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1 Superfinishing Gears - The State of the Art, Part II (July/August 2005)

In a previous article, the authors identified two misconceptions surrounding gear superfinishing. Here, they tackle three more.

2 Repair of High-Value, High-Demand Spiral Bevel Gears by Superfinishing (October 2012)

Following is a report on the R&D findings regarding remediation of high-value, high-demand spiral bevel gears for the UH–60 helicopter tail rotor drivetrain. As spiral bevel gears for the UH–60 helicopter are in generally High-Demand due to the needs of new aircraft production and the overhaul and repair of aircraft returning from service, acquisition of new spiral bevel gears in support of R&D activities is very challenging. To compensate, an assessment was done of a then-emerging superfinishing method—i.e., the micromachining process (MPP)—as a potential repair technique for spiral bevel gears, as well as a way to enhance their performance and durability. The results are described in this paper.

3 Lapping and Superfinishing Effects on Surface Finish of Hypoid Gears and Transmission Errors (September/October 2008)

This presentation is an expansion of a previous study (Ref.1) by the authors on lapping effects on surface finish and transmission errors. It documents the effects of the superfinishing process on hypoid gears, surface finish and transmission errors.

4 Mirror Finishing of Tooth Surfaces Using A Trial Gear Grinder With Cubic-Boron-Nitride Wheel (November/December 1986)

In conventional gear grinders, grinding wheels with Alundum grains and a hardness of about 2000 HV have been used for finishing steel gears with hardnesses up to about 1000HV. In this case, the accuracy of the gears ground is greatly affected by wear of the grinding wheel because the difference in hardness is comparatively small when the gears are fully hardened.

5 Gear Roll-Finishing (May/June 1987)

In this discussion of gear roll-finishing particular attention is called to the special tooth nomenclature resulting from the interaction between the rolling die teeth and the gear teeth. To eliminate confusion the side of a gear tooth that is in contact with the "approach" side of a rolling die tooth is also considered to be the approach side. The same holds true for the "trail" side. Thus, the side of the gear tooth that is in contact with the trail side of a rolling die is also considered to be the trail side.

6 Superfinishing Gears -- The State of the Art (November/December 2003)

Superfinishing the working surfaces of gears and their root fillet regions results in performance benefits.

7 Repair via Isotropic Superfinishing of Aircraft Transmission Gears (May 2009)

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that transmission gears of rotary-wing aircraft, which are typically scrapped due to minor foreign object damage (FOD) and grey staining, can be repaired and re-used with signifi cant cost avoidance. The isotropic superfinishing (ISF) process is used to repair the gear by removing surface damage. It has been demonstrated in this project that this surface damage can be removed while maintaining OEM specifications on gear size, geometry and metallurgy. Further, scrap CH-46 mix box spur pinions, repaired by the ISF process, were subjected to gear tooth strength and durability testing, and their performance compared with or exceeded that of new spur pinions procured from an approved Navy vendor. This clearly demonstrates the feasibility of the repair and re-use of precision transmission gears.

8 The Effect of Superfinishing on Gear Micropitting (March/April 2009)

Results from the Technical University of Munich were presented in a previous technical article (see Ref. 4). This paper presents the results of Ruhr University Bochum. Both research groups concluded that superfinishing is one of the most powerful technologies for significantly increasing the load-carrying capacity of gear flanks.

9 Operational Condition and Superfinishing Effect on High-Speed Helical Gearing System Performance (March/April 2008)

An experimental effort has been conducted on an aerospace-quality helical gear train to investigate the thermal behavior of the gear system. Test results from the parametric studies and the superfinishing process are presented.

10 Gear Finishing with a Nylon Lap (September/October 2005)

The objective of this research is to develop a new lapping process that can efficiently make tooth flanks of hardened steel gears smooth as a mirror.

