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Mineral-oil-base lubricants show a significant decrease of kinematic viscosity with rising temperature, as exemplified in Figure 1 by lubricants for vehicle gears. An important attribute of lubricants is their viscosity index (VI), according to DIN/ISO 2909 (Ref. 4). Viscosity index is a calculated coefficient, which characterizes the change of viscosity of lubricants as a function of temperature. A high viscosity index represents a low variation of viscosity due to temperature and vice versa. A low viscosity-temperature-dependence is required for lubricants that are operated at significantly varying temperature conditions, such as vehicle engine and gear lubricants in summer and winter time. This way, the oils remain flowing and pumpable at low temperatures on the one hand; and on the other hand, sufficiently thick lubricant films can be formed at higher temperatures for a safe separation of the surfaces.
Decades ago, technology shifted from HSS to indexable inserts in turning and milling. This movement wasn't immediately realized in gear hobbing because coated PM-HSS hobs and complex gear profiles remained highly effective and productive methods. Only fairly recently have gear manufacturers started to take a serious look at indexable technology to cut gear teeth.
Recently, a new type of hob with carbide inserts has been introduced, providing higher cutting speeds, longer tool life and higher feed rates when compared to re-grindable, high-speed steel hobs. But with this kind of hob, new challenges occur due to positional errors of the cutting edges when mounted on the tool. These errors lead to manufacturing errors on the gear teeth which must be controlled. In this paper, the tooth quality of a gear manufactured by hobs with different quality classes is analyzed using a simulation model in combination with Monte Carlo methods.
Indexable carbide insert (ICI) cutting tools continue to play a pivotal role in gear manufacturing. By offering higher cutting speeds, reduced cycle times, enhanced coatings, custom configurations and a diverse range of sizes and capabilities, ICI tools have proven invaluable for finishing and pre-grind applications. They continue to expand their unique capabilities and worth in the cutting tool market.
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The "less is more" mantra is certainly a rallying cry in manufacturing. Technologies like multiaxis machining, 3D printing and automation are enabling companies to be more efficient, cost-conscious and flexible on the shop floor.
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A transverse-torsional dynamic model of a spur gear pair is employed to investigate the influence of gear tooth indexing errors on the dynamic response. With measured long-period quasi-static transmission error time traces as the primary excitation, the model predicts frequency-domain dynamic mesh force and dynamic transmission error spectra. The dynamic responses due to both deterministic and random tooth indexing errors are predicted.
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Sandvik presents the latest in gear milling technologies.
CNC technology offers new opportunities for the manufacture of bevel gears. While traditionally the purchase of a specific machine at the same time determined a particular production system, CNC technology permits the processing of bevel gears using a wide variety of methods. The ideological dispute between "tapered tooth or parallel depth tooth" and "single indexing or continuous indexing" no longer leads to an irreversible fundamental decision. The systems have instead become penetrable, and with existing CNC machines, it is possible to select this or that system according to factual considerations at a later date.
In addition to the face milling system, the face hobbing process has been developed and widely employed by the gear industry. However, the mechanism of the face hobbing process is not well known.
The power of high speed gears for use in the petrochemical industry and power stations is always increasing. Today gears with ratings of up to 70,000kW are already in service. For such gears, the failure mode of scoring can become the limiting constraint. The validity of an analytical method to predict scoring resistance is, therefore, becoming increasingly important.
The effect of various lubricant factors on wormgear efficiency has been evaluated using a variety of gear types and conditions. In particular, the significant efficiency improvements afforded by certain types of synthetic lubricants have been investigated to determine the cause of these improvements. This paper describes broad wormgear testing, both in the laboratory and in service, and describes the extent to which efficiency can be affected by changes in the lubricant; the effects of viscosity, viscosity index improvers and, finally, synthetic lubricants are discussed. The work concludes that lubricant tractional properties can play a significant role in determining gear efficiency characteristics.
Zerol bevel gears are the special case of spiral bevel gears with a spiral angle of 0°. They are manufactured in a single-indexing face milling process with large cutter diameters, an extra deep tooth profile and tapered tooth depth.
Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process can also improve tooth surface finish and eliminate, by crowned tooth forms, the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service. Shaving provides for form modifications that reduce gear noise. These modifications can also increase the gear's load carrying capacity, its factor of safety and its service life.
Gear shaving is a free cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.
Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.
Mechanical efficiency is an important index of gearing, especially for epicyclic gearing. Because of its compact size, light weight, the capability of a high speed ratio, and the ability to provide differential action, epicyclic gearing is very versatile, and its use is increasing. However, attention should be paid to efficiency not only to save energy, but sometimes also to make the transmission run smoothly or to avoid a self-locking condition.
This article discusses an application driven approach to the computer-aided sizing of spur gear teeth. The methodology is bases on the index of tooth loading and environment of application of the gear. It employs handbook knowledge and empirical information to facilitate the design process for a novice. Results show that the approach is in agreement with the textbook data. However, this technique requires less expert knowledge to arrive at the conclusion. The methodology has been successfully implemented as a gear tooth sizing module of a parallel axis gear drive expert system.
What can be done about the rising cost of labor? Mr. Robert Reich, U.S. Secretary of Labor, has already indicated the administration's intention of pushing the minimum wage from $4.25 to $4.50 per hour and indexing it for inflation. That means that every jiggle in the inflation chart will push the minimum wage higher.
Flute Index Flute index or spacing is defined as the variation from the desired angle between adjacent or nonadjacent tooth faces measured in a plane of rotation. AGMA defines and provides tolerance for adjacent and nonadjacent flute spacing errors. In addition, DIN and ISO standards provide tolerances for individual flute variation (Fig. 1).
Several articles have appeared in this publication in recent years dealing with the principles and ways in which the inspection of gears can be carried out, but these have dealt chiefly with spur, helical and bevel gearing, whereas worm gearing, while sharing certain common features, also requires an emphasis in certain areas that cause it to stand apart. For example, while worm gears transmit motion between nonparallel shafts, as do bevel and hypoid gears, they usually incorporate much higher ratios and are used in applications for which bevel would not be considered, including drives for rotary and indexing tables in machine tools, where close tolerance of positioning and backlash elimination are critical, and in situations where accuracy of pitch and profile are necessary for uniform transmission at speed, such as elevators, turbine governor drives and speed increasers, where worm gears can operate at up to 24,000 rpm.
Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process also improves tooth surface finish and eliminates by means of crowned tooth forms the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service.
A finite elements-based contact model is developed to predict load distribution along the spline joint interfaces; effects of spline misalignment are investigated along with intentional lead crowning of the contacting surfaces. The effects of manufacturing tooth indexing error on spline load distributions are demonstrated by using the proposed model.
Manufacturing involute gears using form grinding or form milling wheels are beneficial to hobs in some special cases, such as small scale production and, the obvious, manufacture of internal gears. To manufacture involute gears correctly the form wheel must be purpose-designed, and in this paper the geometry of the form wheel is determined through inverse calculation. A mathematical model is presented where it is possible to determine the machined gear tooth surface in three dimensions, manufactured by this tool, taking the finite number of cutting edges into account. The model is validated by comparing calculated results with the observed results of a gear manufactured by an indexable insert milling cutter.
Indexable carbide insert cutting tools for gears are nothing new. But big gears have recently become a very big business. The result is that there's been a renewed interest in carbide insert cutting tools.
