTG) has partnered with The University of Manchester's Alliance Business School to help equip MSc stude... Read News

412 Bodycote Invests in North American Heat Treat Facility (January 28, 2019)
Bodycote is pleased to announce plans to open a new heat treating facility in Elgin, Illinois. The new facility will include advanced hea... Read News

413 GWJ Technology Offers Calculation Workshop for Formula Student Teams (January 22, 2019)
At the end of October 2018, GWJ Technology, a provider of software solutions for gear and gearboxes, organized a workshop for the second ... Read News

414 Helios Gear Products Represents Yunil Machine Tools in North America (January 21, 2019)
Helios Gear Products, LLC (formerly Koepfer America, LLC) proudly announces its new long-term representation agreement with YG Tech Co., ... Read News

415 Koepfer America 2016 Gear Technology Tour Gives North American Manufacturers Glimpse into European Manufacturing (June 14, 2016)
Following the 2014 tour, Koepfer America has sponsored a group of North American gear manufacturers for the 2016 Gear Technology Tour. Th... Read News

416 ITAMCO's Joel Neidig Receives AGMA 2016 Next Generation Award (June 16, 2016)
Joel Neidig, an engineer and lead technology developer with ITAMCO, has received the 2016 Next Generation Award from the American Gear Ma... Read News

417 Mitutoyo America 519 Series Mu-Checker Probes and Displays Allow Multi-Point Measurements of Small Parts (July 21, 2016)
Mitutoyo America Corporation introduces the 519 Series of high-accuracy Mu-Checker probes and displays. These electronic gaging systems a... Read News

418 IMTS 2016: Doimak North America (N-6698) (August 5, 2016)
RER-G Combi 500 Grinding CenterAt IMTS 2016, Doimak will display the RER-G Combi 500 Grinding Center with Fanuc CNC and two wheelheads. D... Read News

419 Sandvik Coromant Announces Sean Holt as New President of Americas Market (January 28, 2016)
Sandvik Coromant has announced Sean Holt as the new President of the Americas market area, effective January 1, 2016. An experienced exec... Read News

420 German Machine Tools of America Incorporate Hard Scudding Process (January 12, 2016)
The scudding industry took another step forward recently with a new process known as Hard Scudding. The conventional Scudding process wor... Read News

421 IMTS 2016: Hainbuch America Corp. (W-1636) (August 29, 2016)
Today - Tonight - Tomorrow Interactive DisplaysHainbuch America Corp. announced the shipment of the first wave of their TTT (Today - Toni... Read News

422 Broaching Machine Specialties to Supply Ekin Products in North America (July 10, 2015)
Broaching Machine Specialties (BMS) recently announced a strategic partnership with Ekin of Bilbao, Spain.Ekin has been supplying machine... Read News

423 AMT Reports Manufacturing Technology Orders Down in February (April 27, 2015)
February U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $304.74 million according to The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT). Th... Read News

424 Mitutoyo America Corporation Announces New East Coast M3 Solution Center (May 28, 2015)
Mitutoyo America Corporation recently announced the opening of a new M3 Solution Center in New England. Located in Marlborough, MA, the n... Read News

425 Star SU Announces Hobbing and Shaping Machine Lines from Samputensili (May 3, 2019)
Star SU LLC is pleased to announce it has expanded its comprehensive gear manufacturing product offering to include a line of horizonta... Read News

426 Amada Miyachi Announces Compact LMWS Laser Marking Workstation (June 5, 2015)
Amada Miyachi America Inc. recently announced its new LMWS low-cost Laser Marking Workstation, specifically designed for benchtop operati... Read News

427 NCSIMUL CAM Streamlines CNC Programming (June 12, 2015)
Spring Technologies, vendor of software that optimizes the use of NC Machines, recently announced the worldwide launch of NCSIMUL CAM. Th... Read News

