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(SPONSORED CONTENT)Webinar: NASA's Lubrication-Free Precision Gear Technology Brought to Earth
Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) is the next generation of alloys for precision gears. Please join us as Amorphology provides a rare glimpse into the specialized world of BMG (aka amorphous metal) development for terrestrial applications - focusing on precision gears and complex metal components. Article Courtesy of Amorphology
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Bringing new or improved products to market sooner has long been proven profitable for companies. One way to help shorten the time-to-market is to accelerate validation testing. That is, shorten the test time required to validate a new or improved product.
This paper analyzes the different influences of the deviations between nominal and actual geometry for a first-cut bevel gear. In each section, the customary tolerances are quantified and the possibilities to reduce them are discussed.
Gear pitting is one of the primary failure modes of automotive transmission gear sets. Over the past years, many alternatives have been intended to improve their gear surface durability. However, due to the nature of new process development, it takes a length of time and joint efforts between the development team and suppliers to investigate and verify each new approach.
The advent of CNC technology as applied to gear shaping machines has, in the last 10 years, led to an astonishing improvement in both productivity and quality. As is usual when developments such as this take place, the technology of the machine tool suddenly jumps ahead of that of the cutting tool, and the machine is then capable of producing faster than the cutting tool can withstand.
It's the New Year, and with it comes the opportunity to take a fresh look at your business objectives. Because business development is such a vital part of running a company, I'd like to present some guidelines I have found beneficial for securing new work and new customers.
This article is the fourth installment in Gear Technology's series of excerpts from Dr. Hermann J. Stadtfeld's book, Gleason Bevel Gear Technology. The first three excerpts can be found in our June, July and August 2015 issues. In the previous chapter, we demonstrated the development of a face-milled spiral bevel gearset. In this section, an analogue face-hobbed bevel gearset is derived.
Computer technology has touched all areas of our lives, impacting how we obtain airline tickets, purchase merchandise and receive medical advice. This transformation has had a vast influence on manufacturing as well, providing process improvements that lead to higher quality and lower costs. However, in the case of the gear industry, the critical process of tooth contact pattern development for spiral bevel gears remains relatively unchanged.
In the previous sections, the development of conjugate bevel gearsets via hand calculations was demonstrated. The goal of this exercise was to encourage the reader to gain a basic understanding of the theory of bevel gears. This knowledge will help gear engineers to better judge bevel gear design and their manufacturing methods. In order to make the basis of this learning experience even more realistic, this chapter will convert a conjugate bevel gearset into a gearset that is suitable in a real-world application. Length and profile crowning will be applied to the conjugate flank surfaces. Just as in the previous chapter, all computations are demonstrated as manual hand calculations. This also shows that bevel gear theory is not as complicated as commonly assumed.
How the latest techniques and software enable faster spiral bevel and hypoid design and development.
Several innovations have been introduced to the gear manufacturing industry in recent years. In the case of gear hobbingâthe dry cutting technology and the ability to do it with powder-metallurgical HSSâmight be two of the most impressive ones. And the technology is still moving forward. The aim of this article is to present recent developments in the field of gear hobbing in conjunction with the latest improvements regarding tool materials, process technology and process integration.
Metrology is a vital component of gear manufacturing. Recent changes in this area, due in large part to the advent of computers, are highlighted in this article by comparison with more traditional methods.
The most conclusive test of bevel and hypoid gears is their operation under normal running conditions in their final mountings. Testing not only maintains quality and uniformity during manufacture, but also determines if the gears will be satisfactory for their intended applications.
Traditionally, high-quality gears are cut to shape from forged blanks. Great accuracy can be obtained through shaving and grinding of tooth forms, enhancing the power capacity, life and quietness of geared power transmissions. In the 1950s, a process was developed for forging gears with teeth that requires little or no metal to be removed to achieve final geometry. The initial process development was undertaken in Germany for the manufacture of bevel gears for automobile differentials and was stimulated by the lack of available gear cutting equipment at that time. Later attention has turned to the forging of spur and helical gears, which are more difficult to form due to the radial disposition of their teeth compared with bevel gears. The main driver of these developments, in common with most component manufacturing, is cost. Forming gears rather than cutting them results in increased yield from raw material and also can increase productivity. Forging gears is therefore of greater advantage for large batch quantities, such as required by the automotive industry.
