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The complete Product News section from the January/February issue of Gear Technology.
Bob Errichello retires from teaching, Siemens expands technical center, HBM Holdings acquires Schafer Industries, plus new hires and other industry news.
It's Monday morning, December 15, 2036. An autonomous vehicle drops off two engineers in front of a gear manufacturing facility in Metro Detroit. They punch in for work on their wristwatches and pay Uber for the ride on a smartphone. One of the engineers begins walking the shop floor, monitoring a series of collaborative robots using a tablet the size of a paperback novel. These robots interact right on the floor with the minimal staff scheduled to oversee manufacturing operations. Another engineer wears an interactive headset and begins training a group of new engineers (in real time) from China using some form of augmented reality.
Fraunhofer CMI focuses on new U.S. gear and transmission technologies group, plus other news from around the industry.
The complete industry news section from the June 2018 issue of Gear Technology.
At its location in Roscoe, IL, the Forest City Gear facility is surrounded by wildlife splendor. Fruit trees, nature walks and the occasional cute and furry animal sighting create an unlikely landscape for a manufacturing site. Of course, cavorting with the cute and furry does have its drawbacks.
The latest product news for the gear industry, including new products and services from Gleason, Liebherr, Forest City Gear, GMTA, Starrett and Kennametal.
What quality and performance characteristics should you look for?
The complete Product News section from the August 2018 issue of Gear Technology.
Publisher Michael Goldstein talks about how one gear company is encouraging young people in manufacturing. What are you doing?
Companies weigh in on green technology and sustainable efforts.
News about the Latest Products
The Forest City Gear booth at Gear Expo featured a wide variety of gears utilized in medical equipment, Indy cars, fishing reels, even the recently launched Mars Rover. Scattered among Forest Cityâ€™s products in Cincinnati were some unique gear sculptures created by an artist that finds more inspiration from the pages of industrial magazines than art galleries.
Fred Young, CEO of Forest City Gear, talks about sophisticated gear manufacturing methods and how they can help solve common gear-related problems.
Market needs push in 2013, but will it get one? The construction/off-highway industries have been here before. New equipment, technologies and innovations during an economic standstill that some have been dealing with since 2007.
News From Around the Gear Industry
This issue's look at the web features videos posted at geartechnology.com, featuring Forest City Gear and Star SU.
Forest City Gear applies advanced gear shaping and inspection technologies to help solve difficult lead crown correction challenges half a world away. But these solutions can also benefit customers much closer to home, the company says. Here's howâ€¦
In order to properly select a grease for a particular application, a sound knowledge of the influence of different grease components and operating conditions on the lubrication supply mechanism and on different failure modes is of great benefit.
In this paper, two developed methods of tooth root load carrying capacity calculations for beveloid gears with parallel axes are presented, in part utilizing WZL software GearGenerator and ZaKo3D. One method calculates the tooth root load-carrying capacity in an FE-based approach. For the other, analytic formulas are employed to calculate the tooth root load-carrying capacity of beveloid gears. To conclude, both methods are applied to a test gear. The methods are compared both to each other and to other tests on beveloid gears with parallel axes in test bench trials.
Flank breakage is common in a number of cylindrical and bevel gear applications. This paper introduces a relevant, physically based calculation method to evaluate flank breakage risk vs. pitting risk. Verification of this new method through testing is demonstrably shown.
The load capacity of worm gears is mainly influenced by the size and the position of the contact pattern.
Because of the better thermal conductivity of CBN abrasives compared to that of conventional aluminum oxide wheels, CBN grinding process, which induces residual compressive stresses into the component, and possibly improves the subsequent stress behavior. This thesis is the subject of much discussion. In particular, recent Japanese publications claim great advantages for the process with regard to an increased component load capacity, but do not provide further details regarding the technology, test procedures or components investigated. This situation needs clarification, and for the this reason the effect of the CBN grinding material on the wear behavior and tooth face load capacity of continuously generated ground gears was further investigated.
Optimizing the running behavior of bevel and hypoid gears means improving both noise behavior and load carrying capacity. Since load deflections change the relative position of pinion and ring gear, the position of the contact pattern will depend on the torque. Different contact positions require local 3-D flank form optimizations for improving a gear set.
Highly loaded gears are usually casehardened to fulfill the high demands on the load-carrying capacity. Several factors, such as material, heat treatment, or macro and micro geometry, can influence the load-carrying capacity. Furthermore, the residual stress condition also significantly influences load-carrying capacity. The residual stress state results from heat treatment and can be further modified by manufacturing processes post heat treatment, e.g. grinding or shot peening.