428 AMT Reports on Latest Manufacturing Technology Orders (April 22, 2019)
Manufacturing technology orders totaled $337.2 million in February 2019 accounting for a 15 percent decline from January and a seven perc... Read News

429 Weiler Abrasives Recognized for "Leading a Warriors Charge" Campaign (April 17, 2019)
Weiler Abrasives, a provider of abrasives, power brushes and maintenance products for surface conditioning received the People's Choi... Read News

430 Hwacheon Machinery America Appoints Robert Nedler as Managing Director (January 6, 2016)
Hwacheon Machinery America has appointed Robert Nedler to the position of Managing Director, in charge of sales, service and general oper... Read News

431 AMT Announces May Manufacturing Technology Orders Down 7.9 Percent from Last Year (July 30, 2015)
May U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $336.98 million, according to AMT. This total, as reported by companies participating in... Read News

432 June U.S. Tech Orders Total $355.43 Million According to AMT (August 10, 2015)
June U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $355.43 million according to The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT). This t... Read News

433 Emuge Titanium Program Taps Possess New High Relief Geometry Technology (August 11, 2015)
Emuge Corp. recently introduced a line of high-performance tools for threading demanding alloyed titanium materials. Ranging from taps wi... Read News

434 ITAMCO Celebrates its 60th Anniversary (September 9, 2015)
Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies (ITAMCO) recently celebrated its 60th anniversary. Founded in 1955, the Northern Indiana... Read News

435 Romax InSight Supports Eurus Energy America with the Biggest Gearbox Re-Engineering and Refurbishment Project (September 10, 2015)
Romax Technology recently announced that it will be supporting Eurus Energy America (EEA) with its largest ever gearbox re-engineering an... Read News

436 Zeiss DuraMax Evolves Into Shopfloor Gear Wheel Measuring Machine (September 24, 2015)
Carl Zeiss Industrial Metrology will feature the Zeiss DuraMax. With DuraMax, Zeiss offers a compact 3-D coordinate measuring machine. Du... Read News

437 Emuge-Franken Solid Carbide End Mills Launched in North America (December 11, 2015)
Emuge Corp. recently announced the introduction of an extensive line of high-performance solid carbide end mills for applications ranging... Read News

438 David Brown Santasalo AMF Series to be Showcased at MINExpo International (August 18, 2016)
David Brown Santasalo will showcase its AMF Series at the upcoming MINExpo International exhibition in Las Vegas, Nevada. The launch of t... Read News

439 IMTS 2016: Koepfer America (N-6918) (September 9, 2016)
Koepfer America will feature several new pieces of technology at IMTS 2016. The Koepfer Model 200 CNC gear hobbing machine will be shown ... Read News

440 TCI Provides Blanks for CNC Skills Championship (June 12, 2019)
TCI Precision Metals will provide custom Machine-Ready Blanks to the National Institute for Metalworking Skills (NIMS), in support of t... Read News

441 Sinto America Group Appoints Michael Halsband as Executive Vice President and COO (October 16, 2017)
Sinto America, Inc. Group Companies, which includes Roberts Sinto Corporation and SandMold Systems, Inc., announced that Michael Halsband... Read News

442 Reshoring Initiative Partners with Return One Million Jobs for Reshoring Campaign (May 15, 2017)
Return One Million Jobs (ROMJ) was created to raise $20 million to bring one million manufacturing jobs to the U.S. from offshore. The pr... Read News

443 Kapp Technologies, Penta Gear and Koepfer America Announce Technical Sales Collaboration (October 12, 2018)
Kapp Technologies L.P. (KTLP), Penta Gear Metrology LLC (PGM) and Koepfer America LLC (KA) have entered into an agreement for technical s... Read News

444 Dontyne Systems Honored for Best Practices by the UK Parliament (October 4, 2018)
Dontyne Systems applies Industry 4.0 principles to rejuvenate ancient technology. In 2006, Dontyne Systems created the Gear Production Su... Read News

