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Two major processes used for cutting gears, hobbing and shaping. This article describes advanced machine design and cutter materials for gear shaping.
These days it's hard to get through breakfast without reading or hearing another story about how the computer is changing the way we live, sleep, eat, breathe, make things and do business. The message is that everything is computerized now, or, if it isn't, it will be by next Tuesday at the latest, Well, maybe.
A high-performance, 11-axis CNC system from NUM has enabled machine tool manufacturer Sicmat to create a gear honing machine that sets a new industry standard for post-hardening fine finishing.
Product announcements so often trumpet minor, incremental advances with works like "revolutionary" and "unique" that even the best thesaurus can fail to offer a fresh alternative to alert the reader when something really innovative and important is introduced. In the case of Mitsubishi's new CNC gear shaper, the ST25CNC, both terms apply.
Grinding in one form or another has been used for more than 50 years to correct distortions in gears caused by the high temperatures and quenching techniques associated with hardening. Grinding improves the lead, involute and spacing characteristics. This makes the gear capable of carrying the high loads and running at the high pitch line velocities required by today's most demanding applications. Gears that must meet or exceed the accuracy requirements specified by AGMA Quality 10-11 or DIN Class 6-7 must be ground or hard finished after hear treatment.
In today's economy, when purchasing a new state-of-the-art gear shaper means a significant capital investment, common sense alone dictates that you develop strategies to get the most for your money. One of the best ways to do this is to take advantage of the sophistication of the machine to make it more than just a single-purpose tool.
NC and CNC machines are at the heart of manufacturing today. They are the state-of-the-art equipment everybody has (or is soon going to get) that promise to lower costs, increase production and turn manufacturers into competitive powerhouses. Like many other high tech devices (such as microwaves and VCRs), lots of people have and use them - even successfully - without really knowing much about how they operate. But upgrading to CNC costs a lot of money, so it's crucial to separate the hype from the reality.
Question: When we purchase our first CNC gear hobbing machine, what questions should we ask about the software? What do we need to know to correctly specify the system requirements?
The Shaping Process - A Quick Review of the Working Principle. In the shaping process, cutter and workpiece represent a drive with parallel axes rotating in mesh (generating motion) according to the number of teeth in both cutter and workpiece (Fig. 1), while the cutter reciprocates for the metal removal action (cutting motion).
Analysis of helical involute gears by tooth contact analysis shows that such gears are very sensitive to angular misalignment leading to edge contact and the potential for high vibration. A new topology of tooth surfaces of helical gears that enables a favorable bearing contact and a reduced level of vibration is described. Methods for grinding helical gears with the new topology are proposed. A TCA program simulating the meshing and contact of helical gears with the new topology has been developed. Numerical examples that illustrate the proposed ideas are discussed.
New freedom of motion available with CNC generators make possible improving tooth contact on bevel and hypoid gears. Mechanical machines by their nature are inflexible and require a special mechanism for every desired motion. These mechanisms are generally exotic and expensive. As a result, it was not until the introduction of CNC generators that engineers started exploring motion possibilities and their effect on tooth contact.
CNC technology offers new opportunities for the manufacture of bevel gears. While traditionally the purchase of a specific machine at the same time determined a particular production system, CNC technology permits the processing of bevel gears using a wide variety of methods. The ideological dispute between "tapered tooth or parallel depth tooth" and "single indexing or continuous indexing" no longer leads to an irreversible fundamental decision. The systems have instead become penetrable, and with existing CNC machines, it is possible to select this or that system according to factual considerations at a later date.
NC and CNC metal cutting machines are among the most popular machine tools in the business today, There is also a strong trend toward using flexible machining centers and flexible manufacturing systems. The same trend is apparent in gear cutting. Currently the trend toward CNC tools has increased, and sophisticated controls and peripheral equipment for gear cutting machines are now available; however, the investment in a CNC gear machine has to be justified on the basis of economic facts as well as technical advantages.
Question: In the January/February issue of your magazine, we came across the term "electronic gearbox." We have seen this term used elsewhere as well. We understand that this EGB eliminates the change gear in the transmission line, but not how exactly this is done. Could you explain in more detail?
Question: We are interested in purchasing our first gear hobbing machine. What questions should we ask the manufacturer, and what do we need to know in order to correctly specify the CNC hardware and software system requirements?
Question: We are contemplating purchasing a hobbing machine with dry hobbing capabilities. What do we need to know about the special system requirements for this technology?
Metrology is a vital component of gear manufacturing. Recent changes in this area, due in large part to the advent of computers, are highlighted in this article by comparison with more traditional methods.
