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New turnkey, "off-the-shelf" Gleason 2700AR system automates larger-gear load/unload to speed throughput, optimize process flow - and take the weight off the operator.
News from the major automakers and transmission suppliers.
With all the work in transmission development these days, the demand for automobile transmission gears should remain strong for several years, but suppliers will have to be as flexible as possible to keep up with the changes.
Having read about an automobile race in France, Kohlsaat decided he'd host America's first auto race in Chicago. The year was 1895 and automobiles were still a great curiosity. Kohlsaat, owner/publisher of the Chicago Times Herald, planned to exploit the growing interest in motoring by sponsoring a 54-mile race from downtown Chicago to nearby suburb Evanston, Illinois, and back. The match was open to all comers, foreign or domestic, whether powered by gas, electricity, or steam. The top prize: $2,000 (that's 50,000 2016 dollars).
For metal replacement with powder metal (PM) of an automotive transmission, PM gear design differs from its wrought counterpart. Indeed, complete reverse-engineering and re-design is required so to better understand and document the performance parameters of solid-steel vs. PM gears. Presented here is a re-design (re-building a 6-speed manual transmission for an Opel Insignia 4-cylinder, turbocharged 2-liter engine delivering 220 hp/320 N-m) showing that substituting a different microgeometry of the PM gear teeth -- coupled with lower Youngâ€™s modulus -- theoretically enhances performance when compared to the solid-steel design.
This report presents some interim results from an ongoing project being performed by INFAC, the Instrumented Factory for Gears. The purposes of this initial phase of the project were to demonstrate the feasibility of robotic automated deburring of aerospace gears, and to develop a research agenda for future work in that area.
The latest advances in gear manufacturing automation all seem to revolve around a common theme: automated loading.
With the ongoing push towards electric vehicles (EVs), there is likely to be increasing focus on the noise impact of the gearing required for the transmission of power from the (high-speed) electric motor to the road. Understanding automotive noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) and methodologies for total in-vehicle noise presupposes relatively large, internal combustion (IC) contributions, compared to gear noise. Further, it may be advantageous to run the electric motors at significantly higher rotational speed than conventional automotive IC engines, sending geartrains into yet higher speed ranges. Thus the move to EV or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) places greater or different demands on geartrain noise. This work combines both a traditional NVH approach (in-vehicle and rig noise, waterfall plots, Campbell diagrams and Fourier analysis) - with highly detailed transmission error measurement and simulation of the complete drivetrain - to fully understand noise sources within an EV hub drive. A detailed methodology is presented, combining both a full series of tests and advanced simulation to troubleshoot and optimize an EV hub drive for noise reduction.
Today it is common practice when climb hobbing to keep the direction of the hob thread the same as that of the helical gear. The same generalization holds true for the mass production of gears for automobiles. It is the authors' opinion, however, that conventional hobbing with a reverse-handed hob is more effective for the high-speed manufacture of comparatively small module gears for automobiles. The authors have proven both experimentally and theoretically that reverse-handed conventional hobbing, using a multi-thread hob with a smaller diameter is very effective for lengthening the life of the hob and for increasing cutting efficiency at high speeds.
Nashville - One of the highlights of this year's SME Advanced Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic was a tour of the new GM Saturn automobile manufacturing plant outside the city. There in the Tennessee hills is a hopeful vision of the future of the American automobile industry. It may well be the future of American large-scale manufacturing in general.
No one (not even you and I) consistently makes parts with perfect form and dimensions, so we must be able to efficiently check size and shape at many stages in the manufacturing and assembly process to eliminate scrap and rework and improve processes and profits. Automated inspection systems, which are widely used in all kinds of manufacturing operations, provide great efficiencies in checking individual features, but may not be as effective when asked to evaluate an entire part. You need to know why this is true and what you can do to improve your part yields.
Gear Technology interviews Scott Yoders of Liebherr about the latest gear machining technologies of relevance to automotive manufacturers.
Emerging technologies such as robotics/automation, new materials, additive manufacturing and IIoT can and will change the course of gear manufacturing for the foreseeable future.
Machine tools boost speed and throughput with automation technology.
Gear Industry Steps Up to Automation Challenges in Auto Industry. Automotive parts are always moving. They are zipping across conveyors, smashing into each other in bins and traveling across the production chain before ending up inside an automobile. For gears, this can be a somewhat precarious situation as they tend to run best when they're free from nicks, abrasions, cracks or other damages.
Electrification has already started to have a noticeable impact on the global automotive industry. As a result, the drivetrains of hybrid (HEV) and full electric vehicles (EV) are facing many challenges, like increased requirements for NVH in high speed e-Drives and the need for performance improvements to deal with recuperation requirements. Motivated by the positive validation results of surface densified manual transmission gears which are also applicable for dedicated hybrid transmissions (DHTs) like e-DCTs, GKN engineers have been looking for a more challenging application for PM gears within those areas.
It's Monday morning, December 15, 2036. An autonomous vehicle drops off two engineers in front of a gear manufacturing facility in Metro Detroit. They punch in for work on their wristwatches and pay Uber for the ride on a smartphone. One of the engineers begins walking the shop floor, monitoring a series of collaborative robots using a tablet the size of a paperback novel. These robots interact right on the floor with the minimal staff scheduled to oversee manufacturing operations. Another engineer wears an interactive headset and begins training a group of new engineers (in real time) from China using some form of augmented reality.
Which transmission system will come out on top is a hot topic in the automotive community. With multiple transmission-centric conferences on the horizon, there will be plenty of debate, but how much will the answer actually affect gear manufacturers, and when?
Ready or not, QS-9000 is here. If you are a first-tier supplier to one of the Big Three automotive companies, you've already heard that compliance with this new quality standard is now an entry-level requirement for doing business with Ford, General Motors and Chrysler. If you're a second-or third-tier supplier, you can expect the ripple effect of this new standard to hit your company one way or another.
This paper presents how low pressure carburizing and high pressure gas quenching processes are successfully applied on internal ring gears for a six-speed automatic transmission. The specific challenge in the heat treat process was to reduce distortion in such a way that subsequent machining operations are entirely eliminated.
With increasingly smaller returns from improving the speed of the actual gear grinding process, improving your setup time has become a primary way to keep improving efficiency. Here's the latest on how you can do that today.
The Past, Present and Future of Vehicle Electrification
Remembering Panhard and Levassor, the company that invented the first manual transmission.