445 ITAMCO Ramps Up Additive Manufacturing with EOS Printer (August 29, 2017)
ITAMCO (Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies) is delivering components to the medical device industry made with their new EOS M... Read News

446 Seco/Vacuum Reports Strong Start in North American Market (September 21, 2017)
Seco/Vacuum Technologies, the newest company in the Seco/Warwick Group of companies, reported a strong initial entry into the North Ameri... Read News

447 KISSsoft Calculations Include Splines, Springs and Plain Hydrodynamic Bearings (September 22, 2017)
KISSsoft's spline calculation now also includes a new function for calculating the strength of involute splined joints according to A... Read News

448 Jenoptik Industrial Metrology Hommel-Etamic Wavemove Measuring Station Features Eight-Axis CNC Measurement Technology (November 7, 2017)
The Jenoptik Industrial Metrology division offers a fully automated measuring station which can be operated directly by staff on the prod... Read News

449 Seco/Warwick Delivers Vacuum Heat Treatment System to Galvamet (May 9, 2017)
Seco/Warwick is developing a vacuum heat treatment system equipped with a 10 bar abs. gas quenching system, the sixth in a series of syst... Read News

450 Koepfer America TM200 R3 Gear Deburring Machine Offers Automatic Loading (November 10, 2017)
As automation continues to transform the manufacturing industry, gear deburring often remains an operation performed by hand. This burden... Read News

451 Hexagon Manufacturing Intelligence Donates ROMER Absolute Arms to Workshops for Warriors' Metrology Program (December 20, 2017)
Hexagon Manufacturing Intelligence announced its support for Workshops for Warriors (WFW), a non-profit school created to train military ... Read News

452 Mahr Inc. Hires Brett Green as Vice President Sales Americas (December 22, 2017)
Brett Green has joined Mahr Inc. as Vice President Sales Americas. Green's responsibilities include overall management of the America... Read News

453 Dillon Jaws Soft Jaw Blanks Provide Consistent Part Clamping (January 3, 2018)
Soft jaw blanks from Dillon Jaws are supplied in standard sizes, are easy to order and meet customer needs by featuring a milled surface ... Read News

454 Methods Machine Tools Names Director of Financial Services (August 8, 2018)
Methods Machine Tools, Inc., North America's foremost supplier of leading-edge precision machine tools and automation, has announced ... Read News

455 Mitutoyo America HR-530 Rockwell Hardness Testers Features Unique Electronic Control and Inside Ring Hardness Testing (February 16, 2018)
Mitutoyo America Corporation is pleased to announce the release of the latest Rockwell Hardness Testers in its HR-530 Series, including t... Read News

456 Mike Decola Chairs 100th Anniversary PGA Championship (July 18, 2018)
Schafer Industries, headquartered in South Bend, Ind., proudly announces that the chief executive officer (CEO) of HBM Holdings Mike DeCo... Read News

457 Toyoda Americas Opens Great Lakes Technical Center (May 10, 2017)
JTEKT Toyoda Americas celebrated the grand unveiling of their Great Lakes Technical Center April 19 and 20. Nestled at the heart of the U... Read News

458 Index Significantly Expands North America Team (November 14, 2018)
Index has announced the hiring of 15 new employees over the past five months, with 12 of those filling newly created positions. Represent... Read News

459 Swiss Clamping Chuck Specialist Maprox Welcomes New CEO (September 19, 2016)
As a planned successor, Adrian Zwirner took over from the long-time owner Max Maurer as CEO of Maprox Gmbh effective September 1, 2016.Zw... Read News

460 ITAMCO Attends White House Event (January 9, 2017)
ITAMCO attended an event at the White House hosted by the National Economic Council on Wednesday, December 21. The function was held in r... Read News

461 Wenzel America Promotes Drew Shemenski to President (October 7, 2016)
Wenzel America has announced the promotion of Drew Shemenski to position of President of Wenzel America. Having spent the last two years ... Read News

