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This article discusses applications of statistical process capability indices for controlling the quality of tooth geometry characteristics, including profile and lead as defined by current AGMA-2015, ISO-1328, and DIN-3960 standards. It also addresses typical steps to improve manufacturing process capability for each of the tooth geometry characteristics when their respective capability indices point to an incapable process.
Faster, more efficient manufacturing offered with table-top design from American Broach & Machine.
Hainbuch offers workholding solutions for United Gear.
Machine tool manufacturers supplying machines to the gearing world have been in existence for many years. The machines have changed, and so has the acceptance criteria for the machines.
The quality of gearing is a function of many factors ranging from design, manufacturing processes, machine capability, gear steel material, the machine operator, and the quality control methods employed. This article discusses many of the bevel gear manufacturing problems encountered by gear manufacturers and some of the troubleshooting techniques used.
Multiple possibilities are available to increase the transmissible power of girth gears. These solutions include: using a larger module, increasing of the gear diameter through the number of teeth, enlarging the face width, and increasing the hardness of the base material. The first three parameters are mostly limited by cutting machine capability. Module, outside diameter, and face width (for a cast gear) can theoretically be increased to infinity, but not the cutting machine dimensions. There are also practical limits with respect to the installation of very large diameter/large face width gears.
Generating gear grinding is one of the most important finishing processes for small and medium-sized gears, its process design often determined by practical knowledge. Therefore a manufacturing simulation with the capability to calculate key values for the process â€” such as the specific material removal rate â€” is developed here. Indeed, this paper presents first results of a model for a local analysis of the value. Additionally, an empirical formula â€” based on a multiple regression model for a global value describing the process â€” is provided.
The recently available capability for the free-form milling of gears of various gear types and sizes â€” all within one manufacturing system â€” is becoming increasingly recognized as a flexible machining process for gears.
It has long been known that the skiving process for machining internal gears is multiple times faster than shaping, and more flexible than broaching, due to skiving's continuous chip removal capability. However, skiving has always presented a challenge to machines and tools. With the relatively low dynamic stiffness in the gear trains of mechanical machines, as well as the fast wear of uncoated cutters, skiving of cylindrical gears never achieved acceptance in shaping or hobbing, until recently.
Near-net gear forging today is producing longer life gears at significantly lower costs than traditional manufacturing techniques. Advances in forging equipment, controls and die-making capability have been combined to produce commercially viable near-net-shape gears in diameters up to 17" with minimum stock allowances. These forged gears require only minimal finishing to meet part tolerance specifications.
A common goal of gear manufacturers is to produce gearing that is competitively priced, that meets all quality requirements with the minimum amount of cost in a timely manner, and that satisfies customers' expectations. In order to optimize this goal, the gear manufacturer must thoroughly understand each manufacturing process specified, the performance capability of that process, and the effect of that particular process as it relates to the quality of the manufactured gear. If the wrong series of processes has been selected or a specific selected process is not capable of producing a quality part, manufacturing costs are greatly increased.
Today, as part of filling a typical gear hobbing or shaping machine order, engineers are required to perform an SPC acceptance test. This SPC test, while it is contractually necessary for machine acceptance, is not a machine acceptance test. It is a process capability test. It is an acceptance of the machine, cutting tool, workholding fixture, and workpiece as integrated on the cutting machine, using a gear measuring machine, with its work arbor and evaluation software, to measure the acceptance elements of the workpiece.
Hobbing is a continuous gear generation process widely used in the industry for high or low volume production of external cylindrical gears. Depending on the tooth size, gears and splines are hobbed in a single pass or in a two-pass cycle consisting of a roughing cut followed by a finishing cut. State-of-the-art hobbing machines have the capability to vary cutting parameters between first and second cut so that a different formula is used to calculate cycle times for single-cut and double-cut hobbing.
Carburized and hardened gears have optimum load-carrying capability. There are many alternative ways to produce a hard case on the gear surface. Also, selective direct hardening has some advantages in its ability to be used in the production line, and it is claimed that performance results equivalent to a carburized gear can be obtained. This article examines the alternative ways of carburizing, nitriding, and selective direct hardening, considering equipment, comparative costs, and other factors. The objective must be to obtain the desired quality at the lowest cost.