CTI Symposium Presents Latest Automotive Transmission Developments and Applications.
C & B Machinery Meets Rigorous Demands with Installation of Manufacturing Cell.
Noise issues from gear and motor excitation whine are commonly faced by many within the EV and HEV industry. In this paper the authors present an advanced CAE methodology for troubleshooting and optimizing such NVH phenomenon.
The complete Product News section from the January/February issue of Gear Technology.
The latest technology on display in Columbus, OH. October 24-26.
The U.S. heat treat industry is in the middle of a labor shortage. Here's a look at what companies in the industry are doing about it.
Results from the 2017 Powder Metallurgy Design Excellence Awards, plus other news from around the industry.
As the Indianapolis 500 begins its second hundred years, it is a good opportunity to recall the guy who put the gearbox "up front."
In this paper the effects of thermally induced geometry distortions on load distribution and transmission error have been analyzed.
Beveloid gears are used to accommodate a small shaft angle. The manufacturing technology used for beveloid gearing is a special setup of cylindrical gear cutting and grinding machines. A new development, the so-called Hypoloid gearing, addresses the desire of gear manufacturers for more freedoms. Hypoloid gear sets can realize shaft angles between zero and 20Â° and at the same time, allow a second shaft angle (or an offset) in space that provides the freedom to connect two points in space.
This paper will present data from both laboratory and field testing demonstrating that superfinished components exhibit lower friction, operating temperature, wear and/ or higher horsepower, all of which translate directly into increased fuel economy.
The paper is not the proof of a discovery, but it is the description of a method: the optimization of the microgeometry for cylindrical gears. The method has been applied and described on some transmissions with helical gears and compound epicyclic, used on different hybrid vehicles. However, the method is also valid for industrial gearboxes.
A best practice in gear design is to limit the amount of backlash to a minimum value needed to accommodate manufacturing tolerances, misalignments, and deflections, in order to prevent the non-driving side of the teeth to make contact and rattle. Industry standards, such as ANSI/AGMA 2002 and DIN3967, provide reference values of minimum backlash to be used in the gear design. However, increased customers' expectations in vehicle noise eduction have pushed backlash and allowable manufacturing tolerances to even lower limits. This is especially true in the truck market, where engines are quieter because they run at lower speeds to improve fuel economy, but they quite often run at high torsional vibration levels. Furthermore, gear and shaft arrangements in truck transmissions have become more complex due to increased number of speeds and to improve efficiency. Determining the minimum amount of backlash is quite a challenge. This paper presents an investigation of minimum backlash values of helical gear teeth applied to a light-duty pickup truck transmission. An analytical model was developed to calculate backlash limits of each gear pair when not transmitting load, and thus susceptible to generate rattle noise, through different transmission power paths. A statistical approach (Monte Carlo) was used since a significant number of factors affect backlash, such as tooth thickness variation; center distance variation; lead; runout and pitch variations; bearing clearances; spline clearances; and shaft deflections and misalignments. Analytical results identified the critical gear pair, and power path, which was confirmed experimentally on a transmission. The approach presented in this paper can be useful to design gear pairs with a minimum amount of backlash, to prevent double flank contact and to help reduce rattle noise to lowest levels.
By increasing the number of gears and the transmission-ratio spread, the engine will run with better fuel efficiency and without loss of driving dynamics. Transmission efficiency itself can be improved by: using fuelefficient transmission oil; optimizing the lubrication systems and pumps; improving shifting strategies and optimizing gearings; and optimizing bearings and seals/gaskets.
The opposed-piston internal combustion engine is making a comeback.
Relic of an era when quality was an afterthought.
The acceptance by discerning customers of passenger cars is dependent upon both the actual noise lever and the subjective noise character. The subjective noise character itself can contain, among other features, undesirable noise phenomena which become apparent at certain points in the vehicle operating range. One such critical phenomenon is gear rattle, which is mainly present under low speed, high load conditions. Due to changes in the angular velocity of the crankshaft, gear rattle under driving conditions occurs at the unloaded gears and splines.
Conical involute gears (beveloids) are used in transmissions with intersecting or skewed axes and for backlash-free transmissions with parallel axes.
Zero to 125 MPH in five seconds. Maximum speed of 211 MPH. Seven-second pit stops. Formula One racing is a high-adrenalin sport - one which demands peak performance from drivers and machines alike.
Almost any external tooth form that is uniformly spaced around a center can be hobbed. Hobbing is recognized as an economical means of producing spur and helical gears with involute tooth profiles.
This paper presents approximate and accurate methods to generate solid models of involute cylindrical gears using Autodesk Inventor 3-D CAD software.
It's the year of the quick-change tool. From chucks to mandrels, workholding manufacturers across the industry are seeing a continuing trend from their customers: give us more quickchange.
The complete Industry News section from the October 2012 issue of Gear Technology.
Over the past few months we've talked with a lot of gear manufacturers. Many of them tell us business is strong, while others are struggling with reduced demand. The difference between them isn't so much in the quality of their manufacturing operations, but rather trends in the end markets they serve.
The complete Industry News section from the September 2013 issue of Gear Technology.
An in-depth look at the major booths with the latest technology used in gear manufacturing.
This presentation introduces a new procedure that - derived from exact calculations - aids in determining the parameters of the validation testing of spiral bevel and hypoid gears in single-reduction axles.
Pretty much everyone old enough to utter the familiar, dual syllabic refrain of â€śbeep boopâ€ť in the electro-mechanical, monotone pitch from every sci-fi movie ever made has the same idea of what a robot looks likes.
â€śHighway vehicles release about 1.7 billion tons of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere each year â€” mostly in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) â€” contributing to global climate change. The CO2 emissions of a car are directly proportional to the quantity of fuel consumed by an engine. In 2013, U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from transportation were second only to the electricity sector â€” an increase of about 16% since 1990.â€ť (EPA.GOV).
Automotive industry embraces proven yet evolving technology of plastic gears.
The NASA Lewis Research Center investigated the effect of tooth profile on the acoustic behavior of spur gears through experimental techniques. The tests were conducted by Cleveland State University (CSU) in NASA Lewis' spur gear testing apparatus. Acoustic intensity (AI) measurements of the apparatus were obtained using a Robotic Acoustic Intensity Measurement System (RAIMS). This system was developed by CSU for NASA to evaluate the usefulness of a highly automated acoustic intensity measurement tool in the reverberant environment of gear transmission test cells.