Over the past few months I've talked with several different gear manufacturers who are in the process of upgrading their gear making equipment with modern CNC machine tools. Each of these manufacturers has come to the realization that in order to stay competitive, he needs to streamline operations and become more efficient...
Multiple CAM initiatives at Snyder Industries are improving safety, quality and productivity for parts ranging from 50 to 5,000 lbs.
Historically, gearbox original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and repair organizations have tended to offer their customers no-load, full speed (spin) tests as a standard performance test. If a load test was specified, the supplier would probably offer a locked torque back-to-back simulated load test, which requires a large investment in tooling to connect shafts of the test and slave gearboxes.
Contrary to what appears to be popular belief, 5-axis CNC gear manufacturing is not limited to milling with end mill, ball mill or CoSIMT (Conical Side Milling Tool â€” it is the generic form of the Sandvik InvoMill and Gleason UpGear tools.) tools, where throughput is too low to prevent production at any significant level. Straight and spiral bevel gear manufacturing on 5-axis CNC machines using face mill cutters provides essentially the same throughput as conventional gear cutting machines â€” with added benefits.
Spur cylindrical gears are usually cut using a hob and therefore present an essentially straight face to which crowning can be added to prevent edge contact. Rather than using a rack or hob, it is possible to cut cylindrical gears with a face mill cutter. In the following presentation, these gears are termed "spurved," i.e. â€” a contraction of "spur" and "curved."
Most anyone that has been in the gear industryâ€”or any machining and tooling oriented business, for that matterâ€”is probably at least somewhat familiar with the Roto-Flo workhorse line of hydraulic-actuated spline and thread rolling machines. After all, theyâ€™ve been at it for decade
Gear gashing is a gear machining process, very much like gear milling, utilizing the principle of cutting one or more tooth (or tooth space) at a time. The term "GASHING" today applies to the roughing, or roughing and finishing, of coarse diametral pitch gears and sprockets. Manufacturing these large coarse gears by conventional methods of rough and finish hobbing can lead to very long machining cycles and uneconomical machine utilization.
Up until approximately 1968-69, pinion cutter-type gear shaping machines had changed very little since their conception in the early 1900's.
Borazon is a superabrasive material originally developed by General Electric in 1969. It is a high performance material for machining of high alloy ferrous and super alloy materials. Borazon CBN - Cubic Born Nitride - is manufactured with a high temperature, high pressure process similar to that utilized with man-made diamond. Borazon is, next to diamond, the hardest abrasive known; it is more than twice as hard as aluminum oxide. It has an extremely high thermal strength compared to diamond. It is also much less chemically reactive with iron, cobalt or nickel alloys.
It isn't for everyone, but... Within the installed base of modern CNC gear profile grinding machines (approximately 542 machines worldwide), grinding from the solid isn't frequent, but a growing number of gear profile grinder users are applying it successfully using CBN-plated wheels.
Back around 2005-2010, the most exciting things that were happening in broaching had little to do with broaching. What was happening - and continues to evolve today - was the emergence of on-the-edge CNC, software and servo drive technology. Together, they practically transformed a metalworking process as old as water into a viable, alternative consideration for producing high-volume part runs.
Toyoda's new GS300H5 Gear Skiving Center is the first in the world to equip a skiving function to a general purpose horizontal machining center (HMC), through which mass production of gear parts is achieved. CNC controls and a high speed rotary table were developed specifically to achieve high-speed, multifunctional machining, as a compact and lightweight product, simple in programming functions.
RCD Engineering's switch from manual to CNC hobbing operations breaks gear manufacturing lead time records with Bourn & Koch 100H in their gear production pit crew.
A reader wants to know: Are profile ground and hobbed globoidal worm sets better than multi-axis CNC generated globoidal worm gear sets for reduction of noise and vibration?
The goal of gear drive design is to transit power and motion with constant angular velocity. Current trends in gear drive design require greater load carrying capacity and increased service life in smaller, quieter, more efficient gearboxes. Generally, these goals are met by specifying more accurate gears. This, combined with the availability of user-friendly CNC gear grinding equipment, has increased the use of ground gears.