In order to reduce costs for development and production, the objective in gearbox development and design is to predict running and noise behavior of a gearbox without manufacturing a prototype and running expensive experimental investigations. To achieve this objective, powerful simulation models have to be set up in a first step. Afterwards, those models have to be qualified and compared to experimental investigations. During the investigation procedure of gearboxes, there are two possibilities to evaluate the running and noise behavior: quasi-static and dynamic investigations. In times of engine downsizing, e-mobility and lightweight design, the dynamic excitation behavior is becoming increasingly important.
In a capitalist society, the way things usually work is that government and academia focus on research and development, while industry focuses on commercialization. The result is an increasingly wide disconnect in the applied research sector, which deals primarily with technology development and demonstration.
In todayâs manufacturing environment, shorter and more efficient product development has become the norm. It is therefore important to consider every detail of the development process, with a particular emphasis on design. For green machining of gears, the most productive and important process is hobbing. In order to analyze process design for this paper, a manufacturing simulation was developed capable of calculating chip geometries and process forces based on different models. As an important tool for manufacturing technology engineers, an economic feasibility analysis is implemented as well. The aim of this paper is to show how an efficient process designâas well as an efficient processâcan be designed.
Industrial gear standards have been used to support reliability through the specification of requirements for design, manufacturing and verification. The consensus development of an international wind turbine gearbox standard is an example where gear products can be used in reliable mechanical systems today. This has been achieved through progressive changes in gear technology, gear design methods and the continual development and refinement of gearbox standards.
Primitive gears were known and used well over 2,000 years ago, and gears have taken their place as one of the basic machine mechanisms; yet, our knowledge and understanding of gearing principles is by no means complete. We see the development of faster and more reliable gear quality assessment and new, more productive manufacture of gears in higher materials hardness states. We have also seen improvement in gear applications and design, lubricants, coolants, finishes and noise and vibration control. All these advances push development in the direction of smaller, more compact applications, better material utilization and improved quietness, smoothness of operation and gear life. At the same time, we try to improve manufacturing cost-effectiveness, making use of highly repetitive and efficient gear manufacturing methods.
It is becoming increasingly apparent that material properties can and will play a greater role than before in addressing the challenges most transmission manufacturers are facing today. Making use of materials' intrinsic fatigue properties provides a new design tool to support the market changes taking place.
Multiple possibilities are available to increase the transmissible power of girth gears. These solutions include: using a larger module, increasing of the gear diameter through the number of teeth, enlarging the face width, and increasing the hardness of the base material. The first three parameters are mostly limited by cutting machine capability. Module, outside diameter, and face width (for a cast gear) can theoretically be increased to infinity, but not the cutting machine dimensions. There are also practical limits with respect to the installation of very large diameter/large face width gears.
Conical involute gears (beveloids) are used in transmissions with intersecting or skewed axes and for backlash-free transmissions with parallel axes.
This paper describes the research and development of the first production gearbox with asymmetric tooth profiles for the TV7-117S turboprop engine. The paper also presents numerical design data related to development of this gearbox.
QuesTek Innovations LLC is applying its Materials by Design computational design technology to develop a new class of high-strength, secondary hardening gear steels that are optimized for high-temperature, low-pressure (i.e., vacuum) carburization. The new alloys offer three different levels of case hardness (with the ability to âdial-inâ hardness profiles, including exceptionally high case hardness), and their high core strength, toughness and other properties offer the potential to reduce drivetrain weight or increase power density relative to incumbent alloys such as AISI 9310 or Pyrowear Alloy 53.
Chairman Todd Praneis of Cotta Transmission describes the activities of AGMA's Enclosed Drives technical committee.
I must admit that after thumbing through the pages of this relatively compact volume (113 pages, 8.5 x 11 format), I read its three chapters(theory of gearing, geometry and technology, and biographical history) from rear to front. It will become obvious later in this discussion why I encourage most gear engineers to adopt this same reading sequence!
The International Manufacturing Technology Show provided one of the biggest ever marketplaces for buying and selling gear-making equipment, with 121601 attenders, making it the largest IMTS ever. The show took place September 4-11 at McCormick Place in Chicago, IL.