462 TecnoMacchine Deburring and Chamfering Machines Now Offered by Koepfer America (November 7, 2016)
Koepfer America has expanded its line of gear manufacturing solutions by partnering with TecnoMacchine. TecnoMacchine manufactures CNC de... Read News

463 Aven SharpVue System Features HD Camera with 30x Magnification (November 9, 2016)
Aven's SharpVue system was developed with the operator in mind. It combines advanced digital microscope technology with comfort and e... Read News

464 EMAG VL 4 H Modular Hobbing Machine Combines Hobbing and Chamfering into Single Operation (November 18, 2016)
Koepfer has demonstrated its capabilities in a multitude of projects for a broad clientele. The company's gear cutting experts meet t... Read News

465 AMT Partners with the National Institute for Metalworking Skills to Develop Manufacturing Apprenticeships (December 1, 2016)
AMT - The Association for Manufacturing Technology is partnering with the National Institute for Metalworking Skills (NIMS), which has be... Read News

466 Drake Manufacturing Appoints Bruce Dibble Director of Sales in North America (December 15, 2016)
Drake Manufacturing Services Co., LLC has appointed Bruce L. Dibble as director of sales in North America. Dibble is responsible for ma... Read News

467 Mazak Integrex i-200S AM Offers All-in-One Milling and Additive Manufacturing Capabilities (January 3, 2017)
Mazak continues to fortify its industry leadership in hybrid multi-tasking machine technology with the introduction of its new Integrex i... Read News

468 SVT Provides Vacuum Furnaces in North America (January 13, 2017)
Seco/Warwick recently announced the creation of Seco/Vacuum Technologies LLC (SVT), a new company designed to provide standard and custom... Read News

469 Siemens Commits to American Manufacturing and Workforce Development (March 30, 2017)
Siemens Joe Kaeser, president and CEO of Siemens AG, bolstered Siemens' strong commitment to strengthening American manufacturing dur... Read News

470 Klingelnberg Presents 2019 Training Programs (January 7, 2019)
Klingelnberg will continue to support customers in 2019 with comprehensive training and continuing education courses. For over ten years,... Read News

471 Buehler Offers DiaMet Hardness Software Upgrade for Legacy Hardness Testers (December 21, 2018)
Buehler, an ITW company has announced that the DiaMet hardness software upgrade is now available for legacy Wilson testers. The DiaMet Ha... Read News

472 Hexagon Manufacturing Joins CCAM as Affiliate Member (February 14, 2017)
The Commonwealth Center for Advanced Manufacturing (CCAM) today announced Hexagon Manufacturing Intelligence has joined CCAM at the sffil... Read News

473 Klingelnberg and Starrag Team Up to Develop New Gear Machining Products (February 21, 2017)
Klingelnberg and Starrag have announced that they are going to cooperate on the development of powerful products for complete machining a... Read News

474 Sandvik Coromant Silent Tools Milling Adapters Designed to Improve Damping Characteristics (March 13, 2017)
The latest Silent Tools milling adapters from cutting tool and tooling systems specialist Sandvik Coromant are designed to offer improved... Read News

475 Kitagawa NorthTech Productivity Team Designs Custom Engineered Workholding Services (March 15, 2017)
Kitagawa NorthTech, Inc. provides turnkey and custom engineered workholding services. Known for their standard and advanced chucks, the c... Read News

476 SMT Launches MASTA Workshops in North America (November 30, 2018)
Due to popular demand, SMT is delighted to announce the launch of the 2019 MASTA training workshops in North America at the start of the ... Read News

477 Jeff Stoesser Named Riten's Western Regional Sales Manager (April 21, 2015)
Jeff Stoesser recently joined Riten Industries to manage sales activity in the western U.S. for the company's line of workholding pro... Read News

