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The main theme of this article is high-capacity, high-speed load gears in a power transmission range between 35 MW and 100 MW for generators and turbo-compressors driven by gas or steam turbines.
For a high-speed gearbox, an important part of power losses is due to the mesh. A global estimation is not possible and an analytical approach is necessary with evaluations of three different origins of power losses: friction in mesh contact, gear windage and pumping effect between teeth.
In this paper a thermal network model is developed to simulate the thermal behavior of a high-speed, one-stage gear unit which is jet-lubricated.
The power of high speed gears for use in the petrochemical industry and power stations is always increasing. Today gears with ratings of up to 70,000kW are already in service. For such gears, the failure mode of scoring can become the limiting constraint. The validity of an analytical method to predict scoring resistance is, therefore, becoming increasingly important.
The newer profile-shifted (long and short addendum) gears are often used as small size reduction gears for automobiles or motorcycles. The authors have investigated the damage to each cutting edge when small size mass-produced gears with shifted profiles are used at high speeds.
This paper relates specifically to gears that are finish ground and considered high speed per ANSI/AGMA 6011; meshing elements with PLVs (pitch line velocities) in excess of 35 m/s or rotational speeds greater than 4,500 rpm.
Hobs, broaches, shaper cutters, shaver cutters, milling cutters, and bevel cutters used in the manufacture of gears are commonly made of high speed steel. These specialized gear cutting tools often require properties, such as toughness or manufacturability, that are difficult to achieve with carbide, despite the developments in carbide cutting tools for end mills, milling cutters, and tool inserts.
Accurate prediction of gear dynamic factors (also known as Kv factors) is necessary to be able to predict the fatigue life of gears. Standards-based calculations of gear dynamic factors have some limitations. In this paper we use a multibody dynamic model, with all 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) of a high-speed gearbox to calculate gear dynamic factors. The findings from this paper will help engineers to understand numerous factors that influence the prediction of dynamic factors and will help them to design more reliable gears.
This article examines the dry hobbing capabilities of two cutting tool materialsâ€”powder metallurgical high-speed steel (PM-HSS) and cemented carbide. Cutting trials were carried out to analyze applicable cutting parameters and possible tool lives as well as the process reliability. To consider the influences of the machinability of different workpiece materials, a case hardening steel and a tempered steel were examined.
Users of gear-cutting tools probably do not often consciously consider the raw material from which those hobs, broaches or shavers are made. However, a rudimentary awareness of the various grades and their properties may allow tool users to improve the performance or life of their tools, or to address tool failures. The high-speed steel from which the tool is made certainly is not the only factor affecting tool performance, but as the raw material, the steel may be the first place to start.
I make all the double helical gears that go into a gearbox - four different gears in this unit. If the gear module for the bull gear and the intermediate gear are the same (these are the two individual gears that mate), and the gear module for the high-speed pinion and high-speed gears are the same (these are the other two individual gears that mate in the gear box as well), is it then possible to just use two hobs in this setup to make all four gears, since they mate together with each other? We are currently using a different gear hob for each gear.
An experimental effort has been conducted on an aerospace-quality helical gear train to investigate the thermal behavior of the gear system. Test results from the parametric studies and the superfinishing process are presented.
After a period of operation, high-speed turbo gears may exhibit a change in longitudinal tooth contact pattern, reducing full face width contact and thereby increasing risk of tooth distress due to the decreased loaded area of the teeth. But this can be trickyâ€”the phenomenon may or may not occur. Or, in some units the shift is more severe than others, with documented cases in which shifting occurred after as little as 16,000 hours of operation. In other cases, there is no evidence of any change for units in operation for more than 170,000 hours. This condition exists primarily in helical gears. All recorded observations here have been with case-carburized and ground gear sets. This presentation describes phenomena observed in a limited sampling of the countless high-speed gear units in field operation. While the authors found no existing literature describing this behavior, further investigation suggests a possible cause. Left unchecked and without corrective action, this occurrence may result in tooth breakage.