A large number of technologies aimed primarily at higher productivity were presented by exhibitors at the AMB, International Exhibition for Metal Working at the Stuttgart Trade Fair Centre in September. Following the successful 2010 show, AMB 2012 boasted further developments in energy and resource efficiency, higher productivity, life cycle performance, quality assurance and user-friendliness.
Gear tooth wear and micropitting are very difficult phenomena to predict analytically. The failure mode of micropitting is closely correlated to the lambda ratio. Micropitting can be the limiting design parameter for long-term durability. Also, the failure mode of micropitting can progress to wear or macropitting, and then go on to manifest more severe failure modes, such as bending. The results of a gearbox test and manufacturing process development program will be presented to evaluate super-finishing and its impact on micropitting.
Except for higher-end gear applications found in automotive and aerospace transmissions, for example, high-performance, sintered-steel gears match wrought-steel gears in strength and geometrical quality. The enhanced P/M performance is due largely to advances in powder metallurgy over last two decades, such as selective surface densification, new materials and lubricants for high density and warm-die pressing. This paper is a review of the results of a decade of research and development of high- performance, sintered-steel gear prototypes.
Plastics as gear materials represent an interesting development for gearing because they offer high strength-to-weight ratios, ease of manufacture and excellent tribological properties (Refs. 1-7). In particular, there is a sound prospect that plastic gears can be applied for power transmission of up to 10 kW (Ref. 6).
For two days in Saline, Michigan, Liebherr's clients, customers and friends came together to discuss the latest gear products and technology. Peter Wiedemann, president of Liebherr Gear Technology Inc., along with Dr.-Ing. Alois Mundt, managing director, Dr.-Ing. Oliver Winkel, head of application technology, and Dr.-Ing. Andreas Mehr, technology development shaping and grinding, hosted a variety of informative presentations.
ISO 6336 Calculation of Load Capacity of Spur and Helical Gears was published in 1997 after 50 years of effort by an international committee of experts whose work spanned three generations of gear technology development. It was a difficult compromise between the existing national standards to get a single standard published which will be the basis for future work. Many of the compromises added complication to the 1987 edition of DIN 3990, which was the basic document.
Recent trends in gear cutting technology have left process engineers searching for direction about which combination of cutting tool material, coating, and process technology will afford the best quality at the lowest total cost. Applying the new technologies can have associated risks that may override the potential cost savings. The many interrelated variables to be considered and evaluated tend to cloud the issue and make hobbing process development more difficult.
The tooth-by-tooth, submerged induction hardening process for gear tooth surface hardening has been successfully performed at David Brown for more than 30 years. That experience - backed up by in-depth research and development - has given David Brown engineers a much greater understanding of, and confidence in, the results obtainable from the process. Also, field experience and refinement of gear design and manufacturing procedures to accommodate the induction hardening process now ensure that gears so treated are of guaranteed quality.
During the last decade, industrial gear manufacturers, particularly in Europe, began to require documentation of micropitting performance before approving a gear oil for use in their equipment. The development of micropitting resistant lubricants has been limited both by a lack of understanding of the mechanism by which certain lubricant chemistry promotes micropitting and by a lack of readily available testing for evaluation of the micropitting resistance of lubricants. This paper reports results of two types of testing: (1) the use of a roller disk machine to conduct small scale laboratory studies of the effects of individual additives and combinations of additives on micropitting and (2) a helical gear test used to study micropitting performance of formulated gear oils.
The efficient and reliable transmission of mechanical power continues, as always, to be a central area of concern and study in mechanical engineering. The transmission of power involves the interaction of forces which are transmitted by specially developed components. These components must, in turn, withstand the complex and powerful stresses developed by the forces involved. Gear teeth transmit loads through a complex process of positive sliding, rolling and negative sliding of the contacting surfaces. This contact is responsible for both the development of bending stresses at the root of the gear teeth and the contact stresses a the contacting flanks.
The Gear Research Laboratory of the University of Illinois at Chicago is home to a unique tribute to gear pioneers from around the world, the Gallery of Fame. The gallery is the brainchild of the laboratory director, Professor Faydor L. Litvin. The Gallery was begun in 1994 an dis a photographic tribute to those gear company founders, inventors and researchers who devoted their careers to the study and development of gears.