478 AMT Announces Elected Officers for Directors for 2015-2016 (March 31, 2015)
The Association For Manufacturing Technology recently elected its 2015-2016 officers and directors. The 2015-2016 board year begins April... Read News

479 Martin Kapp Named CECIMO President (January 17, 2012)
The CECIMO Fall General Assembly which met in November 2011 in Zurich elected Martin Kapp as new president of CECIMO for a period of two ... Read News

480 AMT Reports Strong Finish to 2012 Manufacturing Technology Orders (February 12, 2013)
December U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $499.43 million according to the Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT). Th... Read News

481 Hannover Messe 2020 to Examine Digital Ecosystems (November 27, 2019)
At Hannover Messe 2020, processes and technologies that up until quite recently were regarded as separate and distinct will be showcased ... Read News

482 Micro Precision Joins Aerospace Supply Chain Program (December 21, 2012)
In line with its policy of continually improving all aspects of its operations, Hemel Hempstead based Micro Precision has signed up to th... Read News

483 RIA Sees Uptick in North American Robot Orders (November 21, 2019)
The Robotic Industries Association (RIA), part of the Association for Advancing Automation (A3), has announced that North American robot ... Read News

484 Cella Named Application Engineer (January 25, 2013)
Chris Cella has been appointed application engineer at Star SU. LLC. In his new role, Cella will provide additional depth to our applicat... Read News

485 Mytec HydraClamp Offers Power Skiving and Gear Shaping Benefits (November 14, 2019)
Skiving has been around for a long time, but recent advances in technology have improved the speed and effectiveness of this gear-makin... Read News

486 Ipsen Expands Field Service Team (February 8, 2013)
Ipsen has announced that they will be adding six new Field Service Engineers (FSEs) to their already strong support crew, increasing thei... Read News

487 Fives to Acquire MAG Americas (March 11, 2013)
Fives has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire MAG Americas, a global supplier of high-performance machining solutions and comp... Read News

488 AMT Reports 2012 Manufacturing Technology Orders Up (November 20, 2012)
September U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $667.47 million according to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT). T... Read News

489 AMT Reports Slight Downturn on January Orders (March 12, 2013)
January U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $370.62 million according to The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT). Thi... Read News

490 AMT Elects Officers and Directors (March 13, 2013)
The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT) elected its 2013-2014 officers and directors on Friday, March 8, at its 2013 Annual Me... Read News

491 KISSsoft Examines E-Mobility Applications (October 30, 2019)
The increasing number of electric vehicles is already having an impact on the design of transmissions. Although the number of gears in e-... Read News

492 Liebherr Appoints Service Manager for North America (March 27, 2013)
Liebherr Gear Technology, Inc., Saline, Michigan, has appointed Robert (Bob) Jelic service manager overseeing North American operations f... Read News

493 Wenzel America Partners with Liebherr Gear Technology (April 9, 2013)
Wenzel America proudly announces their new partnership with Liebherr Gear Technology, Inc. Liebherr will exclusively represent the Wenzel... Read News

494 AMT Reports Manufacturing Technology Orders Up from January (April 16, 2013)
February U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $385.89 million according to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT). Th... Read News

495 AMT to Showcase Technologies at FEIMAFE 2013 (May 16, 2013)
Featuring some of the best U.S. manufacturing technology for a wide array of end-user applications, the Association For Manufacturing Tec... Read News

496 AMT Reports Latest Statistics from USMTO (December 11, 2012)
October U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $459.16 million according to AMT. This total, as reported by companies participating... Read News

497 Morris Group Names Fonte Productivity Specialist (November 13, 2012)
Morris Group, Inc. has announced the appointment of George J. Fonte to the position of productivity specialist for The Robert E. Morris C... Read News

498 Kennametal Offers Solid Ceramic Endmills (May 29, 2013)
Perhaps the most basic assumption in machining is that cutting high-strength materials takes higher-strength tools. Proprietary nickel-ba... Read News