Traditionally, profile and lead inspections have been indispensable portions of a standard inspection of an involute gear. This also holds true for the worm of a worm gear drive (Ref. 1). But the inspection of the profile and the lead is rarely performed on a worm wheel. One of the main reasons is our inability to make good definitions of these two elements (profile and lead) for the worm wheel. Several researchers have proposed methods for profile and lead inspections of a worm wheel using CNC machines or regular involute and lead inspections of a worm wheel using CNC machines or regular involute measuring machines. Hu and Pennell measured a worm wheel's profile in an "involute" section and the lead on the "pitch" cylinder (Ref. 2). This method is applicable to a convolute helicoid worm drive with a crossing angle of 90 degrees because the wheel profile in one of the offset axial planes is rectilinear. This straight profile generates an involute on the generated worm wheel. Unfortunately, because of the hob oversize, the crossing angle between the hob and the worm wheel always deviates from 90 degrees by the swivel angle. Thus, this method can be implemented only approximately by ignoring the swivel angle. Another shortcoming of this method is that there is only one profile and one lead on each flank. If the scanned points deviated from this curve, it produced unreal profile deviation. Octrue discussed profile inspection using a profile checking machine (Ref. 3).
Question: We just received permission to purchase our first CNC gear inspection system. With capital approvals so hard to come by, especially for inspection equipment, I want to be sure to purchase a system I can count of for years to come. My past experience with purchasing CNC equipment has shown me that serviceability of the computer and the CNC controller portion of the system can be a problem in just a few years because of the obsolescence factor. What information do I need to look for when selecting a supplier to reduce the risk of obsolescence, as well as to reduce the long-term servicing costs in the computer and controls portion of the system?
Okay. You've been convinced. You've gritted your teeth and decided to spend the money to launch a company Web site. Everybody from your teenage propeller-head to the girl in the mail room and the salesman in the flashy suit who gave you "such a deal" on Web site services has promised that your site will be the best thing that's happened to your business since the advent of CNC machines.
You're already a veteran of the computer revolution. Only you and your controller know how much money you've spent and only your spouse knows how many sleepless nights you've had in the last ten years trying to carve out a place in the brave new world of computerized gear manufacturing. PC's, CNCs, CAD, CAM, DNC, SPC, CMM: You've got a whole bowl of alphabet soup out there on the shop floor. Overall these machines have lived up to their promises. Production time is down, quality is up. You have fewer scrapped parts and better, more efficient machine usage.
The advent of CNC technology as applied to gear shaping machines has, in the last 10 years, led to an astonishing improvement in both productivity and quality. As is usual when developments such as this take place, the technology of the machine tool suddenly jumps ahead of that of the cutting tool, and the machine is then capable of producing faster than the cutting tool can withstand.
Hard Gear Finishing (HGF), a relatively new technology, represents an advance in gear process engineering. The use of Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) equipment ensures a high precision synchronous relationship between the tool spindle and the work spindle as well as other motions, thereby eliminating the need for gear trains. A hard gear finishing machine eliminates problems encountered in two conventional methods - gear shaving, which cannot completely correct gear errors in gear teeth, and gear rolling, which lacks the ability to remove stock and also drives the workpiece without a geared relationship to the master rolling gear. Such a machine provides greater accuracy, reducing the need for conventional gear crowning, which results in gears of greater face width than necessary.
The art of gear hobbing has advanced dramatically since the development and introduction of unique machine and tool features such as no backlash, super rigidity, automatic loading of cutting tools, CNC controls, additional machine power and improved cutter materials and coatings. It is essential to utilize all these features to run the machine economically.
The modern day requirement for precision finished hobbed gears, coupled with the high accuracy characteristics of modern CNC hobbing machines, demands high tool accuracy.
This paper presents a new approach in roll testing technology of spiral bevel and hypoid gear sets on a CNC roll tester applying analytical tools, such as vibration noise and single-flank testing technology.
"Documentation is not a Substitute for an Intuitive Interface." The author explores the development of modern controls for a CNC gear grinding machine.