The long and colorful history of aviation is comprised of many chapters and giants. The chapter we're reviewing in this installment of Addendum is the invention and development of the retractable landing gear.
The American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to write all U.S. standards on gearing. However, in response to the growing interest in a global marketplace, AGMA became involved with the International Standards Organization (ISO) several years ago, first as an observer in the late 1970s and then as a participant, starting in the early 1980s. In 1993, AGMA became Secretariat (or administrator) for Technical Committee 60 of ISO, which administers ISO gear standards development.
Following is a report from The Manufacturers Alliance for Productivity and Innovation (MAPI). Founded in 1933, the alliance contributes to the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturing by providing economic research, professional development, and an independent, expert source of manufacturing information.
A key part of gear design software development is customer feedback. With the right feedback, you can get your software developer to work for you to provide the most relevant features possible.
Were Thomas Jefferson around today, he'd be all over the Double-A engine's development and everything it represents. And what is the Double-A engine; what does its successful design and execution represent, you ask?
"Documentation is not a Substitute for an Intuitive Interface." The author explores the development of modern controls for a CNC gear grinding machine.
A comprehensive look at latest standards development efforts.
In this article, the focus is put on one technology, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and more specifically, residual stress measurement by way of XRD for both process development and quality control.
Gear noise is among the issues of greatest concern in today's modern gearboxes. Significant research has resulted in the application of enhancements in all phases of gear manufacturing, and the work is ongoing. With the introduction of Electric Vehicles (EV), research and development in this area has surged in recent years. Most importantly, powerful new noise analysis solutions are fast becoming available.
Question: I am a gear engineer for a motor manufacturer in China. I am writing about noise generated from cross-helical gear assembly error. I want to learn the relationship between the misalignment (center distance change and cross-angle shift) and transmission error. It is better under the loading and theory conditions. What is the trend of cross-helical gear development (use ZI worm and involute helical gear, point contact)?
Technical articles have been the hallmark of Gear Technology since we first started publishing, more than 34 years ago, in 1984. One of the achievements IĂą??m most proud of is the development of the GT LIBRARY at geartechnology.com, where you can find every single one of those articles, going all the way back to the beginning.
Delta Research upgrades its Gleason Metrology Workhorses to meet the development requirements of the latest electrical drive vehicles.
Despite the development and availability of a number of newly engineered, rugged materials intended for plastic gear applications, some engineers/designers continue to believe metal is better.
Background on the development of a high-speed, automatic hardness tester for gear steels.
NVH â noise, vibration and harshness â is a key issue in the design and development of modern transmission and driveline systems.
In 1993, M & M Precision Systems was awarded a three-year, partial grant from the Advanced Technology Program of the Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Working with Pennsylvania State University, M&M embarked on a technology development project to advance gear measurement capabilities to levels of accuracy never before achieved.
I'm sure it comes as no surprise that finding skilled people to work in your manufacturing facility is no simple task. But after finding them, and investing in the development of their abilities, what happens when one of them - an employee your company really needs - becomes a troublesome employee? This is among the trickiest situations a manager can face.
This paper introduces the latest process developments for the hard-finishing of gears, specifically in regard to controlling the so-called flank twist.
Peter Eelman has been involved with the International Manufacturing Technology Show for more than 30 years. First as an exhibitor with Warner & Swasey Co.; later with Toyoda USA; later still as a consultant; and currently as vice president for exhibitions and business development, IMTS. He also serves on the board of directors of the exhibitor-appointed Contractor Association and is a former member of the board of directors for the Trade Show Exhibitors Association. Eelman is a speaker with the International Association of Exhibitions and Events and serves on the Metropolitan Chicago Pier & Exposition Authority Labor Council. As the head of IMTS, Eelman is the go-to, make-things-happen guy for the Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau, the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority, McCormick Place and the various vendors, service providers and trade unions involved in the complex trade show process. In addition to IMTS, Eelman is also prominently involved in shows with an international presence.