499 Mini Swing Clamps Provide High Clamping Forces (April 12, 2012)
Fixtureworks, a supplier of workholding components, material handling products, machine tool components and fixturing accessories, now of... Read News

500 Big Kaiser Ramps Up Green Initiatives (December 20, 2019)
As part of an ongoing effort to make processes and products more environmentally friendly, Big Kaiser is making modifications to produc... Read News

501 Barbara Schulz Named CEO Ipsen India (March 1, 2012)
Ipsen announces the following executive transition plan for Ipsen India, which will become effective April 1, 2012. Subash Maggu will mov... Read News

502 AMB Preps for Growth in Global Wind (March 6, 2012)
By 2020, the German government wants to generate 30 percent of electricity in Germany from renewable energies. The trade association for ... Read News

503 AMT and AMTDA Announce Merger (March 9, 2012)
The Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT) and the American Machine Tool Distributors' Association (AMTDA) recently announced... Read News

504 Wenzel Examines Computed Tomography (March 21, 2012)
Andy Woodward, president of Wenzel America, has written the following article on why manufacturers can't afford not to use computed t... Read News

505 Klingelnberg Adds Dates to 2020 Training Program (December 12, 2019)
As a system provider, Klingelnberg provides a wealth of knowledge to its customers through a wide array of seminars that are subdivided i... Read News

506 EMAG Brings ECM-PECM Machines to North American Market (April 25, 2012)
EMAG LLC. recently announced the introduction of its electrochemical machining (ECM) and precision electrochemical machining (PECM) machi... Read News

507 Belzer Joins NTMA Executive Team (October 25, 2012)
NTMA board of directors chairman Roger Atkins announced that John Belzer, president, TCI Precision Metals, Gardena, California has agreed... Read News

508 Sandvik Supports SkillsUSA National Championships (April 27, 2012)
Sandvik Coromant has joined the list of supporting partners at the 48th Annual SkillsUSA National Leadership and Skills Conference, which... Read News

509 Siemens Launches Community College Program (May 30, 2012)
Siemens PLM Software, a business unit of the Siemens Industry Automation Division and a global provider of product lifecycle management (... Read News

510 PMA Introduce Series of Programs Highlighting Servo Press Technology (August 9, 2012)
The Precision Metalforming Association's (PMA) flagship publication, MetalForming magazine, announces a series of new technical progr... Read News

511 Schunk Celebrates 20 Years in North America (August 28, 2012)
Schunk founded its United States facility in 1992 and has been manufacturing toolholding products and providing sales and support to loca... Read News

512 U.S. Bank and Star SU Announce Financing Program (September 6, 2012)
U.S. Bank Equipment Finance-Manufacturing Vendor Services Group and Star SU LLC announced a new agreement that will support customers in ... Read News

513 AMT Reports Manufacturing Technology Orders Up (October 8, 2012)
August U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $470.44 million according to the Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT). This... Read News

514 The Manufacturing Institute Partners with PMPA on Machine Training Program (October 11, 2012)
The Manufacturing Institute has partnered with the Precision Machined Products Association, Right Skills Now, a fast-track machining trai... Read News

515 Kennametal Shows Benefits of MTConnect (May 22, 2013)
The recent 2013 MTConnect Connecting Manufacturing Conference was instrumental in further preparing the foundation of a monumental change... Read News

516 Koepfer America Expands with New Application Engineer (June 19, 2013)
Koepfer America has added Joshua Eggebrecht, application engineer. His primary responsibilities will be the support of hob and fixture sa... Read News

517 Reishauer Now Offers In-house Produced Clamping Fixtures (March 18, 2015)
Reishauer, a supplier for the hard-finishing of gears, has a new generation of grinding machines that produce at cycle times below 10 sec... Read News

518 Solar Atmospheres Names Keith Reim as New Corporate Marketing Manager (October 20, 2014)
Keith Reim recently joined Solar Atmospheres as Corporate Marketing Manager. Reim was formerly the Marketing Manager of an industrial aut... Read News