This article presents some of the findings of cutting investigations at WZL in which the correlation of cutting parameters, cutting materials, tool geometry and tool life have been determined.
Background on the development of a high-speed, automatic hardness tester for gear steels.
Tiger stripes on a high-speed pinion made of a carburized SAE 9310 steel were investigated. The morphology of the damage was typical of electric discharge damage. The cause of the stripes and potential damage to the gear tooth were analyzed and are presented in this report.
Toyoda's new GS300H5 Gear Skiving Center is the first in the world to equip a skiving function to a general purpose horizontal machining center (HMC), through which mass production of gear parts is achieved. CNC controls and a high speed rotary table were developed specifically to achieve high-speed, multifunctional machining, as a compact and lightweight product, simple in programming functions.
With the ongoing push towards electric vehicles (EVs), there is likely to be increasing focus on the noise impact of the gearing required for the transmission of power from the (high-speed) electric motor to the road. Understanding automotive noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) and methodologies for total in-vehicle noise presupposes relatively large, internal combustion (IC) contributions, compared to gear noise. Further, it may be advantageous to run the electric motors at significantly higher rotational speed than conventional automotive IC engines, sending geartrains into yet higher speed ranges. Thus the move to EV or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) places greater or different demands on geartrain noise. This work combines both a traditional NVH approach (in-vehicle and rig noise, waterfall plots, Campbell diagrams and Fourier analysis) - with highly detailed transmission error measurement and simulation of the complete drivetrain - to fully understand noise sources within an EV hub drive. A detailed methodology is presented, combining both a full series of tests and advanced simulation to troubleshoot and optimize an EV hub drive for noise reduction.
Recently, a new type of hob with carbide inserts has been introduced, providing higher cutting speeds, longer tool life and higher feed rates when compared to re-grindable, high-speed steel hobs. But with this kind of hob, new challenges occur due to positional errors of the cutting edges when mounted on the tool. These errors lead to manufacturing errors on the gear teeth which must be controlled. In this paper, the tooth quality of a gear manufactured by hobs with different quality classes is analyzed using a simulation model in combination with Monte Carlo methods.
Above all, a gear is not just a mechanical transmission, but is developed to a system fulfilling multiple demands, such as clutch integration, selectable output speeds, and controls of highest electronic standards. This paper shows the basics for high-speed gear design and a selection of numerous applications in detailed design and operational needs.
Whether you spent time at Gear Expo in Indianapolis or EMO in Hannover, there was certainly new technology attracting attention. Machine tools are faster, more efficient and can integrate numerous functions in a single setup. Grinding technology is turning science upside down and inside out with high-speed removal rates and increased throughput.
A gear design optimization approach applied to reduce tooth contact temperature and noise excitation of a high-speed spur gear pair running without lubricant. Optimum gear design search was done using the Run Many Cases software program. Thirty-one of over 480,000 possible gear designs were considered, based on low contact temperature and low transmission error. The best gear design was selected considering its manufacturability.
High-speed machining using carbide has been used for some decades for milling and turning operations. The intermittent character of the gear cutting process has delayed the use of carbide tools in gear manufacturing. Carbide was found at first to be too brittle for interrupted cutting actions. In the meantime, however, a number of different carbide grades were developed. The first successful studies in carbide hobbing of cylindrical gears were completed during the mid-80s, but still did not lead to a breakthrough in the use of carbide cutting tools for gear production. Since the carbide was quite expensive and the tool life was too short, a TiN-coated, high-speed steel hob was more economical than an uncoated carbide hob.
We are all looking for ways to increase production without sacrificing quality. One of the most cost-effective ways is by improving the substrate material of your hob. Solid carbide hobs are widely used in many applications throughout the world. LMT-Fette was the first to demonstrate the use of solid carbide hobs in 1993 on modern high-speed carbide (HSC) hobbing machines. Since then the process of dry hobbing has been continuously improving through research and product testing. Dry hobbing is proving to be successful in the gear cutting industry as sales for dry hobbing machines have steadily been rising along with the dramatic increase in sales of solid carbide hobs.