The search for greater gear life involves improvement in cost, weight and increased power output. There are many events that affect gear life, and this paper addresses those relating to fatigue, gear tooth pitting, fatigue strength losses due to the heat treating processes and shot peening technique. The capability of shot peening to increase fatigue strength and surface fatigue life eliminate machine marks which cause stress risers, and to aid in lubrication when properly controlled, suggests increased use and acceptance of the process.
Mechanical efficiency is an important index of gearing, especially for epicyclic gearing. Because of its compact size, light weight, the capability of a high speed ratio, and the ability to provide differential action, epicyclic gearing is very versatile, and its use is increasing. However, attention should be paid to efficiency not only to save energy, but sometimes also to make the transmission run smoothly or to avoid a self-locking condition.
What was once recognized as the unique genius of America is now slipping away from us and, in many areas, is now seen as a "second rate" capability. Unless action is taken now, this country is in real danger of being unable to regain its supremacy in technological development and economic vigor. First Americans must understand the serious implications of the problem; and second, we must dedicate ourselves to national and local actions that will ensure a greater scientific and technological literacy in America.
Publisher Michael Goldstein discusses the loss of U.S. manufacturing capability and what we should do about it.
Bore finishing system from Sunnen helps Cloyes Gear and Products achieve high accuracy, productivity and process capability.
High speed gearing, operating with low viscosity lubricants, is prone to a failure mode called scoring. In contrast to the classic failure modes, pitting and breakage, which generally take time to develop, scoring occurs early in the operation of a gear set and can be the limiting factor in the gear's power capability.
Free form milling of gears becomes more and more important as a flexible machining process for gears. Reasons for that are high degrees of freedom as the usage of universal tool geometry and machine tools is possible. This allows flexible machining of various gear types and sizes with one manufacturing system. This paper deals with manufacturing, quality and performance of gears made by free form milling. The focus is set on specific process properties of the parts. The potential of free form milling is investigated in cutting tests of a common standard gear. The component properties are analyzed and flank load-carrying capacity of the gears is derived by running trials on back-to-back test benches. Hereby the characteristics of gears made by free form milling and capability in comparison with conventionally manufactured gears will be shown.
Xspect Solutions Provides Wenzel Bridge-Type CMM Equipped with OpenDMIS Software for Basic Gear Measuring Capability with CMM Flexibility.
News Items About capability
1 Rush Gear Announces Reverse Engineering Capability (February 6, 2005)
Rush Gears Inc., of Fort Washington, PA, announced their capability to reverse engineer both drawings and sample parts. According to ... Read News
2 Modern Heat Treat Expands Production Capability with AFC Holcroft Equipment (March 18, 2019)
In support of its continued growth, Modern Heat Treat, a commercial heat treating operation located in Richland Hills, Texas (USA), has a... Read News
3 Marposs Expands Software Capability with Blulink Acquisition (October 9, 2018)
Marposs has announced the acquisition of Blulink (Reggio Emilia, Italy), a company specializing in quality control and process management... Read News
4 Hexagon Manufacturing Intelligence Global S CMM Features Four Different Capability Packages (February 19, 2018)
Hexagon Manufacturing Intelligence announced the latest evolution of its Global S coordinate measuring machine (CMM) series, customizable... Read News
5 Forest City Gear Expands Small Diameter ID/OD Grinding Capability (December 13, 2017)
Forest City Gear has expanded its capabilities for the hard finishing of smaller diameter gears with particularly tight ID and length tol... Read News
6 MAG Introduces VTC with Gear Cutting Capability (June 15, 2011)
The first technology advancement for large vertical turning centers (VTCs) resulting from MAG's recent acquisition of Modul, a gear m... Read News
7 Wenzel Introduces New Grind Burn Detection Capability (March 15, 2010)
In a continuing effort to enhance the capabilities of its gear measuring equipment, Wenzel has introduced a new feature that detects any ... Read News
8 AxleTech Expands Systems Capability with Acquisition of U.S. Gear (November 24, 2008)
AxleTech International recently announced the acquisition of Chicago-based U.S. Gear, a designer and manufacturer of specialized differ... Read News
9 New Axle Shaft Hardening Capability from Inductoheat (January 4, 2005)
The VSM-95 vertical scanning machine from Inductoheat is tooled up to process axle shafts. According to the companys press rele... Read News