11 Rotary Gear Honing (May/June 1987)

Rotary gear honing is a hard gear finishing process that was developed to improve the sound characteristics of hardened gears by: Removing nicks and burrs; improving surface finish; and making minor corrections in tooth irregularities caused by heat-treat distortion.

12 Case Study Involving Surface Durability and Improved Surface Finish (August 2012)

Gear tooth wear and micropitting are very difficult phenomena to predict analytically. The failure mode of micropitting is closely correlated to the lambda ratio. Micropitting can be the limiting design parameter for long-term durability. Also, the failure mode of micropitting can progress to wear or macropitting, and then go on to manifest more severe failure modes, such as bending. The results of a gearbox test and manufacturing process development program will be presented to evaluate super-finishing and its impact on micropitting.

13 Single-Pass Honing Holds the Line on PM Sprockets (June 2010)

Bore finishing system from Sunnen helps Cloyes Gear and Products achieve high accuracy, productivity and process capability.

14 Honing of Gears (August 2014)

The honing of gears - by definition - facilitates ease of operation, low noise and smoother performance in a transmission. Honing also contributes to reduced friction in the powertrain. Both the intense cutting (roughing process) as well as the functionally fine- finishing of transmission gears can be performed in one setup, on one machine.

15 The Capacity of Superfinished Vehicle Components to Increase Fuel Economy, Part I (January/February 2009)

This paper will present data from both laboratory and field testing demonstrating that superfinished components exhibit lower friction, operating temperature, wear and/ or higher horsepower, all of which translate directly into increased fuel economy.

16 Oil-Out Endurance Under the Lens (January/February 2017)

Oil-out conditions, or conditions in which an aircraft is operating without any oil in its gearbox or transmission, are devastating for an aircraft's hardware. Even the sturdiest gears usually can't last 30 minutes under such conditions before they catastrophically fail, and the whole system usually follows shortly after. That doesn't leave pilots with a whole lot of time to find a suitable location to land in the case of an oil-out emergency.

17 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Power Honing on Gear Surface Topography (January/February 1999)

Gear noise associated with tooth surface topography is a fundamental problem in many applications. Operations such as shaving, gear grinding and gear honing are usually used to finish the gear surface. Often, gears have to be treated by a combination of these operations, e.g. grinding and honing. This is because gear honing operations do not remove enough stock although they do create a surface lay favorable for quiet operation. See Fig. 1 for typical honing process characteristics. Gear grinding processes, on the other hand, do remove stock efficiently but create a noisy surface lay.

18 Grinding Bevel Gears on Cylindrical Gear Grinding Machines (January/February 1994)

Power train designs which employ gears with cone angles of approximately 2 degrees to 5 degrees have become quite common. It is difficult, if not impossible, to grind these gears on conventional bevel gear grinding machines. Cylindrical gear grinding machines are better suited for this task. This article will provide an overview of this option and briefly introduce four grinding variation possibilities.

19 Gear Corrosion During the Manufacturing Process (September/October 2009)

No matter how well gears are designed and manufactured, gear corrosion can occur that may easily result in catastrophic failure. Since corrosion is a sporadic and rare event and often difficult to observe in the root fillet region or in finely pitched gears with normal visual inspection, it may easily go undetected. This paper presents the results of an incident that occurred in a gear manufacturing facility several years ago that resulted in pitting corrosion and intergranular attack (IGA).

20 Forest City Puts Teeth in Competitive Strategy with Sunnen's Bore Honing Machine (March/April 2007)

Forest City Gear president Fred Young has a straightforward strategy for acquiring and retaining business...

21 A Study on Reducing Gear Tooth Profile Error by Finish Roll Forming (July/August 2005)

The authors have developed a rack-type rolling process in which a rack tool is used to roll gear teeth. The results and analysis show that the proposed method reduces errors.

22 Faster Honing to Mirror Fishises on Gear Faces and Bores (June 2010)

Stringent NVH requirements, higher loads and the trend towards miniaturization to save weight and space are forcing transmission gear designers to increasingly tighten the surface finish, bore size and bore-to-face perpendicularity tolerances on the bores of transmission gears.