Due to increasing requirements regarding the vibrational behavior of automotive transmissions, it is necessary to develop reliable methods for noise evaluation and design optimization. Continuous research led to the development of an elaborate method for gear noise evaluation. The presented methodology enables the gear engineer to optimize the microgeometry with respect to robust manufacturing.
Dictatorships can be stifling. In an autocratic organization, employees seldom participate in decisions that affect them. By establishing a collaborative environment, you allow everyone to play a role in making your organization a success.
Romax Technology is automating the design iteration process to allow companies to be faster to market with the highest quality, most robust gear products.
The proper control of distortion after thermal treatment of powertrain components in the automotive industry is an important measure in ensuring high-quality parts and minimizing subsequent hard machining processes in order to reduce overall production costs.
When it comes to setting the standard for gear making, the auto industry often sets the pace. Thus when automakers went to grinding after hardening to assure precision, so did the machine shops that specialize in gearing. But in custom manufacturing of gears in small piece counts, post-heat treat grinding can grind away profits too.
Over the last 15 years, there has been significant growth in the number of transmission types as well as their complexity: manual, conventional automatic, dual clutch, automated manual, continuously variable, split power and pure EV transmissions.
The powder metal (P/M) process is making inroads in automotive transmission applications due to substantially lower costs of P/M-steel components for high-volume production, as compared to wrought or forged steel parts. Although P/M gears are increasingly used in powered hand tools, gear pumps and as accessory components in automotive transmissions, P/M-steel gears are currently in limited use in vehicle transmission applications. The primary objective of this project was to develop high-strength P/M-steel gears with bending fatigue, impact resistance and pitting fatigue performance equivalent to current wrought steel gears.
The chamfering and deburring operations on gear teeth have become more important as the automation of gear manufacturing lines in the automotive industry have steadily increased. Quieter gears require more accurate chamfers. This operation also translates into significant coast savings by avoiding costly rework operations. This article discusses the different types of chamfers on gear teeth and outlines manufacturing methods and guidelines to determine chamfer sizes and angles for the product and process engineer.
This month, German automakers will receive the first three units of Klingelnberg's new automated blade checker designed for the shop floor.
Traditionally, high-quality gears are cut to shape from forged blanks. Great accuracy can be obtained through shaving and grinding of tooth forms, enhancing the power capacity, life and quietness of geared power transmissions. In the 1950s, a process was developed for forging gears with teeth that requires little or no metal to be removed to achieve final geometry. The initial process development was undertaken in Germany for the manufacture of bevel gears for automobile differentials and was stimulated by the lack of available gear cutting equipment at that time. Later attention has turned to the forging of spur and helical gears, which are more difficult to form due to the radial disposition of their teeth compared with bevel gears. The main driver of these developments, in common with most component manufacturing, is cost. Forming gears rather than cutting them results in increased yield from raw material and also can increase productivity. Forging gears is therefore of greater advantage for large batch quantities, such as required by the automotive industry.
For the first time in probably 15 years, I've attended an auto show. Although I haven't been purposely avoiding them, over the past decade or so, the auto industry hasn't given me a compelling reason to go.
Much information has been written on gear inspection, analytical. functional. semiautomatic and automatic. In most cases, the charts, (if you are lucky enough to have recording equipment) have been explained.
Gear engineers have long recognized the importance of considering system factors when analyzing a single pair of gears in mesh. These factors include important considerations such as load sharing in multi-mesh geartrains and bearing clearances, in addition to the effects of flexible components such as housings, gear blanks, shafts and carriers for planetary geartrains. However, in recent years, transmission systems have become increasingly complexâ€”with higher numbers of gears and componentsâ€”while the quality requirements and expectations in terms of durability, gear whine, rattle and efficiency have increased accordingly.
Robots, computers and other signs of high technology abounded at IMTS 94, supporting the claim by many that this was one of the best shows ever. Many of the machines on display had so many robotic attachments and computer gizmos that they looked more like they belonged in some science fiction movie than on the floor of a machine shop.
It takes confidence to be the first to invest in new manufacturing technology. But the payback can be significant. That has been the experience at the Ford Motor Company's Transmission & Chassis Division plant at Indianapolis, IN, which boasts the world's first production application of dry hobbing.
Compass Automation unveiled its Robotic Deburring System at Gear Expo 2009.
Klingelnberg presents the technical aspects of its roughness measurement system.
The implementation of powder metal (PM)components in automotive applications increases continuously, in particular for more highly loaded gear components like synchromesh mechanisms. Porosity and frequently inadequate material properties of PM materials currently rule out PM for automobile gears that are subject to high loads. By increasing the density of the sintered gears, the mechanical properties are improved. New and optimized materials designed to allow the production of high-density PM gears by single sintering may change the situation in the future.
Capstan Atlantic, located in Wrentham, Massachusetts, produces powder metal gears, sprockets and complex structural components. The company has provided unique powder metal products in a variety of industries including automotive, business machines, appliances, lawn and garden equipment and recreational vehicles.
Except for higher-end gear applications found in automotive and aerospace transmissions, for example, high-performance, sintered-steel gears match wrought-steel gears in strength and geometrical quality. The enhanced P/M performance is due largely to advances in powder metallurgy over last two decades, such as selective surface densification, new materials and lubricants for high density and warm-die pressing. This paper is a review of the results of a decade of research and development of high- performance, sintered-steel gear prototypes.
In the past, the blades of universal face hobbing cutters had to be resharpened on three faces. Those three faces formed the active part of the blade. In face hobbing, the effective cutting direction changes dramatically with respect to the shank of the blade. Depending on the individual ratio, it was found that optimal conditions for the chip removal action (side rake, side relief and hook angle) could just be established by adjusting all major parameters independently. This, in turn, results automatically in the need for the grinding or resharpening of the front face and the two relief surfaces in order to control side rake, hook angle and the relief and the relief angles of the cutting and clearance side.
This paper presents the geometric design of hypoid gears with involute gear teeth. An overview of face cutting techniques prevalent in hypoid gear fabrication is presented. Next, the specification of a planar involute rack is reviewed. This rack is used to define a variable diameter cutter based upon a system of cylindroidal coordinates; thus, a cursory presentation of cylindroidal coordinates is included. A mapping transforms the planar involute rack into a variable diameter cutter using the cylindroidal coordinates. Hypoid gears are based on the envelope of this cutter. A hypoid gear set is presented based on an automotive rear axle.