519 AAM Joins Manufacturing Days as Gold Sponsor (June 4, 2014)
The Alliance for American Manufacturing (AAM) has joined Manufacturing Day 2014 as a Gold Sponsor, supplying the national initiative with... Read News

520 IMTS Preview: Hainbuch America (June 25, 2014)
The first is the patented CentroteX System, which allows changeover of any workholding device on a machine within five minutes while main... Read News

521 AMB 2014 Preps for Industry 4.0 (June 25, 2014)
The machine tool industry is confronted with a large number of developments which are influencing investment decisions by its customers. ... Read News

522 Holroyd Precision Examines Energy Recovery (July 2, 2014)
The Rochdale-based screw and compressor rotor prototyping and manufacturing business has recently begun supplying the ultra-precise carbo... Read News

523 AME to Sponsor Manufacturing Day (July 18, 2014)
The Association for Manufacturing Excellence (AME) is proud to announce that it will be a sponsor of this year's Manufacturing Day. C... Read News

524 ITAMCO Donates Zeiss CMM to Plymouth High School (September 16, 2014)
ITAMCO (Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies) has donated a Zeiss Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) to the Precision Tool Manu... Read News

525 Arrow Gear Becomes Distributor for SAMP Gears (December 9, 2014)
Arrow Gear has signed an exclusive agreement with SAMP of Bologna, Italy to market and sell their gear products in North America. Arrow G... Read News

526 Seco-Warwick Offers Nitrion Plasma Nitriding to South America (May 8, 2014)
Nitrion Technology and Seco/Warwick do Brasil have signed a cooperation agreement to manufacture and market cold wall plasma nitriding equipment in South America... Read News

527 AMT Reports Manufacturing Technology Orders Increase in June (August 11, 2020)
U.S. manufacturing technology orders soared to $346.7 million in June, a 56% increase over May 2020 according to the latest U.S. Manufact... Read News

528 Seco Tools' Carbide Recycling Program Continues to Expand (January 22, 2015)
Seco Tools, LLC recently reported that it collected 15 percent more used carbide in 2014 than the previous year for its North American Ca... Read News

529 BIG Kaiser Celebrates 25 Years of North American Operations (February 4, 2015)
BIG Kaiser Precision Tooling recently celebrated 25 years of North American operations in 2015. Incorporated in the spring of 1990 under ... Read News

530 MHI Sets Motion + Power Technology Expo for ZE26C North American Debut (July 19, 2019)
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Machine Tool Co., Ltd. (MAT) will follow the world debut of the new ZE26C at CIMT in China with the 2019 Moti... Read News

531 Star SU Names Rick Falgiatano as Vice President of Cutting Tool Sales (February 11, 2015)
Star SU (Hoffman Estates, IL) recently appointed Rick Falgiatano as vice president of sales for its cutting tool division. Rick brings 3... Read News

532 ITAMCO Gets Invite to Grid Cell Program (February 13, 2015)
Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies (ITAMCO) was recently invited to display their technology products at the Advanced Materia... Read News

533 Oelheld Boasts DiaMill HEF 100 is 'Ideal Alternative to Water Soluble Cooling Lubricants' (March 3, 2015)
DiaMill HEF 1100 is a high performance product based on hydrocrack oils. It has nearly no odor, has high shearing stability, is resistant... Read News

534 IMTS Preview: Koepfer America (June 3, 2014)
Koepfer America, LLC will proudly introduce the CLC 200-SZ gear shaping machine at IMTS 2014. This machine will be the first of its model... Read News

535 AMB 2014 Takes Place in Hub of Machine Tool Industry (April 29, 2014)
According to the Association of German Machine Tool Manufacturers (VDW), 47.8 percent of employees in the German machine tool industry work in this region... Read News