23 Hard Gear Finishing (March/April 1988)

Hard Gear Finishing (HGF), a relatively new technology, represents an advance in gear process engineering. The use of Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) equipment ensures a high precision synchronous relationship between the tool spindle and the work spindle as well as other motions, thereby eliminating the need for gear trains. A hard gear finishing machine eliminates problems encountered in two conventional methods - gear shaving, which cannot completely correct gear errors in gear teeth, and gear rolling, which lacks the ability to remove stock and also drives the workpiece without a geared relationship to the master rolling gear. Such a machine provides greater accuracy, reducing the need for conventional gear crowning, which results in gears of greater face width than necessary.

24 Hard Gear Finishing with a Geometrically Defined Cutting Edge (November/December 1999)

The market demand for gear manufacturers to transmit higher torques via smaller-sized gear units inevitably leads to the use of case-hardened gears with high manufacturing and surface quality. In order to generate high part quality, there is an increasing trend towards the elimination of the process-induced distortion that occurs during heat treatment by means of subsequent hard finishing.

25 Using Hobs for Skiving; A Pre-Finish and Finishing Solution (May/June 1993)

Our company manufactures a range of hardened and ground gears. We are looking into using skiving as part of our finishing process on gears in the 4-12 module range made form 17 CrNiMO6 material and hardened to between 58 and 62 Rc. Can you tell us more about this process?

26 Gear Finishing by Shaving, Rolling and Honing, Part II (May/June 1992)

Part I of this series focused on gear shaving, while Part II focuses on gear finishing by rolling and honing.

27 Gear Finishing by Shaving, Rolling and Honing, Part I (March/April 1992)

There are several methods available for improving the quality of spur and helical gears following the standard roughing operations of hobbing or shaping. Rotary gear shaving and roll-finishing are done in the green or soft state prior to heat treating.

28 Hard-Finishing Spiral Bevel Gears (March/April 2016)

Could you explain to me the difference between spiral bevel gear process face hobbing-lapping, face milling-grinding and Klingelnberg HPG? Which one is better for noise, load capacity and quality?

29 Gear Blanking (May/June 1992)

The term "blanking" refers to the initial metal cutting operations in the process planning sequence which produce the contour of a part starting from rough material. The scope of blanking is: To remove the excess material To machine the part to print specifications, except for those surfaces with subsequent finishing operations. To leave adequate machining stock for finishing operations. To prepare good quality surfaces for location and clamping of the part throughout the process.

30 A Proposed Pre-Finish Cylindrical Gear Quality Standard (September/October 2016)

This proposed standard would not make any recommendations regarding the required quality for any application. The intent is to establish standard pre-finish quality classes for typical finishing operations, which only include the inspection elements that are important to properly evaluate pre-finish gear quality as it applies to the finishing operation. It would be the responsibility of the manufacturing/process engineer, quality engineer, or other responsible individual to establish the required pre-finish quality class for their application.

31 Hard Gear Finishing With CBN-Basic Considerations (May/June 1998)

For over 50 years, grinding has been an accepted method of choice for improving the quality of gears and other parts by correcting heat treat distortions. Gears with quality levels better than AGMA 10-11 or DIN 6-7 are hard finished, usually by grinding. Other applications for grinding include, but are not limited to, internal/external and spur/helical gear and spline forms, radius forms, threads and serrations, compressor rotors, gerotors, ball screw tracks, worms, linear ball tracks, rotary pistons, vane pump rotators, vane slots, and pump spindles.

32 Influence of Coatings and Surface Improvements on the Lifetime of Gears (July/August 2004)

Surface coatings or finishing processes are the future technologies for improving the load carrying capacity of case hardened gears. With the help of basic tests, the influence of different coatings and finishing processes on efficiency and resistance to wear, scuffing, micropitting, and macropitting is examined.