Chapter 2, Continued In the previous sections, development of conjugate, face milled as well as face hobbed bevel gearsets - including the application of profile and length crowning - was demonstrated. It was mentioned during that demonstration that in order to optimize the common surface area, where pinion and gear flanks have meshing contact (common flank working area), a profile shift must be introduced. This concluding section of chapter 2 explains the principle of profile shift; i.e. - how it is applied to bevel and hypoid gears and then expands on profile side shift, and the frequently used root angle correction which - from its gear theoretical understanding - is a variable profile shift that changes the shift factor along the face width. The end of this section elaborates on five different possibilities to tilt the face cutter head relative to the generating gear, in order to achieve interesting effects on the bevel gear flank form. This installment concludes chapter 2 of the Bevel Gear Technology book that lays the foundation of the following chapters, some of which also will be covered in this series.
Due to increasing requirements regarding the vibrational behavior of automotive transmissions, it is necessary to develop reliable methods for noise evaluation and design optimization. Continuous research led to the development of an elaborate method for gear noise evaluation. The presented methodology enables the gear engineer to optimize the microgeometry with respect to robust manufacturing.
Prior to receiving airworthiness certification, extensive testing is required during the development of rotary wing aircraft drive systems. Many of these tests are conducted to demonstrate the drive systemâs ability to operate at extreme conditions, i.e. â beyond that called for in the normal to maximum power operating range.
In 1961 I presented a paper, "Calculating Conjugate Helical Forms," at the semi-annual meeting of the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA). Since that time, thousands of hobs, shaper cutters and other meshing parts have been designed on the basis of the equations presented in that paper. This article presents the math of that paper without the formality of its development and goes on to discuss its practical application.
Traditional methods of manufacturing precision gears usually employ either hobbing or shaper cutting. Both of these processes rely upon generating the conjugate tooth form by moving the work-piece in a precise relation to the tool. Recently, attention has been given to forming gear teeth in a single step. Advantages to such a process include reduced production time, material savings, and improved performance characteristics. Drawbacks include complicated tool designs, non-uniformity of gears produced throughout the life of the tooling, and lengthy development times.
Long-time readers of these pages will know that I have always felt strongly about the subject of professional education. There's nothing more important for an individual's career development than keeping up with current technology. likewise, there's nothing more important that a company can do for itself and it employees than seeing to it they have the professional education they need. Giving people the educational tools they need to do their jobs is a necessary ingredient for success.
This paper introduces new process developments in low-pressure carburizing and carbonitriding using either high-pressure gas quenching or interrupted gas quenching.
In the hypercompetitive race to increase automobile efficiency, Metaldyne has been developing its balance shaft module line with Victrex PEEK polymer in place of metal gears. The collaborative product development resulted in significant reductions in inertia, weight and power consumption, as well as improvement in noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance.
As the automotive industry continues to reinvent itself, new transmission technologies are at the forefront of this effort, and there is a whirlwind of new developments being detailed at the German Car Training Instituteâs Automotive Transmissions and Drive Trains Symposium North America.
This study quantified the performance of a new alloy and has provided guidance for the design and development of next-generation gear steels.
Synopsis on the latest developments at several gear design software developers.
With all the work in transmission development these days, the demand for automobile transmission gears should remain strong for several years, but suppliers will have to be as flexible as possible to keep up with the changes.
The United Statesâ long-held dream of energy independenceâas in cheap, clean, free of overseas extortion and renewable energyâcould very well be realized in part by the country-wide development of wind turbines...
Material losses and long production times are two areas of conventional spur and helical gear manufacturing in which improvements can be made. Metalforming processes have been considered for manufacturing spur and helical gears, but these are costly due to the development times necessary for each new part design. Through a project funded by the U.S. Army Tank - Automotive Command, Battelle's Columbus Division has developed a technique for designing spur and helical gear forging and extrusion dies using computer aided techniques.
Bradley University and Winzeler Gear collaborate on the design and development of an urban light vehicle.
In the field of large power transmission gear units for heavy machine industry, the following two development trends have been highly influential: use of case hardened gears and a branching of the power flow through two or more ways.
The development of a new gear strength computer program based upon the finite element method, provides a better way to calculate stresses in bevel and hypoid gear teeth. The program incorporates tooth surface geometry and axle deflection data to establish a direct relationship between fillet bending stress, subsurface shear stress, and applied gear torque. Using existing software links to other gear analysis programs allows the gear engineer to evaluate the strength performance of existing and new gear designs as a function of tooth contact pattern shape, position and axle deflection characteristics. This approach provides a better understanding of how gears react under load to subtle changes in the appearance of the no load tooth contact pattern.