Gear pitting is one of the primary failure modes of automotive transmission gear sets. Over the past years, many alternatives have been intended to improve their gear surface durability. However, due to the nature of new process development, it takes a length of time and joint efforts between the development team and suppliers to investigate and verify each new approach.
What are the manufacturing methods used to make bevel gears used in automotive differentials?
It wasnâ€™t so very long ago that a high school-educated, able-bodied person with a will to work typically had little trouble finding a decent job in manufacturing. Whether at an area job shop, an OEM plant or auto plantâ€”work was to be had. Work that paid well enough to marry, buy a home, feed, raise and educate a familyâ€”with even enough left over for a modest retirement pension.
There is a great need for future powertrains in automotive and industrial applications to improve upon their efficiency and power density while reducing their dynamic vibration and noise initiation. It is accepted that planetary gear transmissions have several advantages in comparison to conventional transmissions, such as a high power density due to the power division using several planet gears. This paper presents planetary gear transmissions, optimized in terms of efficiency, weight and volume.
Environmentally friendly, highly efficient and lasting a product's lifetime. With characteristics like this, Pulsed-Plasma Diffusion (PPD) technology from Oerlikon Balzers has established itself as an industry standard for the treatment of large automotive press tooling. Now the technology specialists are targeting new applications with this advanced process, offering an alternative to traditional hard-chrome processes.
Precision components (industrial bearing races and automotive gears) can distort during heat treatment due to effects of free or unconstrained oil quenching. However, press quenching can be used to minimize these effects. This quenching method achieves the relatively stringent geometrical requirements stipulated by industrial manufacturing specifications. As performed on a wide variety of steel alloys, this specialized quenching technique is presented here, along with a case study showing the effects of prior thermal history on the distortion that is generated during press quenching.
Gleason 350GMS helps put higher quality, more reliable gears into its next-generation TC10 automatic transmission.
Reshoring offers an opportunity for increased domestic gear production. Reshoring is growing at a steady pace in most industries, and is particularly strong in the gear intensive industries such as automotive, aerospace and construction equipment (Table 1). This article provides background on the overall trend and tools for the gear buyer and the gear producer to make the offshore vs. domestic decision.
Developed here is a new method to automatically find the optimal topological modification from the predetermined measurement grid points for bevel gears. Employing this method enables the duplication of any flank form of a bevel gear given by the measurement points and the creation of a 3-D model for CAM machining in a very short time. This method not only allows the user to model existing flank forms into 3-D models, but also can be applied for various other purposes, such as compensating for hardening distortions and manufacturing deviations which are very important issues but not yet solved in the practical milling process.
Polymer gears find increasing applications in the automotive industry, office machines, food machinery, and home appliances. The main reason for this success is their low cost. Their low weight, quietness of operation, and meshing without lubricant are also interesting. However, they have poor heat resistance and are limited to rotational transmission. In order to improve the gears' behavior, glass fiber is added
Hard finishing technology, e.g. â€” honing â€” is used to manufacture high-performance gears. Gear honing is primarily used to hard finish small- and medium-sized automotive gears. And yet trials have shown that gears with a module larger than mn = 4 mm can also be honed efficiently, but problems often occur due to unstable process design. In this paper a model to improve the process design is described.
The "less is more" mantra is certainly a rallying cry in manufacturing. Technologies like multiaxis machining, 3D printing and automation are enabling companies to be more efficient, cost-conscious and flexible on the shop floor.
The increasing demands in the automotive industry for weight reduction, fuel efficiency and a reduced carbon footprint need to be addressed urgently. Up until now, widely used conventional steels have lived up to expectations. However, with more stringent emissions standards, demands on materials are increasing. Materials are expected to perform better, resulting in a need for increased fatigue strength. A possibility to increase torque on current generations without design changes can be achieved by selecting suitable materials.
This paper presents a new approach to repair industrial gears by showing a case study where pressure angle modification is also considered, differently from the past repairing procedures that dealt only with the modification of the profile shift coefficient. A computer program has been developed to automatically determine the repair alternatives under two goals: minimize the stock removal or maximize gear tooth strength.
Your automobile's differential is easily one of its most important components. This becomes crystal clear to anyone that has ever had to pony up to replace one. The differential, that mathy-driven, mechanically complex system that keeps axles and pinions running smoothly was invented by a watchmaker - for a watch.
First, the facts: powder metallurgy is a cost-effective method of forming precision net-shape metal components that allows for more efficiently designed products. It saves valuable raw materials through recycling and the elimination of costly secondary-machining. PM competes with wrought steel gears as the technology continues to advance. You'll find PM components in everything from automobile transmissions to aircraft turbine engines, surgical equipment and power tools.
Gear designers face constant pressure to increase power density in their drivetrains. In the automotive industry, for example, typical engine torque has increased significantly over the last several decades. Meanwhile, the demands for greater fuel efficiency mean designers must accommodate these increased loads in a smaller, more lightweight package than ever before. In addition, electric and hybrid vehicles will feature fewer gears, with fewer transmission speeds, running at higher rpms, meaning the gears in those systems will have to endure life cycles far beyond what is typical with internal combustion engines.
The DVS gearing specialist Praewema Antriebstechnik continues to expand its technological expertise in order to keep pace with the growing significance of planetary geartrains for automatic and particularly electric vehicles, with the associated need for even higher-precision production of toothed gear components.
Background on the development of a high-speed, automatic hardness tester for gear steels.
New machining fluids for automotive, jaw boring rings, virtual machine simulation and coordinate measuring software are highlighted in the March/April 2018 issue of Gear Technology.
Large bevel gears drive the crushing machines used to process ores and minerals in the hard-rock mining and aggregates industries. This paper is intended to help the reader understand the unique aspects of these machines, and why crushing applications fall outside the traditional automotive paradigm for bevel gears.
The future gives the gear market plenty to think about in areas like automation, additive manufacturing and machine learning.
Gear honing is a highly productive process for the production of small and medium sized gears and is used mainly in the serial production of the automotive industry. The low robustness of the process is a particular challenge in gear honing. The consequences range from an inadequate gear quality to an early breakage of the honing tool. In order to describe the processmachine interaction, the machining forces must be known.