33 Efficient Hard Finishing of Asymmetric Tooth Profiles and Topological Modifications by Generating Grinding (August 2017)

In order to improve load-carrying capacity and noise behavior, gears usually have profile and lead modifications. Furthermore, in gears where a specified tooth-flank load application direction (for drive and coast flanks) is a design enhancement, or even compulsory, the asymmetric tooth profile is a further solution. Nowadays, many gears need to be hard finished. Continuous generating grinding offers a very high process efficiency, but is this process able to grind all modifications, especially asymmetric gears? Yes, it is!

34 Performance of Skiving Hobs in Finishing Induction Hardened and Carburized Gears (May/June 2003)

In order to increase the load carrying capacity of hardened gears, the distortion of gear teeth caused by quenching must be removed by precision cutting (skiving) and/or grinding. In the case of large gears with large modules, skiving by a carbide hob is more economical than grinding when the highest accuracy is not required.

35 Hard Finishing By Conventional Generating and Form Grinding (March/April 1991)

The quality of a gear and its performance is determined by the following five parameters, which should be specified for each gear: Pitch diameter, involute form, lead accuracy, spacing accuracy, and true axis of rotation. The first four parameters can be measured or charted and have to be within tolerance with respect to the fifth. Pitch diameter, involute, lead, and spacing of a gear can have master gear quality when measured or charted on a testing machine, but the gear might perform badly if the true axis of rotation after installation is no longer the same one used when testing the gear.

36 High Accurate Hobbing with Specially Designed Finishing Hobs (November/December 2003)

Load-carrying capacity of gears, especially the surface durability, is influenced by their tooth surface roughness in addition to their tooth profiles and tooth traces.

37 Finishing of Gears by Ausforming (November/December 1987)

Almost all machines or mechanical systems contain precision contact elements such as bearings, cams, rears, shafts, splines and rollers. These components have two important common requirements: first, they must possess sufficient mechanical properties, such as, high hardness, fatigue strength and wear resistance to maximize their performance and life; second, they must be finished to close dimensional tolerances to minimize noise, vibration and fatigue loading.

38 Grinding, Finishing and Software Upgrades Abound (March/April 2011)

Machine tool companies are expanding capabilities to better accommodate the changing face of manufacturing. Customers want smaller-sized equipment to take up less valuable floor space, multifunctional machines that can handle a variety of operations and easy set-up changes that offer simplified operation and maintenance.

39 Hard Finishing and Fine Finishing Part 1 (September/October 1989)

Profitable hard machining of tooth flanks in mass production has now become possible thanks to a number of newly developed production methods. As used so far, the advantages of hard machining over green shaving or rolling are the elaborately modified tooth flanks are produced with a scatter of close manufacturing tolerances. Apart from an increase of load capacity, the chief aim is to solve the complex problem of reducing the noise generation by load-conditioned kinematic modifications of the tooth mesh. In Part II, we shall deal with operating sequences and machining results and with gear noise problems.

40 Hard Finishing and Fine Finishing Part 2 (November/December 1989)

After shaping or hobbing, the tooth flanks must be either chamfered or duburred. Here it is paramount that the secondary burr produced will not be formed into the flank, but to the face of the gear, because during hardening, the secondary burr will straighten up and, due to its extreme hardness, will lead to excessive tool wear.

41 Deburring & Finishing Gears with Power Brushes (March/April 1989)

Why Brushes? In this age of hi-tech, robots, automatic machines, machining cells, etc., is there a niche somewhere for power brushes? Let me answer by asking another question. What tool does the gear manufacturer have in his arsenal that allows him to deburr green gears, hardened gears, hobbed gears, ground gears and shaved gears? What tool allows him to deburr powder metal gears - green and sintered - brass gears, bronze gears, stainless gears made of exotic materials such as inconel, waspaloy, or hastaloy, and fiber and plastic gears? How about spur gears, helical gears, sprockets, both internal and external splines, clutch teeth and pump gears?

