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Temperature Induced Dimensional Changes Temperature causes various materials to change size at different rate, known as their Coefficients of Expansion (COE). The effects of this phenomenon on precision dimensional measurements are continuous and costly to industry. Precautions can be taken to allow parts and gages to temperature stabilize before conducting gage R & R studies, but the fact remains that on the shop floor temperatures vary all the time. The slow pace at which industry has accepted this reality probably has to do with the subtlety of these tiny size variations and our inability to sense gradual, but significant temperature changes.
This article describes a new technique for the size determination of external Involute splines by using a span measuring method. It provides application performance information demonstrating how this method and its measurements correlate with the traditional spline ring gage sizing method.
Involute spline couplings are used to transmit torque from a shaft to a gear hub or other rotating component. External gear teeth on the shaft engage an equal number of internal teeth in the hub. Because multiple teeth engage simultaneously, they can transmit much larger torques than a simple key and keyway assembly. However, manufacturing variations affect the clearance between each pair of mating teeth, resulting in only partial engagement.
The purpose of this article is to discuss ISO 4156/ANSI B92.2M-1980 and to compare it with other, older standards still in use. In our experience designing and manufacturing spline gauges and other spline measuring or holding devices for splined component manufacturers throughout the world, we are constantly surprised that so many standards have been produced covering what is quite a small subject. Many of the standards are international standards; others are company standards, which are usually based on international standards. Almost all have similarities; that is, they all deal with splines that have involute flanks of 30 degrees, 37.5 degrees or 45 degrees pressure angle and are for the most part flank-fitting or occasionally major-diameter-fitting.
Base helix error - the resultant of lead and profile errors is the measured deviation from the theoretical line of contact (Fig. 1). It can be measured in the same way that lead error on a spur gear is measured, namely, by setting a height gage to height H based on the radial distance r to a specified line of contact (Fig. 2), rotating the gear so as to bring a tooth into contact with the indicator on the height gage, and then moving the height gage along two or more normals to the plane of action. The theoretical line of contact on helical gear must be parallel to the surface plate, which is attained by mounting the gear on a sine bar (Fig. 3).
Putting one's best foot forward is important for successful business communication. And successful business people know the "rule" of the game, what it say and do in business situations, to make the best impression. However, these rules change from country to country, and what is appropriate behavior here may appear rude to someone from Latin America, Europe or Asia To help you become more familiar with some of the different rules of engagement in other countries, Gear Technology spoke with three businessmen who have had extensive contact in various part of the world.
A series of bench-top experiments was conducted to determine the effects of metallic debris being dragged through meshing gear teeth. A test rig that is typically used to conduct contact fatigue experiments was used for these tests. Several sizes of drill material, shim stock and pieces of gear teeth were introduced and then driven through the meshing region. The level of torque required to drive the â€śchipâ€ť through the gear mesh was measured. From the data gathered, chip size sufficient to jam the mechanism can be determined.
The latest in machine tools, cutting tools, inspection equipment, shop floor gages and other products for the gear industry.
Part I of this paper, which appeared in the January/February issue of Gear Technology, described the theory behind double-flank composite inspection. It detailed the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. The concluding Part II presents a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection -- especially for large-volume operations. It also addresses statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.
Part I of this paper describes the theory behind double-flank composite inspection, detailing the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. Part II, which will appear in the next issue, includes a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection, especially for large-volume operations. Part II covers statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.
The machine tool industry is as competitive as ever. New machine technologies, materials, coatings and software upgrades are changing the way gears are being manufactured. Companies like Gleason, Liebherr, Kapp/Niles and DMG/Mori Seiki spend plenty of time and resources on R&D to develop the best products for the gear market. More importantly, these companies engage with (and listen to) customer requests.
The load carrying behavior of gears is strongly influenced by local stress concentrations in the tooth root and by Hertzian pressure peaks in the tooth flanks produced by geometric deviations associated with manufacturing, assembly and deformation processes. The dynamic effects within the mesh are essentially determined by the engagement shock, the parametric excitation and also by the deviant tooth geometry.
What is a quality product? This is not an idle question. In the Darwinian business world in which we operate, knowing the answer to this question is key to our survival. A whole library of standards and benchmarks is available to help us gage how we're doing, but they don't really tell the whole story.
Our research group has been engaged in the study of gear noise for some nine years and has succeeded in cutting the noise from an average level to some 81-83 dB to 76-78 dB by both experimental and theoretical research. Experimental research centered on the investigation into the relation between the gear error and noise. Theoretical research centered on the geometry and kinematics of the meshing process of gears with geometric error. A phenomenon called "out-of-bound meshing of gears" was discovered and mathematically proven, and an in-depth analysis of the change-over process from the meshing of one pair of teeth to the next is followed, which leads to the conclusion we are using to solve the gear noise problem. The authors also suggest some optimized profiles to ensure silent transmission, and a new definition of profile error is suggested.