Gear metrology is a revolving door of software packages and system upgrades. It has to be in order to keep up with the productivity and development processes of the machines on the manufacturing floor. Temperature compensation, faster inspection times and improved software packages are just a few of the advancements currently in play as companies prepare for new opportunities in areas like alternative energy, automotive and aerospace/defense.
In his Handbook of Gear Design (Ref.1), Dudley states (or understates): "The best gear people around the world are now coming to realize that metallurgical quality is just as important as geometric quality." Geometric accuracy without metallurgical integrity in any highly stressed gear or shaft would only result in wasted effort for all concerned - the gear designer, the manufacturer, and the customer - as the component's life cycle would be prematurely cut short. A carburized automotive gear or shaft with the wrong surface hardness, case depth or core hardness may not even complete its basic warranty period before failing totally at considerable expense and loss of prestige for the producer and the customer. The unexpected early failure of a large industrial gear or shaft in a coal mine or mill could result in lost production and income while the machine is down since replacement components may not be readily available. Fortunately, this scenario is not common. Most reputable gear and shaft manufacturers around the world would never neglect the metallurgical quality of their products.
Spiral-bevel gears, found in many machine tools, automobile rear-axle drives, and helicopter transmissions, are important elements for transmitting power.
Some results of evaluation by this method in the automotive industry.
There is an increasing significance of screw helical and worm gears that combine use of steel and plastics. This is shown by diverse and continuously rising use in the automotive and household appliance industries. The increasing requirements for such gears can be explained by the advantageous qualities of such a material combination in comparison with that of the traditional steel/bronze pairing.
Powder metallurgy (P/M) techniques have proven successful in displacing many components within the automobile drive train, such as: connecting rods, carriers, main bearing caps, etc. The reason for P/Mâ€™s success is its ability to offer the design engineer the required mechanical properties with reduced component cost.
With the aim of reducing the operating noise and vibration of planetary gear sets used in automatic transmissions, a meshing phase difference was applied to the planet gears that mesh with the sun and ring gears.
In this paper, a method is presented for analyzing and documenting the pitting failure of spur and helical gears through digital photography and automatic computerized evaluation of the damaged tooth fl ank surface. The authors have developed an accurate, cost-effective testing procedure that provides an alternative to vibration analysis or oil debris methods commonly used in conjunction with similar test-rig programs.
Gear manufacturers are moving into an era that will see changes in both engineering practices and industry standards as new end-products evolve. Within the traditional automotive industry, carbon emission reduction legislation will drive the need for higher levels of efficiency and growth in electric and hybrid vehicles. Meanwhile, the fast growing market of wind turbines is already opening up a whole new area of potential for gearbox manufacturers, but this industry is one that will demand reliability, high levels of engineering excellence and precision manufacturing.
As the automotive industry continues to reinvent itself, new transmission technologies are at the forefront of this effort, and there is a whirlwind of new developments being detailed at the German Car Training Instituteâ€™s Automotive Transmissions and Drive Trains Symposium North America.
In the hypercompetitive race to increase automobile efficiency, Metaldyne has been developing its balance shaft module line with Victrex PEEK polymer in place of metal gears. The collaborative product development resulted in significant reductions in inertia, weight and power consumption, as well as improvement in noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance.
Examples from gears in wind turbine, automotive and industrial applications.
The October 2011 issue of Gear Technology featured the article â€śLow-Distortion Heat Treatment of Transmission Components,â€ť which covered the combination of low-pressure carburizing and high pressure gas quenching in an automotive environment. Here, heat treating expert Dan Herring explains why oil quenching is an appropriate choice for many applications.
Induction hardening is widely used in both the automotive and aerospace gear industries to minimize heat treat distortion and obtain favorable compressive residual stresses for improved fatigue performance. The heating process during induction hardening has a significant effect on the quality of the heat-treated parts. However, the quenching process often receives less attention even though it is equally important.
History comes around full circle. It is interesting to talk to gear manufacturers who service the defense, aerospace, automotive and computer industries and find that their sales, production and backlogs reflect excellent and, in some cases, record breaking business.
The art of gear hobbing has advanced dramatically since the development and introduction of unique machine and tool features such as no backlash, super rigidity, automatic loading of cutting tools, CNC controls, additional machine power and improved cutter materials and coatings. It is essential to utilize all these features to run the machine economically.
The turbines are still spinning. Theyâ€™re spinning on large wind farms in the Great Plains, offshore in the Atlantic and even underwater where strong tidal currents offer new energy solutions. These turbines spin regularly while politicians and policy makersâ€” tied up in discussions on tax incentives, economic recovery and a lot of finger pointingâ€”sit idle. Much like the auto and aerospace industries of years past, renewable energy is coping with its own set of growing pains. Analysts still feel confident that clean energy will play a significant role in the future of manufacturingâ€”itâ€™s just not going to play the role envisioned four to five years ago.
This article illustrates a structural analysis of asymmetrical teeth. This study was carried out because of the impossibility of applying traditional calculations to procedures involved in the specific case. In particular, software for the automatic generation of meshes was devised because existing software does not produce results suitable for the new geometrical model required. Having carried out the structural calculations, a comparative study of the stress fields of symmetrical and asymmetrical teeth was carried out. The structural advantages of the latter type of teeth emerged.
Recent advances in spiral bevel gear geometry and finite element technology make it practical to conduct a structural analysis and analytically roll the gear set through mesh. With the advent of user-specific programming linked to 3-D solid modelers and mesh generators, model generation has become greatly automated. Contact algorithms available in general purpose finite element codes eliminate the need for the use and alignment of gap elements. Once the gear set it placed in mesh, user subroutines attached to the FE code easily roll it through mesh. The method is described in detail. Preliminary result for a gear set segment showing the progression of the contact line load is given as the gears roll through mesh.
Increasingly gear designers and product engineers are capitalizing on the economic advantages of powder metallurgy (P/M) for new and existing gear applications. Powder metal gears are found in automobiles, outdoor power equipment transmissions and office machinery applications as well as power hand tools, appliances and medial components.
Precision gears play a vital role in today's economy. Through their application, automobile transmissions are more compact and efficient, ships sail faster, and diesel locomotives haul more freight. Today great emphasis is being placed upon the reduction of noise in all gear applications and, to be quiet, gears must be accurate.