42 Gear Shaving Basics - Part I (November/December 1997)

Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process also improves tooth surface finish and eliminates by means of crowned tooth forms the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service.

43 Prediction of Surface Zone Changes in Generating Gear Grinding (March/April 2015)

One process for hard finishing gears is generating gear grinding. Due to its high process efficiency, generating gear grinding has replaced other grinding processes such as profile grinding in batch production of small- and middle-sized gears. Yet despite the wide industrial application of generating gear grinding, the process design is based on experience along with time- and cost-intensive trials. The science-based analysis of generating gear grinding demands a high amount of time and effort, and only a few published scientific analyses exist. In this report a thermo-mechanical process model that describes influences on the surface zone in generating gear grinding is introduced.

44 Sicmat Utilizes NUM CNC Systems (September 2012)

A high-performance, 11-axis CNC system from NUM has enabled machine tool manufacturer Sicmat to create a gear honing machine that sets a new industry standard for post-hardening fine finishing.

45 Local Simulation of the Specific Material Removal Rate for Generating Gear Grinding (September/October 2015)

Generating gear grinding is one of the most important finishing processes for small and medium-sized gears, its process design often determined by practical knowledge. Therefore a manufacturing simulation with the capability to calculate key values for the process β€” such as the specific material removal rate β€” is developed here. Indeed, this paper presents first results of a model for a local analysis of the value. Additionally, an empirical formula β€” based on a multiple regression model for a global value describing the process β€” is provided.

46 Stock Distribution Optimization in Fixed Setting Hypoid Pinions (July/August 2001)

Face-milled hypoid pinions produced by the three-cut, Fixed Setting system - where roughing is done on one machine and finishing for the concave-OB and convex-IB tooth flanks is done on separate machines with different setups - are still in widespread use today.

47 Precision Finish Hobbing (July/August 2000)

Nowadays, finish hobbing (which means that there is no post-hobbing gear finishing operation) is capable of producing higher quality gears and is growing in popularity.

48 Process Model for Honing Larger Gears (November/December 2015)

Hard finishing technology, e.g. β€” honing β€” is used to manufacture high-performance gears. Gear honing is primarily used to hard finish small- and medium-sized automotive gears. And yet trials have shown that gears with a module larger than mn = 4 mm can also be honed efficiently, but problems often occur due to unstable process design. In this paper a model to improve the process design is described.

49 Coming Clean on Gearbox Lubrication (September/October 2017)

Design and manufacture of gears is among the most complex and difficult disciplines of the industrial arts. From initial conception to machining and finishing, making gears ain't bean-bag. And guess what? Once those gears roll off the assembly line, it doesn't get any simpler. That's because gears - the metal ones at least - require the correct lubrication in order to prevent - or delay as long as possible - such things as wear, scuffing and Hertzian fatigue.

50 Wear Investigation of Finish Rolled Powder Metal Gears (September/October 2017)

When manufacturing powder metal (PM) gears lead crowning is not achievable in the compaction process. This has to be accomplished either by shaving, grinding or honing. Each of these processes has their merits and draw backs. When employing rolling using a roll burnishing machine lead crowning can be accomplished but due to errors in profile a hard finishing operation such as grinding is used by the industry. In this paper a helical PM gear that has sufficient tolerance class after rolling has been tested in a test rig for durability and the wear has been studied.

51 MicroPulse and MicroShift for Ground Bevel Gearsets (July 2017)

Grinding of bevel and hypoid gears creates on the surface a roughness structure with lines that are parallel to the root. Imperfections of those lines often repeat on preceding teeth, leading to a magnification of the amplitudes above the tooth mesh frequency and their higher harmonics. This phenomenon is known in grinding and has led in many cylindrical gear applications to an additional finishing operation (honing). Until now, in bevel and hypoid gear grinding, a short time lapping of pinion and gear after the grinding operation, is the only possibility to change the surface structure from the strongly root line oriented roughness lines to a diffuse structure.