The connection between transmission error, noise and vibration during operation has long been established. Calculation methods have been developed to describe the influence so that it is possible to evaluate the relative effect of applying a specific modification at the design stage. These calculations enable the designer to minimize the excitation from the gear pair engagement at a specific load. This paper explains the theory behind transmission error and the reasoning behind the method of applying the modifications through mapping surface profiles and determining load sharing.
VMT Technologies designs positively engaged, infinitely variable transmission.
The contact lines of a pair of helical gears move diagonally on the engaged tooth faces and their lengths consequently vary with the rotation of the gears.
The wear behavior of polymer gears made of five different materials has been investigated using an existing polymer gear test rig. Step loading tests at a constant speed of 1,000 rpm were performed. Significant differences in failure modes and performance have been observed for the five polymer gear materials for gear engagements of gears, with the same material as each other.
News Items About gage
1 Height Gage Offers User-Friendly Options (December 8, 2010)
Suburban Tool, Inc. has released their newest product offering, the Master Height line of height gages. This height gage is available in ... Read News
2 Mahrs Air Gage Uses Single- or Dual-Master Air Tooling (March 10, 2006)
The Universal Dimensionair line of air gages from Mahr Federal combines the performance of a single-master air gage system with the abili... Read News
3 Emuge Offers Extensive Thread Gage Line (March 6, 2013)
Emuge Corp. has introduced a comprehensive line of precision fixed limit thread gages consisting of GO/NO-GO plug gages that are manufact... Read News
4 Oil-Rites Redesigns Broad View Level Gage (March 28, 2007)
Oil-Rite Corp. re-designed its broad view level gage to reduce the number of unique components. Liquid level gages are used in various... Read News
5 Surface Finish Gage Indexes, Measures Multiple Small Parts (July 24, 2008)
Mahr Federal Inc. introduces a surface finish gage designed to index and measure numerous small parts, such as gears, fuel injector comp... Read News
6 Digimar Height Gage Provides Smooth Movements for Positioning (February 13, 2008)
The Digimar 817 CLM height measuring instrument from Mahr Federal will be featured at WESTEC 2008 from March 31–April 3. The gage o... Read News
7 Camshaft Inspection Gage Measures Up to 200 Parts-Per-Hour (November 24, 2008)
The Adcole 1310 is a high-speed camshaft inspection gage with sub-micron accuracy measuring camshafts for rise error and chattermark dete... Read News
8 Drake Grinders Upgrade China Gage Capabilities (September 23, 2010)
Drake Manufacturing Services Co. recently shipped another in a series of high precision gage grinding machines to one of China's emer... Read News
9 ADCOLE Offers High-Speed Crankshaft Gage for Better Accuracy (November 2, 2007)
A new high-speed, in-line, automatic crankshaft measurement gage for production environments that provides sub-micron accuracy has been i... Read News
10 Mahr Federal Introduces Latest Portable Air Gage (February 6, 2013)
Mahr Federal has introduced the next generation of its Micro-Dimensionair line of portable air gages. The new Micro-Dimensionair II incor... Read News
11 Mahr Federal Promotes Air Gages at Eastec (April 4, 2013)
Mahr Federal will be featuring the new Micro-Dimensionair II, the next generation of its Micro-Dimensionair line of portable air gages, a... Read News
12 Jenoptik Introduces Surface Finish Gage (April 28, 2014)
From Jenoptik Industrial Metrology comes a crankshaft journal surface finish gage that greatly reduces the time required to collect and assess measurement data of virtually any crankshaft, any of its journals... Read News
13 Mitutoyo Introduces QM-Height Digital Gages (August 22, 2014)
Mitutoyo's next generation QM-Height digital height gage line offers a best-in-class accuracy of 4.5 µm and significant improve... Read News
14 Mahr Federals New Portable Finish Gage Includes USB Interface (February 20, 2007)
Mahr Federal will feature its new Pocket Surf PS1 portable surface finish gage at the EASTEC 2007 Exposition. Based on Mahr Federal... Read News
15 Marposs Gages Go Wireless (April 20, 2006)
Marposs Corp. introduced its M1 Wave wireless electronic bore gages at IMTS. "Marposs has cut the cord," said product manager Bob Harm... Read News
16 Rush Gears Introduces Gear Gages (April 19, 2006)
