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Gear noise associated with tooth surface topography is a fundamental problem in many applications. Operations such as shaving, gear grinding and gear honing are usually used to finish the gear surface. Often, gears have to be treated by a combination of these operations, e.g. grinding and honing. This is because gear honing operations do not remove enough stock although they do create a surface lay favorable for quiet operation. See Fig. 1 for typical honing process characteristics. Gear grinding processes, on the other hand, do remove stock efficiently but create a noisy surface lay.
Hard finishing technology, e.g. — honing — is used to manufacture high-performance gears. Gear honing is primarily used to hard finish small- and medium-sized automotive gears. And yet trials have shown that gears with a module larger than mn = 4 mm can also be honed efficiently, but problems often occur due to unstable process design. In this paper a model to improve the process design is described.
Rotary gear honing is a crossed-axis, fine, hard finishing process that uses pressure and abrasive honing tools to remove material along the tooth flanks in order to improve the surface finish (.1-.3 um or 4-12u"Ra), to remove nicks and burrs and to change or correct the tooth geometry. Ultimately, the end results are quieter, stronger and longer lasting gears.
Rotary gear honing is a hard gear finishing process that was developed to improve the sound characteristics of hardened gears by: Removing nicks and burrs; improving surface finish; and making minor corrections in tooth irregularities caused by heat-treat distortion.
Part I of this series focused on gear shaving, while Part II focuses on gear finishing by rolling and honing.
The honing of gears - by definition - facilitates ease of operation, low noise and smoother performance in a transmission. Honing also contributes to reduced friction in the powertrain. Both the intense cutting (roughing process) as well as the functionally fine- finishing of transmission gears can be performed in one setup, on one machine.
In recent years, the demands for load capacity and fatigue life of gears constantly increased while weight and volume had to be reduced. To achieve those aims, most of today's gear wheels are heat treated so tooth surfaces will have high wear resistance. As a consequence of heat treatment, distortion unavoidably occurs. With the high geometrical accuracy and quality required for gears, a hard machining process is needed that generates favorable properties on the tooth surfaces and the near-surface material with high reliability.
Bore finishing system from Sunnen helps Cloyes Gear and Products achieve high accuracy, productivity and process capability.
Stringent NVH requirements, higher loads and the trend towards miniaturization to save weight and space are forcing transmission gear designers to increasingly tighten the surface finish, bore size and bore-to-face perpendicularity tolerances on the bores of transmission gears.
Forest City Gear president Fred Young has a straightforward strategy for acquiring and retaining business...
There are several methods available for improving the quality of spur and helical gears following the standard roughing operations of hobbing or shaping. Rotary gear shaving and roll-finishing are done in the green or soft state prior to heat treating.
A high-performance, 11-axis CNC system from NUM has enabled machine tool manufacturer Sicmat to create a gear honing machine that sets a new industry standard for post-hardening fine finishing.
The objective of this research is to develop a new lapping process that can efficiently make tooth flanks of hardened steel gears smooth as a mirror.
Gear tooth wear and micropitting are very difficult phenomena to predict analytically. The failure mode of micropitting is closely correlated to the lambda ratio. Micropitting can be the limiting design parameter for long-term durability. Also, the failure mode of micropitting can progress to wear or macropitting, and then go on to manifest more severe failure modes, such as bending. The results of a gearbox test and manufacturing process development program will be presented to evaluate super-finishing and its impact on micropitting.
Hard Gear Finishing (HGF), a relatively new technology, represents an advance in gear process engineering. The use of Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) equipment ensures a high precision synchronous relationship between the tool spindle and the work spindle as well as other motions, thereby eliminating the need for gear trains. A hard gear finishing machine eliminates problems encountered in two conventional methods - gear shaving, which cannot completely correct gear errors in gear teeth, and gear rolling, which lacks the ability to remove stock and also drives the workpiece without a geared relationship to the master rolling gear. Such a machine provides greater accuracy, reducing the need for conventional gear crowning, which results in gears of greater face width than necessary.
For over 50 years, grinding has been an accepted method of choice for improving the quality of gears and other parts by correcting heat treat distortions. Gears with quality levels better than AGMA 10-11 or DIN 6-7 are hard finished, usually by grinding. Other applications for grinding include, but are not limited to, internal/external and spur/helical gear and spline forms, radius forms, threads and serrations, compressor rotors, gerotors, ball screw tracks, worms, linear ball tracks, rotary pistons, vane pump rotators, vane slots, and pump spindles.
Grinding of bevel and hypoid gears creates on the surface a roughness structure with lines that are parallel to the root. Imperfections of those lines often repeat on preceding teeth, leading to a magnification of the amplitudes above the tooth mesh frequency and their higher harmonics. This phenomenon is known in grinding and has led in many cylindrical gear applications to an additional finishing operation (honing). Until now, in bevel and hypoid gear grinding, a short time lapping of pinion and gear after the grinding operation, is the only possibility to change the surface structure from the strongly root line oriented roughness lines to a diffuse structure.
Rochester, NY - Gleason Corporation has acquired the assets of Hurth Maschinen and Werkzeuge GmbH, the designer and builder of cylindrical (parallel-axis) gear-making machinery and tooling based in Munich, Germany. The addition of Hurth gear shaving machines and tooling and gear honing machines will further broaden Gleason's expanding product line for manufacturers of cylindrical gears.