52 Surface Structure Shift for Ground Bevel Gears (June 2017)

Ground bevel and hypoid gears have a designed motion error that defines parts of their NVH behavior. The surface structure is defined by the hard finishing process.

53 Basic Honing & Advanced Free-Form Honing (July/August 1997)

Rotary gear honing is a crossed-axis, fine, hard finishing process that uses pressure and abrasive honing tools to remove material along the tooth flanks in order to improve the surface finish (.1-.3 um or 4-12u"Ra), to remove nicks and burrs and to change or correct the tooth geometry. Ultimately, the end results are quieter, stronger and longer lasting gears.

54 Twist Control Grinding (June 2017)

This paper introduces the latest process developments for the hard-finishing of gears, specifically in regard to controlling the so-called flank twist.

55 Product News (May 2018)

Safe cutting tool clamping, superfinishing gear shafts, gearbox parts cleaning, gear deburring and more new gear-related products.

56 Long-Life, Low-cost, Near-Net-Shape forged Gears (May/June 1995)

Near-net gear forging today is producing longer life gears at significantly lower costs than traditional manufacturing techniques. Advances in forging equipment, controls and die-making capability have been combined to produce commercially viable near-net-shape gears in diameters up to 17" with minimum stock allowances. These forged gears require only minimal finishing to meet part tolerance specifications.

57 The Process of Gear Shaving (January/February 1986)

Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process can also improve tooth surface finish and eliminate, by crowned tooth forms, the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service. Shaving provides for form modifications that reduce gear noise. These modifications can also increase the gear's load carrying capacity, its factor of safety and its service life.

58 Gear Shaving Basics, Part I (November/December 1997)

Gear shaving is a free cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.

59 Hard Turning Large-Diameter Parts (June 2010)

Fuji's VTP-1000 is designed for highly accurate fine finishing of cylindrical components up to one meter in diameter.

60 Software-Based Process Design in Gear Finish Hobbing (May 2010)

In this paper, the potential for geometrical cutting simulations - via penetration calculation to analyze and predict tool wear as well as to prolong tool life - is shown by means of gear finish hobbing. Typical profile angle deviations that occur with increasing tool wear are discussed. Finally, an approach is presented here to attain improved profile accuracy over the whole tool life of the finishing hob.

61 Gear Shaving - Process Simulation Helps to Comprehend an Incomprehensible Process (September/October 2006)

Due to its economical efficiency, the gear shaving process is a widely used process for soft finishing of gears. A simulation technique allows optimization of the process.

62 Influence of Grinding Burn on Pitting Capacity (August 2008)

This paper intends to determine the load-carrying capacity of thermally damaged parts under rolling stress. Since inspection using real gears is problematic, rollers are chosen as an acceptable substitute. The examined scope of thermal damage from hard finishing extends from undamaged, best-case parts to a rehardening zone as the worst case. Also, two degrees of a tempered zone have been examined.

63 Optimal Modifications of Gear Tooth Surfaces (March/April 2011)

In this paper a new method for the introduction of optimal modifications into gear tooth surfaces - based on the optimal corrections of the profile and diameter of the head cutter, and optimal variation of machine tool settings for pinion and gear finishingβ€”is presented. The goal of these tooth modifications is the achievement of a more favorable load distribution and reduced transmission error. The method is applied to face milled and face hobbed hypoid gears.

64 Economics of CNC Gear Gashing vs. Large D.P. Hobbing (August/September 1984)

Gear gashing is a gear machining process, very much like gear milling, utilizing the principle of cutting one or more tooth (or tooth space) at a time. The term "GASHING" today applies to the roughing, or roughing and finishing, of coarse diametral pitch gears and sprockets. Manufacturing these large coarse gears by conventional methods of rough and finish hobbing can lead to very long machining cycles and uneconomical machine utilization.