Why Brushes? In this age of hi-tech, robots, automatic machines, machining cells, etc., is there a niche somewhere for power brushes? Let me answer by asking another question. What tool does the gear manufacturer have in his arsenal that allows him to deburr green gears, hardened gears, hobbed gears, ground gears and shaved gears? What tool allows him to deburr powder metal gears - green and sintered - brass gears, bronze gears, stainless gears made of exotic materials such as inconel, waspaloy, or hastaloy, and fiber and plastic gears? How about spur gears, helical gears, sprockets, both internal and external splines, clutch teeth and pump gears?
In 1985 a new tooling concept for high volume gear production was introduced to the gear manufacturing industry. Since then this tool, the wafer shaper cutter, has proven itself in scores of applications as a cost-effective, consistent producer of superior quality parts. This report examines the first high-production installation at the plant of a major automotive supplies, where a line of twenty shapers is producing timing chain sprockets.
Plane strain fracture toughness of twelve high-carbon steels has been evaluated to study the influence of alloying elements, carbon content and retained austenite. The steels were especially designed to simulate the carburized case microstructure of commonly used automotive type gear steels. Results show that a small variation in carbon can influence the K IC significantly. The beneficial effect of retained austenite depends both on its amount and distribution. The alloy effect, particularly nickel, becomes significant only after the alloy content exceeds a minimum amount. Small amounts of boron also appear beneficial.
The newer profile-shifted (long and short addendum) gears are often used as small size reduction gears for automobiles or motorcycles. The authors have investigated the damage to each cutting edge when small size mass-produced gears with shifted profiles are used at high speeds.
From standardization to automated, Industry 4.0 capable broachers, here's the latest in what's being developed in the field of broaching.
More and more gear shops are wrestling with the issue of whether or not solid modeling is right for their gear design work. The Q & A Page of The Gear Industry Home Page has had numerous questions asking how to model gears in solid modeling applications such as AutoCAD, Solidworks and Pr/Engineer. Given the problems people have been having, we are presenting the step-by-step process for modeling gears in Pr/Engineer, but first we thought it would be a good idea to explore the question of whether or not you should even try to design gears using Pro/Engineer or any other 3D solid modeling program.
Your Addendum team has come across a number of Good Ole Boys in its time; now we bring you something of even more interest - a Good Ole Gear Book. Mr. Robert Price, of Automation - Gears - Machinery, a gear consulting firm in Delanson, NY, shared with us a real find.
Automotive gear manufacturers have implemented significant improvements in external planetary gear manufacturing yielding quieter gears. In addition, process stability has increased due to the post-heat treatment finishing processes employed. This article explains various complete solutions for cutting and finishing internal ring gears.
Material losses and long production times are two areas of conventional spur and helical gear manufacturing in which improvements can be made. Metalforming processes have been considered for manufacturing spur and helical gears, but these are costly due to the development times necessary for each new part design. Through a project funded by the U.S. Army Tank - Automotive Command, Battelle's Columbus Division has developed a technique for designing spur and helical gear forging and extrusion dies using computer aided techniques.
I would like to comment on David Arnesen's article, "Dry Hobbing Saves Automaker Money, Improves Gear Quality," in the Nov/Dec, 1996 issue.
A recent U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command project, conducted by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories. successfully developed the methodology of CAD/CAM procedures for manufacturing dies (via EDM) for forging spiral bevel gears. Further, it demonstrated that precision forging of spiral bevel gears is a practical production technique. Although no detailed economic evaluation was made in this study, it is expected that precision forging offers an attractive alternative to the costly gear cutting operations for producing spiral bevel gears.
News Items About auto
1 Index Announces Next-Generation Multi-Spindle Automatic Lathe (February 14, 2020)
Index has announced the launch of its next generation MS32-6 multi-spindle automatic lathe. This newest version of the six-spindle mach... Read News
2 GKN Sinter Metals Starts Automotive Series Production with 3D Printing System (December 9, 2016)
GKN Sinter Metals announced that the first additive manufacturing (AM) machine in the automotive industry to enable series production of ... Read News
3 AFC-Holcroft Roller Hearth Annealing Furnace Installed for Major Automotive Systems and Components Supplier (April 17, 2017)
A leading global automotive supplier of systems and components has purchased a new roller hearth annealing furnace from AFC-Holcroft. The... Read News
4 SPV Spintec?s Automatic Deburring Machine Designed Especially for Gear Wheels (April 27, 2006)
The new 68 2006 automatic deburring machine from SPV Spintec is designed for deburring of gear wheels, flanges and other circular symmetr... Read News
5 BRM Announces Automotive Aftermarket and Performance Racing Industry Applications (December 8, 2014)
Brush Research Manufacturing (BRM), maker of flexible engine hones, diesel tools, and automotive brushes, announced a new article about N... Read News
6 Emags Newest Vertical Turning Centers Offer Quicker Automatic Workpiece Changeover (April 3, 2007)
The VL series vertical standard turning machines from Emag are universal production tools with a small footprint and automatic workholdin... Read News
7 Siemens Offers Automation Innovations to Gleason Titan Machines (April 19, 2013)
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8 Index to Demonstrate Modular Eight-spindle Automatic CNC Turning Machine at PMTS 2015 (March 6, 2015)
Index will demonstrate its MS22C-8, a modular eight-spindle automatic CNC turning machine, producing brass connector parts at PMTS 2015, ... Read News
9 Compact Haas Lathe Automatically Loads Parts (October 21, 2008)
The SL-20APL from Haas Automation is capable of automatically picking up parts from an external tray and loading them directly in the l... Read News
10 Riten Heavy Duty Spring-Loaded Live Center Automatically Compensates for Thermal Compensates (October 27, 2015)
This center from Riten Industries is capable of adjusting the load on the workpiece. Utilizing Bellville washers, it automatically compen... Read News
11 Automotive Supplier Purchases AFC-Holcroft Walking Beam Furnace (July 2, 2012)
A Tier One automotive supplier located in the Eastern Central region of the United States has purchased a new Walking Beam Furnace with &... Read News