In this paper local tooth contact analysis and standard calculation are used to determine the load capacity for the failure modes pitting, tooth root breakage, micropitting, and tooth flank fracture; analogies and differences between both approaches are shown. An example gearset is introduced to show the optimization potential that arises from using a combination of both methods. Difficulties in combining local approaches with standard methods are indicated. The example calculation demonstrates a valid possibility to optimize the gear design by using local tooth contact analysis while satisfying the requirement of documenting the load carrying capacity by standard calculations.
Cubic boron nitride (CBN) finishing of carburized gearing has been shown to have certain economic and geometric advantages and, as a result, it has been applied to a wide variety of precision gears in many different applications. In critical applications such as aerospace drive systems, however, any new process must be carefully evaluated before it is used in a production application. Because of the advantages associated with this process, a test program was instituted to evaluate the load capacity of aerospace-quality gears finished by the CBN process as compared to geometrically identical gears finished by conventional grinding processes. This article presents a brief description of the CBN process, its advantages in an aerospace application, and the results of an extensive test program conducted by Boeing Helicopters (BH) aimed at an evaluation of the effects of this process on the scoring, surface durability, and bending fatigue properties of spur gears. In addition, the results of an x-ray diffraction study to determine the surface and subsurface residual stress distributions of both shot-peened and nonshot-peened CBN-ground gears as compared to similar conventionally ground gears are also presented.
To achieve the requested quality, most gears today are ground. The usual grinding process includes treating the gear flank but disengaging before reaching the root rounding area. If the gear is premanufactured with a tool without protuberance, then at the position where the grinding tool retracts from the flank a grinding notch in the tooth root area is produced. Such a notch may increase the bending stresses in the root area, thus reducing the strength rating.
The objective of this work is to introduce a method for the calculation of the tooth root load carrying capacity for gears, under consideration of the influence of the defect size on the endurance fatigue strength of the tooth root. The theoretical basis of this method is presented in this paper as well as the validation in running tests of helical and beveloid gears with different material batches, regarding the size distribution of inclusions. The torque level for a 50 percent failure probability of the gears is evaluated on the test rig and then compared to the results of the simulation. The simulative method allows for a performance of the staircase method that is usually performed physically in the back-to-back tests for endurance strength, as the statistical influence of the material properties is considered in the calculation model. The comparison between simulation and tests shows a high level of accordance.
Reduced component weight and ever-increasing power density require a gear design on the border area of material capacity. In order to exploit the potential offered by modern construction materials, calculation methods for component strength must rely on a deeper understanding of fracture and material mechanics in contrast to empirical-analytical approaches.
At first, monitoring the energy I use at my plant or the energy for each individual machine seemed trivial. Isn't this just an overhead cost I have to pay? I'm certainly not going to turn off a machine that costs too much to run when I have to get a job out for that month. Then, I realized how much savings there was for monitoring power consumption and the ROI was timely.
The common calculation methods according to DIN 3990 and ISO 6336 are based on a comparison of occurring stress and allowable stress. The influence of gear size on the load-carrying capacity is considered with the size factors YX (tooth root bending) and ZX (pitting), but there are further influences, which should be considered. In the following, major influences of gear size on the load factors as well as on the permissible tooth root bending and contact stress will be discussed.
This paper intends to determine the load-carrying capacity of thermally damaged parts under rolling stress. Since inspection using real gears is problematic, rollers are chosen as an acceptable substitute. The examined scope of thermal damage from hard finishing extends from undamaged, best-case parts to a rehardening zone as the worst case. Also, two degrees of a tempered zone have been examined.
Instances of damage to discontinuous form ground and surface-hardened gears, especially of large scale, have recently increased. This may be attributed partly to a faulty grinding process with negative effects on the surface zones and the surface properties.
Micropitting, pitting and wear are typical gear failure modes that can occur on the flanks of slowly operated and highly stressed internal gears. However, the calculation methods for the flank load-carrying capacity have mainly been established on the basis of experimental investigations of external gears. This paper describes the design and functionality of the newly developed test rigs for internal gears and shows basic results of the theoretical studies. It furthermore presents basic examples of experimental test results.
There is an increasing significance of screw helical and worm gears that combine use of steel and plastics. This is shown by diverse and continuously rising use in the automotive and household appliance industries. The increasing requirements for such gears can be explained by the advantageous qualities of such a material combination in comparison with that of the traditional steel/bronze pairing.
The manufacturing quality of spiral bevel gears has achieved a very high standard. Nevertheless, the understanding of the real stress conditions and the influences. of certain parameters is not satisfactory.
With the right selection of nonstandard center distance and tool shifting, it may be possible to use standard tools to improve the gear set capacity with a considerable reduction in cost when compared to the use of special tools.
This article presents a new spur gear 20-degree design that works interchangeably with the standard 20-degree system and achieves increased tooth bending strength and hence load carrying capacity.