65 Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Ausrolled Surfaces in Gear Steels (March/April 1995)

Ausforming, the plastic deformation of heat treatment steels in their metastable, austentic condition, was shown several decades ago to lead to quenched and tempered steels that were harder, tougher and more durable under fatigue-type loading than conventionally heat-treated steels. To circumvent the large forces required to ausform entire components such as gears, cams and bearings, the ausforming process imparts added mechanical strength and durability only to those contact surfaces that are critically loaded. The ausrolling process, as utilized for finishing the loaded surfaces of machine elements, imparts high quality surface texture and geometry control. The near-net-shape geometry and surface topography of the machine elements must be controlled to be compatible with the network dimensional finish and the rolling die design requirements (Ref. 1).

66 Full Speed Ahead (May 2012)

Indexable carbide insert (ICI) cutting tools continue to play a pivotal role in gear manufacturing. By offering higher cutting speeds, reduced cycle times, enhanced coatings, custom configurations and a diverse range of sizes and capabilities, ICI tools have proven invaluable for finishing and pre-grind applications. They continue to expand their unique capabilities and worth in the cutting tool market.

67 Comparative Load Capacity Evaluation of CBN-Finished Gears (May/June 1990)

Cubic boron nitride (CBN) finishing of carburized gearing has been shown to have certain economic and geometric advantages and, as a result, it has been applied to a wide variety of precision gears in many different applications. In critical applications such as aerospace drive systems, however, any new process must be carefully evaluated before it is used in a production application. Because of the advantages associated with this process, a test program was instituted to evaluate the load capacity of aerospace-quality gears finished by the CBN process as compared to geometrically identical gears finished by conventional grinding processes. This article presents a brief description of the CBN process, its advantages in an aerospace application, and the results of an extensive test program conducted by Boeing Helicopters (BH) aimed at an evaluation of the effects of this process on the scoring, surface durability, and bending fatigue properties of spur gears. In addition, the results of an x-ray diffraction study to determine the surface and subsurface residual stress distributions of both shot-peened and nonshot-peened CBN-ground gears as compared to similar conventionally ground gears are also presented.

68 Estimating Hobbing Times (July/August 1989)

Hobbing is a continuous gear generation process widely used in the industry for high or low volume production of external cylindrical gears. Depending on the tooth size, gears and splines are hobbed in a single pass or in a two-pass cycle consisting of a roughing cut followed by a finishing cut. State-of-the-art hobbing machines have the capability to vary cutting parameters between first and second cut so that a different formula is used to calculate cycle times for single-cut and double-cut hobbing.

69 The Process of Gear Shaving (May/June 1984)

Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.

70 Hard Cutting - A Competitive Process in High Quality Gear Production (May/June 1987)

The higher load carrying capacities, compact dimensions and longer life of hardened gears is an accepted fact in industry today. However, the costs involved in case hardening and subsequent finishing operations to achieve these advantages are considerable. For example, in order to achieve desired running properties on larger gears, it has been necessary to grind the tooth flanks. This costly operation can now be replaced, in many cases, by a new Hard Cutting (HC) process which permits the cutting of hardened gears while maintaining extremely low tooling costs.

71 Composite Electroless Nickel Coatings for the Gear Industry (January/February 1997)

Electroless Nickel (EN) plating, a process dating back to the 1940s, is one of the predominant metal finishing methods today. It is especially suitable for the gear industry, whose end uses span innumerable other industries, providing an endless assortment of requirements, environments, materials and specifications. EN plating has a broad array of functional features, which include:

News Items About finishing

1 IMPCO Microfinishing Worldstar 1680 Offers Fully Flexible Microfinishing System for Automotive Applications (February 13, 2018)
A new design CNC microfinishing system by IMPCO Microfinishing, polishes the critical cylindrical bearing journals of a range of differen... Read News

2 Walter M2025/M2026 Octagon Finishing Face Mills Deliver Increased Surface Quality (September 16, 2015)
Walter recently unveiled its M2025/M2026 octagon finishing face mills designed to deliver increased surface quality on large cast iron co... Read News