536 Star SU Names Vice President of Sales (July 2, 2013)
Star SU has appointed Thomas Bell as vice president of sales for its Cutting Tool division. Bell earned a Bachelor of Science in Marketin... Read News

537 Sandvik Appoints Martin President of Market Area Americas (November 13, 2013)
Sandvik Coromant recently appointed Eduardo Martin as president of Market Area Americas (MAA), which includes Argentina, Brazil, Canada, ... Read News

538 ITAMCO Releases Glassware App for Machine Tool Monitoring (July 15, 2013)
Indiana Technology and Manufacturing Companies (ITAMCO) has released MTConnect + Google Glass, a free Glassware application that monitors... Read News

539 Sandvik Expands Gear Milling Family (August 13, 2013)
The CoroMill 176 range of full profile hobs for spur gears, helical gears and splines has now been extended to incorporate module 3-10 ap... Read News

540 Holroyd Offers Apprenticeship Program (August 28, 2013)
When the latest cohort of craft apprentices joins Rochdale-based Holroyd Precision Limited in September 2013, the individuals concerned w... Read News

541 GAM Gear Merges into GAM Enterprises (October 4, 2013)
GAM, a leading manufacturer of precision gear reducers, servo couplings, linear mounting kits, and other innovative products used in auto... Read News

542 ALCprecision Changes Name to Precipart (October 28, 2013)
Precipart Group, a global supplier of precision custom mechanical components, gears and motion control assemblies for medical technology,... Read News

543 AMT Teams Up With UPS for IMTS (November 1, 2013)
As part of the continued effort to forge relationships that enhance the manufacturing technology industry, the Association For Manufactur... Read News

544 IHS Examines Global Geared Products Expansion (November 6, 2013)
Suppliers of geared products for mobile industrial equipment applications can look forward to a 16 percent increase in total market reven... Read News

545 NIMS Launches First-Ever Industry Recognized CAM Credentials (October 3, 2019)
The National Institute for Metalworking Skills (NIMS) is now offering standardized Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) credentials, CAM Mi... Read News

546 Okuma Names Sandvik Partner of the Year (April 15, 2014)
kuma America Corporation is pleased to announce that Sandvik Coromant was chosen by Okuma distributors as Partner of the Year... Read News

547 Seco/Warwick Names Wozniak President of the Management Board (September 5, 2019)
It has been a month since the supervisory board at the Seco/Warwick Group unanimously decided to entrust the function of president of the... Read News

548 MSC Adds 15,000 Kennametal Cutting Tools (December 13, 2013)
MSC Industrial Supply Co., a distributor of metalworking and maintenance, repair and operations (MRO) solutions, services and supplies to... Read News

549 AMT Announces Smartforce Student Summit in 2014 (December 16, 2013)
The Association For Manufacturing Technology (AMT) has announced the Smartforce Student Summit will take place Monday, Sept. 8, through S... Read News

550 Paulo Names Quality Assurance Manager (January 20, 2014)
The St Louis, Missouri facility of Paulo Products Company is pleased to announce the promotion of Tim Mohr to quality assurance manager. ... Read News

551 Koepfer America Partners with Liebherr for Wenzel GearTec Products (February 4, 2014)
Koepfer America, LLC, proudly announces its partnership with Liebherr Gear Technology, Inc., to offer Wenzel GearTec gear metrology produ... Read News

552 AMT Reports Technology Orders End on Strong Note (February 11, 2014)
December U.S. manufacturing technology orders totaled $491.89 million according to the Association for Manufacturing Technology (AMT). Th... Read News

553 EMAG Launches Apprentice Program (March 19, 2014)
EMAG has an ongoing interest in providing job opportunities for highly skilled, specialized machine tool technicians... Read News

554 Big Kaiser Celebrates 30 Years in North America (August 12, 2020)
Big Kaiser Precision Tooling Inc. recently celebrated its 30th anniversary. On August 1, 1990, KPT Kaiser opened its doors and began its ... Read News