Traditionally, gear rating procedures consider manufacturing accuracy in the application of the dynamic factor, but only indirectly through the load distribution are such errors in the calculation of stresses used in the durability and gear strength equations. This paper discusses how accuracy affects the calculation of stresses and then uses both statistical design of experiments and Monte Carlo simulation techniques to quantify the effects of different manufacturing and assembly errors on root and contact stresses.
Crossed helical gear sets are used to transmit power and motion between non-intersecting and non-parallel axes. Both of the gears that mesh with each other are involute helical gears, and a point contact is made between them. They can stand a small change in the center distance and the shaft angle without any impairment in the accuracy of transmitting motion.
Influences of Load Distribution and Tooth Flank Modifications as Considered in a New, DIN/ISO-Compatible Calculation Method
The Integral Temperature Method for the evaluation of the scoring load capacity of gears is described. All necessary equations for the practical application are presented. The limit scoring temperature for any oil can be obtained from a gear scoring test.
The load capacity rating of gears had its beginning in the 18th century at Leiden University when Prof. Pieter van Musschenbroek systematically tested the wooden teeth of windmill gears, applying the bending strength formula published by Galilei one century earlier. In the next centuries several scientists improved or extended the formula, and recently a Draft International Standard could be presented.
In this study, limiting values for the load-carrying-capacity of fine-module gears within the module range 0.3â€“1.0 mm were determined and evaluated by comprehensive, experimental investigations that employed technical, manufacturing and material influence parameters.
The objective of this study was to investigate the limits concerning possible reduction of lubricant quantity in gears that could be tolerated without detrimental effects on their load carrying capacity.
When Forest City Gear started manufacturing gears for medical components in the 1980s, it was a minuscule part of the company's business. Today, the medical device industry represents 18-20%.
It's unlikely that AARP will find itself in a revenue-generating crisis, but if it occurs, Fred Young of Forest City Gear in Roscoe, IL, is the man with the plan.
Forest City Gear president Fred Young has a straightforward strategy for acquiring and retaining business...
Fred Young, president of Forest City Gear in Roscoe, Illinois, discovered a new market on a flyfishing trip on the White River in Arkansas.
We asked Fred Young, president of Forest City Gear Co., to answer some of the gear industry's burning questions.
News Items About forest city gear
1 Forest City Gear Appoints Sales Reps (May 19, 2011)
Forest City Gear recently announced the appointment of new sales representatives and additional territories for several existing ... Read News
2 Forest City Gear Expands Machine Capabilities (August 10, 2011)
Forest City Gear has acquired three Haas turning centers to improve the throughput at its gearmaking facility. The company has made... Read News
3 Forest City Gear Purchases Takisawa Lathe (February 16, 2011)
Forest City Gear has purchased a Takisawa TT-200G, a fully-automated turning center with twin-spindle, twin-turret and twin-CNC operation... Read News
4 Forest City Gear Celebrates 55 Years with Corn Boil (September 1, 2010)
Forest City Gear celebrated its 55th year in business with a good old-fashioned corn boil on the company premises, July 24, 2010. O... Read News
5 Forest City Gear Invests in Capital Equipment (February 12, 2009)
Forest City Gear has announced it has invested more than $6 million in the purchase of new capital equipment during the last 18 months. T... Read News
6 Forest City Gear Launches Roscoe Works (June 6, 2013)
Forest City Gear has begun operations in a new state-of-the-art facility designed to greatly improve lead times and quality for the produ... Read News
7 Forest City Gear Expands High Volume Gear Production Capabilities (May 2, 2016)
Forest City Gear has expanded its high volume gear production capabilities with the addition of a Reishauer RZ 160 Gear Grinding Machine ... Read News
8 Forest City Gear Adds Director of Sales (April 16, 2018)
Forest City Gear has hired Erik J. Spurling as director of sales to oversee the activities of the company’s network of direct and... Read News
9 Forest City Gear Expands Quality Capabilities with Digital Magnification Technology (July 17, 2018)
Forest City Gear has added an EVO Cam advanced full-HD digital microscope to its Quality Assurance Lab to greatly speed and simplify the ... Read News
10 Forest City Gear Expands Small Diameter ID/OD Grinding Capability (December 13, 2017)
Forest City Gear has expanded its capabilities for the hard finishing of smaller diameter gears with particularly tight ID and length tol... Read News
11 Forest City Gear Earns Women's Business Enterprise Certification (December 12, 2017)
Forest City Gear has successfully met the Women’s Business Enterprise National Council’s standards for certification as a Wom... Read News
12 Forest City Gear Welcomes Process Engineer (September 5, 2017)
Forest City Gear has added Brian Gustafson to its growing team of process engineers, with responsibility for creating the routings, machi... Read News
13 Forest City Gear Adds Metal Alloy Analysis to Gear Inspection Capabilities (October 16, 2018)
Forest City Gear can now perform fast, comprehensive analysis and verification of metal alloys for quality assurance and control using ... Read News