News Items About cnc
1 Solar Adds Machining Capacity with CNC Lathe (December 18, 2019)
To support rapid growth within their mechanical testing department, Solar Atmospheres of Western Pennsylvania has recently invested in a ... Read News
2 China Spends 2.5 Million on CNC Helical Profile Milling System (April 14, 2011)
A major Chinese compressor manufacturer recently ordered a machine from Holroyd Precision of Milnrow, Lancashire to be used for the rough... Read News
3 Easy CNC App Now Available for Android Devices (January 7, 2015)
Siemen's Easy CNC app is now available for Android devices. Easy CNC contains all the current training manuals for Siemens Sinumerik ... Read News
4 CNC Technology Expands with Sinumerik from Siemens (December 19, 2013)
Industrial corporations are facing deep-rooted changes in the world of manufacturing. These changes are taking place alongs... Read News
5 NUM Offers CNC Solution for Gear Production (December 10, 2013)
NUM has announced a high performance CNC solution for gear production machines that fully automates threaded wheel grinding. Incorporatin... Read News
6 ANCA to Demonstrate CNC Tool and Cutter Grinder (March 25, 2013)
The new, affordable ANCA MX5 CNC tool and cutter grinder will be demonstrated at EASTEC Booth 1152. Designed with the volume end-mill pro... Read News
7 Heidenhain Releases CNC Training Tools (February 18, 2013)
Heidenhain Corporation has released a unique online interactive training tool for CNC instruction called Heidenhain Interactive Training ... Read News
8 Okuma Highlights CNC Lathe at IMTS (August 15, 2012)
Okuma America Corporation recently announced that the new LT-3000EX, a high-powered CNC lathe, will be shown for the first time in the Un... Read News
9 H 400 CNC Hobs Small or Large Batches (May 9, 2012)
Run small lots or mass produce straight and helical gears; crowned and tapered gears; worm gears; chain sprockets and toothed belt discs;... Read News
10 Index Introduces Multi-Spindle CNC Lathe (August 19, 2011)
The new Index MS40P CNC multi-spindle automatic lathe includes a quillstock with six tool carriers and one counter spindle opposite the m... Read News
11 INDEX Releases Six-Spindle CNC Bar/Chucker (October 7, 2010)
INDEX Corporation's MS52 six-spindle CNC Bar/Chucker with 52 mm/2-inch bar capacity and 100 mm/4-inch chuck capacity brings productiv... Read News
12 Meghan Summers-West Named President of CNC Software (April 10, 2015)
Meghan Summers-West was recently appointed president of CNC Software, Inc., the developer of Mastercam CAD/CAM programming... Read News
13 Techno Offers CNC Teaching Aid (June 14, 2010)
Techno, Inc.'s Educational CNC Division recently introduced a new "Basic Manufacturing Skills: An Introduction to CNC Machining&... Read News
14 Sunnen Delivers Vertical CNC Honing System (April 28, 2010)
Sunnen's new SV-400 Series vertical CNC honing system combines a wide choice of tooling options, large work envelope, and up to 1524 ... Read News
15 CNC Shapers Machine Multiple Surfaces Quickly (August 27, 2009)
Ohio Broach and Machine Company introduces a line of CNC Shaper machines that machine multiple surfaces in seconds, and various parts... Read News
16 Mitsubishi Integrates Advanced CNC Control in All Product Lines (December 8, 2008)
The M700 Series CNC Control provides advanced programming for high-precision machining and productivity using nano technology. Mitsubishi... Read News
17 Koepfer America Launches Large Capacity CNC Hob Sharpening Machine (August 7, 2007)
Koepfer America developed the new KFS250 CNC hob sharpening machine, which is based on its KFS100 series. The KFS250 series h... Read News
18 Cincinnati Machine Introduces CNC Tape Layer Technology (February 6, 2007)
Cincinnati Machine's new CHARGER Series of machines were designed to improve upon the technology and productivity of CNC composite ta... Read News
19 Mastercams Latest CNC Software Enhanced to Provide Multi-Axis Toolpaths (April 20, 2006)
The new Maintenance Release 2 (MR2) software from Mastercam introduces new capabilities including multi-axis toolpaths and Mastercam X a... Read News
20 Weilers New Brochure Details In-Machine CNC Deburring on Flat Surfaces (April 11, 2006)
Weiler Corp.s newest brochure details its in-machine CNC deburring of flat surfaces and highlights the companys Nylox disc br... Read News
21 Index to Demonstrate Modular Eight-spindle Automatic CNC Turning Machine at PMTS 2015 (March 6, 2015)
Index will demonstrate its MS22C-8, a modular eight-spindle automatic CNC turning machine, producing brass connector parts at PMTS 2015, ... Read News
22 NCSIMUL CAM Streamlines CNC Programming (June 12, 2015)
Spring Technologies, vendor of software that optimizes the use of NC Machines, recently announced the worldwide launch of NCSIMUL CAM. Th... Read News
23 Mitutoyo Announces Partnership with Titans of CNC (November 12, 2019)
Mitutoyo America Corporation is pleased to announce a sponsorship agreement with Titans of CNC, a free project-based education platform t... Read News