Gear metrology is a revolving door of software packages and system upgrades. It has to be in order to keep up with the productivity and development processes of the machines on the manufacturing floor. Temperature compensation, faster inspection times and improved software packages are just a few of the advancements currently in play as companies prepare for new opportunities in areas like alternative energy, automotive and aerospace/defense.
Hobs, broaches, shaper cutters, shaver cutters, milling cutters, and bevel cutters used in the manufacture of gears are commonly made of high speed steel. These specialized gear cutting tools often require properties, such as toughness or manufacturability, that are difficult to achieve with carbide, despite the developments in carbide cutting tools for end mills, milling cutters, and tool inserts.
In the past, the coffee breaks and dinner events at Sigma Poolâs gear seminars have often triggered future process development and product improvements. This was still the case during the 2009 installment where customers and suppliers talked shop inside and outside the banquet hall on the new market and technology challenges currently facing the gear industry.
Beveloid gears are used to accommodate a small shaft angle. The manufacturing technology used for beveloid gearing is a special setup of cylindrical gear cutting and grinding machines. A new development, the so-called Hypoloid gearing, addresses the desire of gear manufacturers for more freedoms. Hypoloid gear sets can realize shaft angles between zero and 20Â° and at the same time, allow a second shaft angle (or an offset) in space that provides the freedom to connect two points in space.
This article shows the newest developments to reduce overall cycle time in grinding wind power gears, including the use of both profile grinding and threaded wheel grinding.
Minimizing gear losses caused by churning, windage and mesh friction is important if plant operating costs and environmental impact are to be minimized. This paper concentrates on mesh friction losses and associated scuffing risk. It describes the preliminary results from using a validated, 3-D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program to optimize cylindrical gears for low friction losses without compromising transmission error (TE), noise and power density. Some case studies and generic procedures for minimizing losses are presented. Future development and further validation work is discussed.
AGMA Flexible Couplings committee chairman Glenn C. Pokrandt gives an update about standards and other documents under development.
This article summarizes the development of an improved titanium nitride (TiN) recoating process, which has, when compared to conventional recoat methods, demonstrated tool life increases of up to three times in performance testing of hobs and shaper cutters. This new coating process, called Super TiN, surpasses the performance of standard TiN recoating for machining gear components. Super TiN incorporates stripping, surface preparation, smooth coating techniques and polishing before and after recoating. The combination of these improvements to the recoating process is the key to its performance.
This article describes some of the most important tests for prototypes conducted at Winergy AG during the product development process. It will demonstrate that the measurement results on the test rig for load distribution are in accordance with the turbine measurements.
Standards are unlike gears themselves: mundane, but complex, ubiquitous and absolutely vital. Standards are a lingua franca, providing a common language with reference points for evaluating product reliability and performance for manufacturers and users. The standards development process provides a scientific forum for discussion of product design, materials and applications, which can lead to product improvement. Standards can also be a powerful marketing tool for either penetrating new markets or protecting established ones.
The heat treating of gears presents a difficult challenge to both the heat treater and the gear manufacturer. The number and variety of variables involved in the manufacturing process itself and the subsequent heat treating cycle create a complex matrix of factors which need to be controlled in order to produce a quality product. A heat treater specializing in gears or a gear manufacturer doing his own heat treating must have a clear understanding of these issues in order to deliver a quality product and make a profit at the same time. The situation also presents a number of areas that could benefit greatly from continued research and development.
In recent years, gear inspection requirements have changed considerably, but inspection methods have barely kept pace. The gap is especially noticeable in bevel gears, whose geometry has always made testing them a complicated, expensive and time-consuming process. Present roll test methods for determining flank form and quality of gear sets are hardly applicable to bevel gears at all, and the time, expense and sophistication required for coordinate measurement has limited its use to gear development, with only sampling occurring during production.
An engineer's responsibility for verifying a new design or product concept as manufacturable early in the development cycle is a tough challenge. What appears to work on a blueprint or in a three-dimensional CAD file on a computer screen many not work on the factory floor; and the downstream impact on the manufacturing process of an undetected design flaw can be enormous. Costs can run into the millions.