12 Traub TNL18 Series Automatic Lathe Line Adds New Lathes and Drive Train (October 25, 2016)
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13 RoboMax System Automates Quality Control (August 27, 2010)
The RoboMax system, developed by Carl Zeiss, does not require an operator and can run fully automatically 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ... Read News
14 Traub TNL32-11 11-Axis Automatic Lathe Reduces Downtime, Negates Acceleration Time (April 13, 2016)
The new Traub TNL32-11 sliding/fixed headstock automatic lathe has a headstock moving in the Z-axis, an upper and identical lower turret ... Read News
15 Global Automotive Gear Market Continues to Grow (February 8, 2016)
Asia-Pacific accounted for the largest share of the global automotive gears market in 2015. The region generates high demand for veh... Read News
16 Rosler Surf Finisher Utilizes Fully Automated Processes (January 29, 2016)
Rosler has unveiled its newest surface finishing technology with its new Surf Finisher machine, an automated surface finishing process wh... Read News
17 Gleason Renames Distech Systems to Gleason Automation Systems (December 18, 2015)
Gleason Corporation announced a new name and operating structure for Distech Systems effective January 1, 2016. The automation business w... Read News
18 Koepfer America TM200 R3 Gear Deburring Machine Offers Automatic Loading (November 10, 2017)
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19 Houghton International HOCUT 8750 Oil Metal Removal Fluid Improves Operational Efficiency During Manufacture of Automotive Parts (April 6, 2018)
Houghton International has developed a new versatile soluble oil metal removal fluid for the manufacture of automotive parts including en... Read News
20 Hexagon Highlights Automation at IMTS 2014 (July 21, 2014)
Hexagon Metrology announced it will highlight measurement automation trends at the 2014 IMTS (International Manufacturing Technology Show... Read News
21 Suhner Introduces Robot Solutions for Fully-Automated Manufacturing (June 21, 2019)
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22 Teradyne Completes Acquisition of AutoGuide Mobile Robots (November 15, 2019)
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23 FANUC America Opens New Robotics and Automation Facility (October 22, 2019)
FANUC America held a grand opening celebration at its new 461,000 square-foot North Campus robotics and automation facility in Auburn Hil... Read News
24 Ikona Gear Technology Licensed for First Automotive Application (January 15, 2006)
Ikona Gear announced its patented gearing system has been licensed for its first automotive application, an electric par... Read News
25 Victrex Awarded Automotive Standard for Manufacture of Gears (August 9, 2019)
Victrex has achieved a new milestone for its automotive offerings. Its gear design and manufacturing facility in Grantsburg, USA, has rec... Read News
26 Index Integrates Automation Cell with Production Turning Centers (July 23, 2019)
Index has announced that the iXcenter automation cell is now available with its C Series of highly productive turning centers. Docked to ... Read News
27 Hardinge Demonstrates Super-Precision Turning with Automation (December 17, 2012)
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28 Kinefac Introduces New Automated Production System (April 6, 2006)
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29 Varvel Introduces New Automation System (March 28, 2019)
The Varvel Group has introduced Dadistel, an automation system for control of production in mechanical machining departments that enables... Read News
30 ArvinMeritor Focuses on Automated Manual Gearboxes (April 15, 2006)
ArvinMeritor announced a decision to place greater emphasis on the sales and marketing of the FreedomLine automated manual transmission b... Read News
31 EMAG Introduces Automation System for Modular Machines (January 16, 2019)
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32 EMCO and UltraTech Collaborate on Modular Automation Package (March 27, 2014)
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33 Automation Federation Updates Automation Competency Model (November 23, 2018)
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34 Buehler Introduces AutoMet Pro Grinder Polishers (November 20, 2018)
Buehler, an ITW company has introduced the AutoMet family, new semi-automatic grinder-polishers that enhance the company’s metallog... Read News
35 Sercos Highlights Automation Solutions for Machine Tools (May 1, 2014)
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36 AFC Holcroft Receives Order from Tier One Automotive Supplier (June 12, 2014)
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37 MP Tool Chuck Test Stand Provides Automated Durability Testing While Replicating Real-World Scenarios (November 19, 2015)
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38 Cimcool Offers Hybrid Fluid Technology for Automotive Industry (October 17, 2012)
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39 Sensor Allows Fully Automated Measurement on CMMs (August 18, 2011)
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40 Hunter Automated Machinery Makes Donation to Foundry Educational Foundation (September 25, 2012)
Hunter Automated Machinery recently announced a donation to the Foundry Educational Foundation ... Read News
41 Norton Kaplan Appointed Head of Methods Automation (May 24, 2007)
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42 ABA-PGT Awarded ISO TS 16949 Automotive Certification (March 29, 2011)
ABA-PGT Inc., a producer of high precision tooling and precision-molded plastic gears, has been awarded the ISO TS 16949 Automotive Certi... Read News
43 Mastercam Certified for Autodesk Inventor (May 18, 2010)
CNC Software, developer of Mastercam CAD/CAM software, recently announced that its Mastercam X4 CAD/CAM software has been certified for A... Read News
44 Michigan Automatic Turning Purchases AA Gear (December 11, 2009)
AA Gear LLC and Michigan Automatic Turning Inc. completed the purchase of the assets of Ann Arbor Machine Gear Division. Michigan Automat... Read News
45 Ford Announces Sale of Automotive Components Holdings' PTU Business (August 30, 2007)
Ford Motor Co. and Linamar Corp. announced the signing of definitive agreements for the sale of the Automotive Components Holdings’... Read News
46 KBE+ Provides Consulting Service with Chinese Automotive Manufacturer (February 8, 2007)
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47 Rockwell Automation Plans to Sell Mechanical and Motor Business (April 19, 2006)
Rockwell Automation announced plans to sell its Dodge? mechanical and Reliance Electric motors and motor repair services businesses, the ... Read News
48 MAG Industrial Automation Systems Receives American Axle Supplier Award (April 17, 2006)
The Powertrain Technologies Group of MAG Industrial Automation Systems of Sterling Heights, Michigan, has received a Supplier Recogniti... Read News
49 SMW Autoblok Introduces New Line of Live Tooling (April 14, 2006)
SMW Autoblok introduces a complete line of live tools to provide increased machine utilization of turning centers, resulting in more part... Read News