24 Jenoptik Industrial Metrology Hommel-Etamic Wavemove Measuring Station Features Eight-Axis CNC Measurement Technology (November 7, 2017)
The Jenoptik Industrial Metrology division offers a fully automated measuring station which can be operated directly by staff on the prod... Read News
25 Mitutoyo Introduces New Shop Floor CNC Machine (August 8, 2019)
Mitutoyo America Corporation is pleased to announce the release of the MiSTAR 555 CNC Shop Floor Coordinate Measuring Machine to its CMM ... Read News
26 Helios Introduces Hera 30 CNC Gear Hobbing Machines (July 29, 2019)
The Helios Hera 30 offers gear manufacturers a next-generation CNC hobbing solution for fine- and ultra-fine-pitch gears. Exclusively sup... Read News
27 TCI Provides Blanks for CNC Skills Championship (June 12, 2019)
TCI Precision Metals will provide custom Machine-Ready Blanks to the National Institute for Metalworking Skills (NIMS), in support of t... Read News
28 Heidenhain Opens CNC Controls Training Center in Chicago (June 11, 2019)
Heidenhain has recently opened its TNC-CNC Academy. This expanded CNC controls training center in the Chicago area is available for users... Read News
29 Helios Gear Products Introduces Hera 90 CNC Gear Hobbing Machine (March 14, 2019)
Helios Gear Products (formerly Koepfer America) now exclusively offers the Helios Hera 90 CNC gear hobbing machine from YG Tech for the N... Read News
30 NUM Flexium+ CNC Platform Forms Base for Star Cutter's New NTG 6RL (December 21, 2017)
NUM's latest-generation CNC systems are helping the US manufacturer Star Cutter Company to maintain its position as a world leader in... Read News
31 Slater Tools Indexable Punch Broach Tooling Offers Simple Setup to Machine Numerous Shapes on Presses and CNC Machines (November 30, 2017)
Slater Tools announces its range of indexable punch broaches and holders to machine shapes in workpieces where rotary broaching may not b... Read News
32 Mitutoyo Quick Image CNC 2D Vision Measuring System Introduces New Models with Moving Stage (November 29, 2017)
Mitutoyo America Corporation announced the release of the Quick Image CNC (QI-C), the latest addition in the Quick Image Series of 2D vis... Read News
33 Holroyd Precision Absolute Care Maintenance Program Offers CNC Upgrade Packages and Machine Refurbishment Services for Holroyd Machines (April 6, 2017)
As part of its ‘Absolute Care' machine tool maintenance program, Holroyd Precision is offering a range of CNC upgrade packages ... Read News
34 Mitutoyo LEGEX 4 CNC Machine Provides High-Accuracy Measurements (July 6, 2015)
Mitutoyo America Corporation recently released the latest LEGEX CNC coordinate measuring machine (CMM). The LEGEX 4 delivers accuracy in ... Read News
35 Siemens Announces Limited-Time Offer for Users of Machine Tools with Sinumerik CNCs (March 6, 2017)
Siemens has announced a limited-time offer, effective until May 31, 2017. Under this program, users of any machine tool with Sinumerik CN... Read News
36 Mitutoyo CNC Cylindricity Measuring System Boasts High Rotational Accuracy (December 20, 2016)
Mitutoyo has announced the release of the RA-6000CNC, a custom-built CNC roundness/cylindricity measuring system with best-in-class accur... Read News
37 Hardinge Talent 42 and 51 CNC Turning Centers Present Numerous Options and Features (August 1, 2016)
Hardinge Inc. has announced the release of their newest family of CNC Turning Centers, the Talent 42 and 51. The Hardinge Talent Series ... Read News
38 Mitutoyo Quick Vision Active CNC Vision Measurement System Offers Interchangeable Objective Zoom Lenses (July 1, 2016)
Mitutoyo America Corporation has announced the addition of the Quick Vision Active series to the line-up of vision measurement systems. T... Read News
39 Siemens Sinumerik CNCs Upgraded to 4-Axis, Doubles Output (April 6, 2016)
The expanded contour machining cycle for Sinumerik CNCs now facilitates 4-axis turning on lathes. Two turning tools, opposite one another... Read News
40 Delta College Receives CNC Equipment Entrustments (March 31, 2016)
Delta College recently received several large entrustments of equipment from leading manufacturers, allowing them to upgrade their CNC fa... Read News
41 Koepfer America K-Powered CNC Gear Hobbing Machine Provides Next Step in Repowering Old Models (November 11, 2015)
Koepfer America recently completed the next step in its K-Repowered CNC re-control program with the first K160 Repowered CNC Gear Hobbing... Read News
42 Index New CNC Multi-Spindle Lathe MS16 Plus Has a Total of 27 NC Axes (November 3, 2015)
Designed to supplant cam-controlled multi-spindle lathes up to 22 mm bar diameter, the new Index MS16 Plus of the Index MultiLine series ... Read News
43 Hexagon Metrology Debuts CNC Measuring Arm at Fabtech (January 19, 2005)
Hexagon Metrology introduced a new CNC articulated measuring arm at Fabtech that president and CEO William Gruber calls ?our version of a... Read News