A research program, conducted in conjunction with a U.S. Army contract, has resulted in the development of manufacturing technology to produce a multi-metal composite gear/shaft representing a substantial weight savings compared to a solid steel component. Inertia welding is used to join a steel outer ring to a light-weight titanium alloy web and/or shaft through the use of a suitable interlayer material such as aluminum.
Today's high technology hobs are visible different from their predecessors. Gear hobs have taken on a different appearance and function with present day technology and tool and material development. This article shows the newer products being offered today and the reasons for investigating their potential for use in today's modern gear hobbers, where cost reduction and higher productivity are wanted.
Beginning with our next issue, some of the promised changes in format for Gear Technology will begin showing up in these pages. As part of our commitment to provide you with important information about the gear and gear products industry, we are expanding our coverage. In addition to continuing to publish some of the best results of gear research and development throughout the world, we will be adding special columns covering vital aspects of the gearing business.
An accurate and fast calculation method is developed to determine the value of a trigonometric function if the value of another trigonometric function is given. Some examples of conversion procedures for well-known functions in gear geometry are presented, with data for accuracy and computing time. For the development of such procedures the complete text of a computer program is included.
The art of gear hobbing has advanced dramatically since the development and introduction of unique machine and tool features such as no backlash, super rigidity, automatic loading of cutting tools, CNC controls, additional machine power and improved cutter materials and coatings. It is essential to utilize all these features to run the machine economically.
As Gear Technology moves toward its third anniversary, we feel that we have reached a point in our development where it is time to pause, reflect on our accomplishments and plan for the future.
Curvic Couplings were first introduced in 1942 to meet the need for permanent couplings and releasing couplings (clutches), requiring extreme accuracy and maximum load carrying capacity, together with a fast rate of production. The development of the Curvic Coupling stems directly from the manufacture of Zerol and spiral bevel gears since it is made on basically similar machines and also uses similar production methods. The Curvic Coupling can therefore lay claim to the same production advantages and high precision associated with bevel gears.
What was once recognized as the unique genius of America is now slipping away from us and, in many areas, is now seen as a "second rate" capability. Unless action is taken now, this country is in real danger of being unable to regain its supremacy in technological development and economic vigor. First Americans must understand the serious implications of the problem; and second, we must dedicate ourselves to national and local actions that will ensure a greater scientific and technological literacy in America.
Faithful Addendum readers are accustomed to finding upbeat, whimsical and oddball stories about gears in this space. What follows is not about gears, exactly. Rather, it is, as opposed to the usual bleak news about America losing its manufacturing mojo—a look at a positive, hopeful development in that regard.
In the August 2008 issue of Gear Technology, we ran a story (âGearbox Speed Reducer Helps Fan Technology for âGreenerâ Jet Fuel Efficiencyâ) on the then ongoing, extremely challenging and protracted development of Pratt & Whitneyâs geared turbofan (GTF) jet engine.
The objective, according to Dr.- Ing. HansjĂ¶rg Geiser, head of development and design for gear machines at Liebherr, was to develop and design a combined turning and hobbing machine in which turning, drilling and hobbing work could be carried out in the same clamping arrangement as the hobbing of the gearings and the subsequent chamfering and deburring processes.
While high-speed rail development continues around the world, letâs take a minute to consider the achievements of George Stephenson â âthe father of railwaysâ and inventor of the first commercial locomotive and other significant achievements.
Worm gearing is of great antiquity, going back about 2100 years to Archimedes, who is generally acknowledged as its inventor. Archimedes' concept used an Archimedial spiral to rotate a toothed wheel. Development of the worm gearing principle progressed along conventional lines until about 500 years ago when Leonardo DaVinci evolved the double enveloping gear concept.
CTI Symposium Presents Latest Automotive Transmission Developments and Applications.