Rush Gears is introducing a new line of gear gages with standard diametral pitch sets coming with 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 24, 32, and... Read News
17 Marposs New Gage Head Designed for Internal Grinders (April 11, 2006)
The Thruvar from Marposs is a through-the-spindle gage for in-process measurement application on internal grinding machines and was intro... Read News
18 Jenoptik Automotive Offers Hommel-Etamic AG380 Pneumatic Snap Gage (October 27, 2016)
Jenoptik Automotive recently introduced the Hommel-Etamic AG380 pneumatic snap gage to quickly, cost-effectively and flexibly check a ran... Read News
19 Mahr Custom RPM Gage Designed for Dynamic Measurement of Cylindrical Parts (January 31, 2017)
The MarSolutions team at Mahr Federal has developed a customized RPM gage for the dynamic measurement of cylindrical parts such as commut... Read News
20 Adcole Camshaft Gage Measures Key Parameters (February 9, 2017)
A new camshaft gage that features two independent opposed measuring heads for measuring key parameters, including cam lobe chatter and st... Read News
21 Delta Research, Tifco Gage and Gear Hires New Sales Rep (July 27, 2007)
Delta Research and TIFCO Gage & Gear announced the hiring of Tony Werschky to their sales team. With over 12 years of sales exp... Read News
22 PG-Series Bore Gages Mount Directly to Machines (February 13, 2008)
With no need for electrical or air connections, Sunnen’s PG-Series Bore Gages can be mounted directly to machining stations, making... Read News
23 Adcoles New Gage Features Spindle Refinements (January 20, 2006)
A new, high accuracy vers... Read News
24 Starrett Digital Gages Offer Diverse Force Measurements (October 12, 2018)
The L.S. Starrett Co. has introduced its DFC and DFG Series of Digital Handheld Force Gages. Depending on the series, advanced automati... Read News
25 Mahr Presents Surface Gage at Westec 2012 (February 15, 2012)
Mahr Federal will be featuring the addition of an economical and powerful new skidless surface evaluation system to its MarSurf line of m... Read News
26 Mahr Offers Skidless Surface Gage at MD&M West (November 30, 2011)
Mahr Federal will be featuring the addition of an economical and powerful new skidless surface evaluation system to its MarSurf line of m... Read News
27 GWJ Expands Automotive Engagement at Dritev Congress 2018 (June 5, 2018)
The International VDI Dritev Congress will be held June 27-28 in Bonn, Germany. The exhibition at the Dritev congress features a unique... Read News
28 Sunnen Bore Gages Offer Precise Hole Measurement (November 29, 2012)
Sunnen's PG Bore Gages take an intuitive approach to hole gaging with a mechanical design and speedometer-type scale for quick visual... Read News
29 Mahr Federal to Display Portable Air Gages (May 14, 2013)
Mahr Federal will be featuring the new Micro-Dimensionair II, the next generation of its well-established Micro-Dimensionair line of port... Read News
30 Mitutoyo MeasurLink 8.0 Re-Introduces the Gage Management Module (July 29, 2015)
Mitutoyo America Corporation recently announced the latest version of MeasurLink software with a variety of functional improvements. Base... Read News
31 Adcole Model 1310S Inline Camshaft Gage Features Sub-Micron Accuracy (September 30, 2015)
Adcole Corporation recently introduced a new high-speed, fully automated end-of-line camshaft measuring machine that features sub-micron ... Read News
32 Mahr Announces Stuart Manser as Director of Sales, Precision Gages for North America (April 4, 2016)
Mahr Federal has named Stuart Manser as Director of Sales, Precision Gages for North America. Reporting directly to Mahr Federal CEO Tony... Read News
33 Mahr Federal Multimar 36 B Indicator Gage Expands Range of Accepted Contacts and Anvils (October 19, 2016)
Mahr Federal's Multimar 36 B Indicator Gage has been enhanced to accept a wider range of contacts and anvils, enabling measurement of... Read News
34 Nikon Metrology Partners with Bradford Instrument & Gage (January 4, 2017)
Nikon Metrology is pleased to announce their new partnership with leading metrology and manufacturing technology distributor, Bradford In... Read News
35 Marposs Optoquick 3.0 High Precision Gage Delivers Both Tactile and Optical Measurement Technology in One Package (February 23, 2017)
Marposs announces the introduction of Optoquick 3.0, its latest addition to the industrial gauging solutions portfolio. Optoquick is a hi... Read News
36 Frenco Adds Gage for Measuring Splines to Produce A Circumferential Backlash Measuring Instrument (April 16, 2005)
Frenco has expanded its product line by starting to produce a circumferential backlash measuring instrument. According to its press r... Read News