50 Tool Maker Expands to Meet Automotive Demand (April 13, 2006)
Engineered Tools Corp., a manufacturer of carbide cutting tools used in production of spiral bevel ring gears and pinions, announced the ... Read News
51 Baldor Agrees to Buy Rockwell Automation Division (April 7, 2006)
Baldor Electric Co. has agreed to purchase the power systems business of Rockwell Automation Inc. for $1.8 billion, in a deal expected to... Read News
52 Rockwell Automation Dodge Reliance Introduces New Helical/Bevel Speed Reducer (April 6, 2006)
The new Dodge motorized Torque-Arm II (MTA) from Rockwell Automation is a high efficiency, case carburized helical/bevel speed reducer. T... Read News
53 Reishauer to Exhibit Hard Gear Finishing and Automation Technology at IMTS (April 2, 2006)
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54 Liebherr Offers Automation Solutions (March 22, 2013)
Humans have it easy. We intuitively use our eyes and sense of touch to grab and move objects. The mobility of our arms and hands are unri... Read News
55 Comet's New Cloud-Based Gearbox Durability SimApp Will Provide Many Automated Processes (October 13, 2015)
Comet Solutions, Inc. recently announced a program in support of Gearbox design and manufacturing. The Comet Gearbox solution, consisting... Read News
56 Seco Tools Inks Sponsorship Deal with Andretti Autosport (July 23, 2013)
Seco Tools recently signed on as a technical and supplier sponsor of the IZOD IndyCar Series championship racing team Andretti Autosport.... Read News
57 Automate 2017 Preview: Rohm Products of America Booth #2053 (March 2, 2017)
Röhm Products of America will highlight its broad range of end-of-arm tooling for robots, including a special focus on the company&r... Read News
58 Starrett Introduces Automated Digital Hardness Testers (October 9, 2019)
The L.S. Starrett Co. has introduced two new digital Rockwell/Superficial Rockwell Benchtop Hardness Testers (Nos. 3823 and 3824) with fu... Read News
59 WFL Offers Automation Solutions (July 16, 2019)
Automations are indispensable nowadays in the day-to-day operation of machine tool manufacturing. With WFL Robotic Solutions, there are n... Read News
60 NUM Helps Automate Production of Involute and Cyclodial Gears for Robotics (July 1, 2019)
NUM is helping the Taiwanese machine tool company Chien Wei Precise Technology to develop innovative CNC grinding machines for manufactur... Read News
61 Rockwell Automation Webinar Addresses Workforce Skills Gap Challenge (March 22, 2019)
Manufacturing roles are changing more profoundly than ever, requiring new skills needed to deploy technology on the plant floor. It's... Read News
62 Starrett Introduces High Performance Automatic Vision System (December 14, 2018)
The L.S. Starrett Company has introduced its AV450 Automatic Vision System. Versatile, accurate, fast, and American made, the new 3-axis ... Read News
63 Liebherr Develops Apps to Support Smart Automation (October 30, 2018)
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64 IMTS 2018: Jenoptik Automotive (August 14, 2018)
The new generation of Waveline W800 roughness and contour measuring devices, designed to meet a variety of customer requirements for flex... Read News
65 IMTS 2018: MAG Automotive (August 13, 2018)
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66 GWJ Expands Automotive Engagement at Dritev Congress 2018 (June 5, 2018)
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67 IMPCO Microfinishing Worldstar 1680 Offers Fully Flexible Microfinishing System for Automotive Applications (February 13, 2018)
A new design CNC microfinishing system by IMPCO Microfinishing, polishes the critical cylindrical bearing journals of a range of differen... Read News
68 Matrix Design to Exhibit at Automate 2017 (March 7, 2017)
Matrix Design, LLC will be exhibiting at Automate 2017 from April 03-06, 2017 at McCormick Place in Chicago. Held every two years, Automa... Read News
69 Violi VM Series Hydraulic Metal Chip Briquetting Machines Offer Semi-Automatic and Automatic Options (February 7, 2017)
Violi Srl briquetting machines are in operation around the world. Recently Violi Srl introduced further innovations for their VM series o... Read News
70 Guyson Corp. Acquires Automated Blasting Systems (December 9, 2013)
The Guyson Corporation of U.S.A. has announced the acquisition of all assets of Automated Blasting Systems, Inc., of South Windsor, CT. A... Read News
71 Advanced Materials Development Corp. Offers New Material Options for Automotive Components (January 18, 2017)
Car and truck manufacturers are faced with the difficult task of significantly improving fuel economy while maintaining safety and compet... Read News
72 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries MSS300 Skiving Machine Designed for Manufacturing Automotive Internal Ring Gears (December 15, 2016)
The opening of the JIMTOF machine tool show in Tokyo, Japan marked the debut of MHIMTC's new MSS300 super skiving gear machine. This ... Read News
73 Index ABC Automatic Lathe Offers 15 Percent Faster Cycle Times (November 1, 2016)
The dynamic new generation of the ABC machine is ideal for turning out simple to moderately complex parts in cycle times up to ... Read News
74 Jenoptik Automotive Offers Hommel-Etamic AG380 Pneumatic Snap Gage (October 27, 2016)
Jenoptik Automotive recently introduced the Hommel-Etamic AG380 pneumatic snap gage to quickly, cost-effectively and flexibly check a ran... Read News
75 IMTS 2016: SMW Autoblok Corp. (W-1400) (September 9, 2016)
Chuck Changing SystemAt IMTS 2016, SMW Autoblok will be introducing the Chuck Changing System (CCS) to the North American market. Designe... Read News
76 Forbes Names Ricardo one of America's Leading Consulting Firms in the Automotive Industry (June 2, 2016)
Ricardo was recently listed in the Forbes America’s Best Management Consulting Firms 2016, a list identifying which management cons... Read News
77 A3 Webinar Examines Automated System Purchases (January 6, 2020)
A3 will present the webinar "How to Purchase an Automated System," on January 9, 2019 from 12:00 - 1:00 ET. This webinar will h... Read News
78 EMAG VT and VL Machines Feature Integrated O-automation System for Transporting Workpieces (August 12, 2015)
At Gear Expo 2015, EMAG USA will feature manufacturing systems for precision metal components alongside the North American premier of its... Read News
79 ITAMCO Named 2014 Autodesk Inventor of the Year (March 18, 2015)
The votes are in, and Autodesk customer ITAMCO has been named the Autodesk Inventor of the Year for 2014.Members from the Autod... Read News
80 IMTS Preview: Haas Automation (August 14, 2014)
Five-axis machining is an effective means to reduce setups and increase accuracy for multi-sided and complex parts. Machining those parts... Read News
81 ITAMCO Named Autodesk Inventor of the Month (February 4, 2014)
When discussing machinery, let’s consider for a moment the gear: That humble, mechanical cogwheel that quietly goes about its job o... Read News
82 Mahindra & Mahindra to Acquire SAR Auto Parts (December 21, 2003)
Indian conglomerate Mahindra & Mahindra is in the final rounds of negotiations to acquire SAR Auto Products, a Rajkot, India-based manufa... Read News