News Items About development
1 Recent Developments at Ikona Gear (February 21, 2005)
Ikona Gear has entered into a developmental agreement with StarRotor Corp. to provide patented Ikona technology for the third generation ... Read News
2 Romax Improves Driveline Design and Development (May 15, 2013)
Romax Technology is enabling a rapid, seamless and lossless workflow for driveline design and development from planning to manufacture. T... Read News
3 Gear Motions Welcomes Director of Business Development (April 5, 2021)
Gear Motions welcomes Mike Toper as director of business development. In this new position, Toper will be responsible for strategic busin... Read News
4 Wall Colmonoy Appoints Business Development Manager (April 17, 2006)
Morris Warino was appointed business development manager for Wall Colmonoy Corp. of Oklahoma City, OK. According to the companys... Read News
5 ECM Promotes Vincent Esteve to ECM USA Business Development Manager (January 13, 2020)
ECM Technologies announces the promotion of Vincent Esteve to business development manager at the ECM USA, Inc. subsidiary in Pleasant Pr... Read News
6 Northstar Aerospace Receives Contract for New Drive System Development (August 30, 2007)
Northstar Aerospace was awarded a $4.5 million development contract from The Boeing Co. for its Enhanced Rotor Rotorcraft Drive System (E... Read News
7 Siemens Announces Lifelong Educational Advantage Program for Workforce Development in Secondary and Technical Schools (March 8, 2017)
Siemens announced the launch of a new workforce development program for secondary and technical schools across America called LEAP - the ... Read News
8 Romax Appoints Business Development Manager for Hybrid Technology (June 15, 2010)
Romax Technology recently recruited a new business development manager to manage Romax's hybrid and electric vehicle consultancy.&nbs... Read News
9 Mitchell Joins Verisurf as Business Development Manager (April 14, 2021)
Verisurf Software has appointed Tara Mitchell to the position of business development manager for the Americas. She will work closely wit... Read News
10 Drake Hires Product Development Engineer (August 8, 2013)
Drake Manufacturing Services Co. has recently hired Olguta Marinescu as a product development engineer. She has a B.S. in Electrical Engi... Read News
11 GM, BMW and DaimlerChrysler Announce $1 Billion Hybrid Transmission Development Program (April 15, 2006)
A research alliance consisting of GM, BMW and DaimlerChrysler plans to invest more than $1 billion to develop a new hybrid transmission t... Read News
12 Sensor Development's Latest Model Measures Small Reaction Torque Level (August 6, 2007)
The Model 01165 small flange reaction torque sensor from Sensor Development is designed to measure small reaction torqu levels using flan... Read News
13 AMSC Partners with Shenyang Blower Works for Turbine Development (November 24, 2008)
American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) recently signed an agreement with Shenyang Blower Works Co., Ltd. to co-develop wind turbine... Read News
14 QuesTek Awarded Three Projects for Advanced Materials Development (June 1, 2021)
QuesTek Innovations LLC has received three new Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase I Awards from The Office of Naval Research... Read News
15 PTG Appoints Group Business Development Director (October 2, 2012)
Precision Technologies Group (PTG), the U.K.-based specialists in high-precision machine tool and component design, build and supply, hav... Read News
16 Ipsen Adds Janusz Kowalewski as Director of Business Development for ARGOS (August 1, 2016)
Ipsen is pleased to announce that Janusz Kowalewski joined the Ipsen Team as Director of Business Development for ARGOS. Kowalewski holds... Read News
17 Advanced Materials Development Corp. Offers New Material Options for Automotive Components (January 18, 2017)
Car and truck manufacturers are faced with the difficult task of significantly improving fuel economy while maintaining safety and compet... Read News
18 Siemens Commits to American Manufacturing and Workforce Development (March 30, 2017)
Siemens Joe Kaeser, president and CEO of Siemens AG, bolstered Siemens' strong commitment to strengthening American manufacturing dur... Read News
19 Gleason Expands Development and Production Center in Munich (July 29, 2019)
Gleason-Hurth Tooling GmbH, Munich, Germany, with its 160 employees, develops and manufactures tools and workholding systems for cylindri... Read News
20 Haas to Showcase Gear Skiving Developments at GrindTec 2020 (February 13, 2020)
There are an infinite number of different gear geometries. Nevertheless, engineers keep coming up with new variants. Gearboxes are becomi... Read News
21 QuesTek Awarded Material Development Funding for Energy Applications (January 25, 2021)
QuesTek Innovations LLC recently announced that it was awarded $1.2 Million in funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advance... Read News
22 Governor Charles D. Baker Visits Adcole to Recognize Product Development (September 2, 2015)
Governor Charles D. Baker, Jr. recently visited Adcole Corporation and was accompanied by Jay Ash, secretary of housing and economic deve... Read News