News Items About honing
1 Sunnen Introduces SSH-1680 Honing System (March 25, 2015)
Sunnen’s new SSH-1680 honing system makes the efficiency, accuracy and consistency of power-stroke honing, affordable to&... Read News
2 Sunnen Releases Honing Catalogs (March 12, 2014)
Sunnen Products Company has just released two new tooling/accessory catalogs for engine honing and rebuilding. The honing catalog include... Read News
3 Sunnen Introduces New Honing Features (January 9, 2013)
Sunnen Products introduces new servomotor and drive technology under the hood of its three primary vertical honing platforms, bringing ad... Read News
4 GMTA SynchroFine 205 HS Gear Honing Machine Designed to Optimize Gear Finishing (April 29, 2016)
Now available from German Machine Tools of America (GMTA), the Präwema SynchroFine 205 HS gear honing machine features direct-driven... Read News
5 Engis Multi-Stroke Honing Machines Offer Customers Low-to-Mid-Volume Options (July 28, 2016)
Engis Corporation has greatly increased its capacity with the addition of multi-stroke honing machines for small-to-medium batch sizes. ... Read News
6 Sunnen Offers Multi-Feed Honing Technology (October 16, 2012)
Sunnen’s newly patented multi-feed honing technology gives users a choice of tool-feed modes to achieve the shortest cycle times, l... Read News
7 Vertical Honing System Covers Wide Range of Work (February 4, 2011)
Sunnen's SV-1005 series vertical CNC honing system with integrated air gaging system provides closed-loop control of tool size, along... Read News
8 Sunnen Delivers Vertical CNC Honing System (April 28, 2010)
Sunnen's new SV-400 Series vertical CNC honing system combines a wide choice of tooling options, large work envelope, and up to 1524 ... Read News
9 Sunnen Plans Match Honing Demonstrations at IMTS (July 8, 2010)
Sunnen's new match honing process produces bore specifications to match the measured size of individual pins, plungers or pistons tha... Read News
10 Sunnen Offers Single Stroke Honing Options (April 29, 2014)
Sunnen Products Company introduces a quantum improvement in a key manufacturing process for cast-iron hydraulic valve bodies using a precision single stroke honing process... Read News
11 New Flathoning Machines from Stahli (December 6, 2003)
The Model DLM flathoning machine 705 from Stahli features a new construction and allows for faster processing speeds. According to the... Read News
12 Houghton International HOCUT 4650 Heavy Duty Bi-Metal Honing Fluid Meets All Global Chemical Regulations (April 27, 2016)
Houghton International has launched a new water-based metal removal fluid for use in automotive honing operations. HOCUT 4650 improves ma... Read News
13 GMTA Introduces the SynchroFine 205 HS Gear Honing Machine (March 12, 2015)
German Machine Tools of America (GMTA) recently introduced the Präwema SynchroFine 205 HS gear honing machine. It features direct-dr... Read News
14 Honing System Allows Robotic Part Loading of Landing Gear Components (July 24, 2008)
The SVC-310 vertical CNC honing system from Sunnen sizes small and medium gas/diesel engine blocks, large gears, air compressors, aerosp... Read News
15 Sunnen Releases HTE Honing System (May 22, 2014)
Sunnen's new HTE honing system, the company's most cost-effective small-diameter hone, produces ideal bore geometry and surface finish, while eliminating problems from bad tool-to-part alignment... Read News
16 Tyrolit Unveils Gear Honing Rings (February 25, 2011)
A new range of gear honing rings using specially fused abrasives, said to last virtually twice as long as similar consumables on the mark... Read News
17 Air Gaging Honing Tools Produce Tight Tolerances (December 3, 2009)
The Precision Hone tooling system from Sunnen uses integral air gaging and an automatic shutdown device to produce non-contact, in-proces... Read News
18 Honing Oil Offers Extended Service (June 2, 2010)
Sunnen meets contemporary needs for planet friendly industrial consumables with the introduction of SHO-500, a long-lived general-purpose... Read News
19 Sunnen Offers All-Electric Design with Honing System (May 13, 2010)
The new HTA Series actuator hone introduces the first all-electric, lean design, engineered specifically for production of gas-meter tube... Read News
20 Sunnen Provides Honing Supply Catalog (October 25, 2012)
Sunnen Products' new 192-page Precision Honing Supplies catalog is a complete guide for making perfect holes. Broken into 12 tabbed s... Read News
21 Elliot Tool Technology Carbide-Roll Burnishing Tools Designed to Eliminate Grinding, Honing and Polishing Processes (May 11, 2016)
Carbide-Roll Burnishing Tools by Elliott Tool Technology, which produce a mirror-like surface finish while eliminating secondary operatio... Read News
22 DiaGrind 535-5 Offers Advantages in Gear Honing and Grinding (June 11, 2014)
The multifunctional metalworking fluid DiaGrind 535-5 has many enthusiastic users all over the world. They range from small shops to mult... Read News
23 Gleason Adaptive Honing Solutions Save Cycle Times (February 5, 2013)
Honing is a fast, well-proven process in the gear manufacturing industry. It is used in high-volume production environments where every ... Read News
24 Honing System Offers Increased Part Capacity (April 19, 2011)
The new all-electric HTA hone from Sunnen brings increased part capacity and stroker torque to applications such as bore resurfacing of h... Read News
25 Sunnen Introduces Two-Stage Honing Efficiency (March 29, 2011)
Sunnen's new HTG series tube hones are designed as oil field workhorses with high-volume throughput and increased part capacity. The ... Read News