Myth No. 1: Oil Is Oil. Using the wrong oil is a common cause of gear failure. Gears require lubricants blended specifically for the application. For example, slow-speed spur gears, high-speed helical gears, hypoid gears and worm gears all require different lubricants. Application parameters, such as operating speeds, transmitted loads, temperature extremes and contamination risks, must be considered when choosing an oil. Using the right oil can improve efficiency and extend gear life.
Today it is common practice when climb hobbing to keep the direction of the hob thread the same as that of the helical gear. The same generalization holds true for the mass production of gears for automobiles. It is the authors' opinion, however, that conventional hobbing with a reverse-handed hob is more effective for the high-speed manufacture of comparatively small module gears for automobiles. The authors have proven both experimentally and theoretically that reverse-handed conventional hobbing, using a multi-thread hob with a smaller diameter is very effective for lengthening the life of the hob and for increasing cutting efficiency at high speeds.
This article presents a summary of all factors that contribute to efficient and economical high-speed cutting of bevel and hypoid gears.
Mathematically precise tooth surface definition and contact analysis help to develop state-of-the-art straight bevel gears for many industrial applications. The new Coniflex-Plus manufacturing process utilizes high-speed dry cutting with production times per slot which are about twice compared to the fast Revacycle process.
News Items About high-speed
1 ADCOLE Offers High-Speed Crankshaft Gage for Better Accuracy (November 2, 2007)
A new high-speed, in-line, automatic crankshaft measurement gage for production environments that provides sub-micron accuracy has been i... Read News
2 High-Speed Inserts Incorporate Through Coolant (June 11, 2010)
The Power-Feed+Mini high feed cutter from Ingersoll Cutting Tools features high-speed geometry with a double-sided, four-edge insert engi... Read News
3 Schunk Releases New Electrical Miniature High-Speed Parallel Gripper (February 14, 2007)
Schunk Workholding's miniature high-speed parallel gripper (MHP) is the two-finger counterpart to the centric gripper SMG. Accord... Read News
4 New High-Speed Inspection System from Renishaw (February 9, 2005)
Introduced at EMO, the Renscan5 high-speed inspection system from Renishaw delivers part inspection speeds up to 20 times faster than con... Read News
5 Gleason GRSL Sets Standard for Throughput for High-Speed, High-Volume Testing (November 17, 2017)
The GRSL Gear Rolling System with Laser provides both double flank roll testing as well as analytical index and involute measurement on a... Read News
6 Lucifer Dual Chamber Furnace Focuses on High-Speed Steels (January 27, 2017)
Lucifer Furnaces, Inc. has designed and delivered a dual chamber furnace ideal for heat treating high speed steels. The HS8 Series, ... Read News
7 Walter WDN10 Diamond Inserts Offer Solution for High-Speed Machining of Non-Ferrous Materials (July 8, 2016)
The WDN10 from Walter, a high-performance and extremely wear-resistant polycrystalline diamond (PCD) insert delivers outstanding hardness... Read News
8 U.S. Speed Changer, Industrial High-Speed Drive, and Gear Manufacturing Industry Shipment (June 12, 2015)
This latest Speed Changer, Industrial High-Speed Drive, and Gear Manufacturing Industry report provides the most updated market research ... Read News
9 MHI Develops 'Super Skiving System' for High-speed Gear Cutting (November 24, 2014)
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has completed development of the “Mitsubishi Super Skiving System” for machining inte... Read News
10 Gleason Introduces High-Speed Gear Shaper (November 12, 2014)
Gleason Corporation has announced the introduction of the 100S Gear Shaping Machine, featuring a stroke rate of up to 3,000 strokes per m... Read News
11 CA614 Enables High-Speed, In-Line Contour Inspection (May 9, 2011)
The new opticline CA614 noncontact shaft measuring system is designed for fast, easy, economical and robust submicron measurement of all ... Read News