3 Ingersoll Releases Super Finishing Face Mill (May 8, 2013)
Ingersoll is pleased to announce the arrival of its newest super-finishing face mill. The generous .300” wide crowned wiper provide... Read News

4 Sandvik Offers Eight-Edge Finishing Tool (December 21, 2015)
Sandvik Coromant’s CoroMill 425 offers an eight-edge finishing tool designed for face milling that greatly improves metal removal r... Read News

5 REM Chemicals and Rosler GmbH Partner in Metal Finishing (February 13, 2005)
REM Chemicals Inc.and Rosler GmbH developed a 20-year global marketing partnership for chemically-accelerated mass finishing processes, m... Read News

6 New Finishing Process from Kapp (December 6, 2003)
The Kapp Group has introduced a combined process for hard finishing transmission gears that involves two machines?one for grinding and th... Read News

7 New Finishing Process from Kapp (December 6, 2003)
The Kapp Group has introduced a combined process for hard finishing transmission gears that involves two machines?one for grinding and th... Read News

8 New Bore Finishing Machines from Engis (February 9, 2005)
The six-spindle SPM Series single-pass bore finishing machine from Engis can finish the bores on as many as 480 gears per hour with tool ... Read News

9 Pferd Polinox Non-Woven PNZ Finishing Drum Provides 25 Percent Longer Life than Standard Drums (June 10, 2016)
Pferd Inc. has announced a new linear finishing set for applications including rough stock removal, surface conditioning and consistent, ... Read News

10 Heatbath Acquires Chemtech Finishing (February 17, 2005)
Heatbath Corp.of Springfield, MA, has acquired the assets of Chemtech Finishing Systems. According to a letter from Chemtech's pres... Read News

11 Reishauer to Exhibit Hard Gear Finishing and Automation Technology at IMTS (April 2, 2006)
Reishauer plans to exhibit the RZ 400 precision gear grinding machine at IMTS 2006. The machine incorporates new technology, including ge... Read News

12 Sandvik Coromant CB7015 CBN Grade Delivers High Quality Finishing of Transmission Components (September 11, 2015)
Sandvik Coromant’s CB7015 is a CBN grade for a broad range of applications and designed to deliver optimal finish quality in the pr... Read News

13 Sandvik Coromant CoroMill 745 Face Milling Cutter Provides Higher Metal Removal Rates for Roughing and Semi-Finishing Milling Operations (October 3, 2017)
Cutting tool and tooling system specialist Sandvik Coromant has unveiled a new, high-feed version of the CoroMill 745 face mill... Read News

14 Kennametal Offers Two Solutions for Roughing and Fine Finishing (November 15, 2017)
Kennametal is expanding the Mill 16 platform by introducing new cutter body styles, new insert geometries and grades, and a split case de... Read News

15 LMT Tools CarbideLine-H Hob Designed for Machining and Finishing Large Lot Size Workpieces (December 16, 2016)
The large family of carbide hobs from LMT Fette now has a name: CarbideLine. It comprises the CarbideLine-S solid carbide tools, the Carb... Read News

16 GMTA SynchroFine 205 HS Gear Honing Machine Designed to Optimize Gear Finishing (April 29, 2016)
Now available from German Machine Tools of America (GMTA), the Präwema SynchroFine 205 HS gear honing machine features direct-driven... Read News

17 Kapp-Niles Sets Date for Rocky Mountain Gear Finishing School (April 3, 2013)
The Sixth Annual Kapp-Niles Rocky Mountain Gear Finishing School (RMGFS) will be held this year October 16, 17 & 18 in Boulder, Color... Read News

18 Gleason’s New Threaded Grinder Optimizes Fine Finishing of Hard Spur and Helical Gears (January 2, 2007)
Gleason’s new Genesis 130TWG High Speed Threaded Wheel Grinder features a new design that reduces floor space requirements and impro... Read News