News Items About index
1 BIG Kaiser Precision Toolings New Indexable Drill Design Provides Deeper Boring Depth (February 19, 2007)
BIG Kaiser Precision Tooling introduces its newest indexable insert drills. According to the companys press release, the new de... Read News
2 Surface Finish Gage Indexes, Measures Multiple Small Parts (July 24, 2008)
Mahr Federal Inc. introduces a surface finish gage designed to index and measure numerous small parts, such as gears, fuel injector comp... Read News
3 Slater Tools Indexable Punch Broach Tooling Offers Simple Setup to Machine Numerous Shapes on Presses and CNC Machines (November 30, 2017)
Slater Tools announces its range of indexable punch broaches and holders to machine shapes in workpieces where rotary broaching may not b... Read News
4 Walter Wear-Optimization App Decreases Wear on Indexable-Inserts and Round-Tools (May 10, 2016)
A new Walter app, which works on all current mobile devices and operating systems, enables users to identify all specific forms of wear o... Read News
5 INDEX Releases Six-Spindle CNC Bar/Chucker (October 7, 2010)
INDEX Corporation's MS52 six-spindle CNC Bar/Chucker with 52 mm/2-inch bar capacity and 100 mm/4-inch chuck capacity brings productiv... Read News
6 Index Introduces Multi-Spindle CNC Lathe (August 19, 2011)
The new Index MS40P CNC multi-spindle automatic lathe includes a quillstock with six tool carriers and one counter spindle opposite the m... Read News
7 Index Introduces Multi-Spindle Lathe (December 22, 2011)
Index recently introduced the new MS22C-8, from its Multiline series. The new modular eight-spindle machine opens up additional opportuni... Read News
8 Index Releases Turning Milling Center (May 14, 2012)
Index Corporation, IMTS Booth S-8450, will introduce a new concept machine tool featuring two independent 5-axis subsystems, each with on... Read News
9 IMTS Preview: Index Traub (June 24, 2014)
The new Index G220 Turn-Mill Center includes a motorized five-axis milling spindle and a tool turret with Y-axis, providing maximum machi... Read News
10 Walter Introduces New Indexable Insert Cartridges (January 26, 2015)
Walter, a producer of precision cutting tools for milling, drilling, turning, boring and specialized tools, recently introduced... Read News
11 Index to Demonstrate Modular Eight-spindle Automatic CNC Turning Machine at PMTS 2015 (March 6, 2015)
Index will demonstrate its MS22C-8, a modular eight-spindle automatic CNC turning machine, producing brass connector parts at PMTS 2015, ... Read News
12 INDEX Invests in Leitz CMM (May 18, 2015)
INDEX Corporation recently took delivery of a Leitz CMM (coordinate measuring machine) Model PMM XI for its metrology lab. The machine wi... Read News
13 Index 'Bevel Gear Hobbing Package' Produces Gears With Tooth Height in a Module Range of 0.6 to 4 mm (July 17, 2015)
Index recently developed a “bevel gear hobbing” package, which consists of a control cycle and four Index cutter heads with m... Read News
14 Index New CNC Multi-Spindle Lathe MS16 Plus Has a Total of 27 NC Axes (November 3, 2015)
Designed to supplant cam-controlled multi-spindle lathes up to 22 mm bar diameter, the new Index MS16 Plus of the Index MultiLine series ... Read News
15 Index Announces Next-Generation Multi-Spindle Automatic Lathe (February 14, 2020)
Index has announced the launch of its next generation MS32-6 multi-spindle automatic lathe. This newest version of the six-spindle mach... Read News
16 Index Hires Service Manager (October 30, 2019)
Index has announced the hiring of Matt Voyles for the role of service manager. In his position, Voyles will be responsible for overseeing... Read News
17 Kennametal Mill 4-11 Indexable Shoulder Mill Designed for Smooth Cuts with Small Machining Centers (October 21, 2016)
Two years ago, Kennametal introduced a double-sided 90 degrees milling platform that eliminates this issue while providing manufacturers ... Read News
18 Index ABC Automatic Lathe Offers 15 Percent Faster Cycle Times (November 1, 2016)
The dynamic new generation of the ABC machine is ideal for turning out simple to moderately complex parts in cycle times up to ... Read News
19 Index G200 Turn-Mill Center Redesigned to Include XPanel i4.0 Technology (December 22, 2016)
Index has developed a new generation of its turn-mill center G200, a compact machine offering significantly higher performance - potentia... Read News
20 IMTS 2018 Preview: Index Corporation (June 11, 2018)
Index will introduce to North America at IMTS 2018, Booth338136, its MS40-8 multispindle automatic with 8 CNC spindles, two back-workin... Read News
21 IMTS 2018: Index Corporation (August 9, 2018)
Index (Booth S-338136) will introduce its MS40-8 multispindle automatic lathe with 8 CNC spindles, two back-working spindles for rear-end... Read News
22 Index Significantly Expands North America Team (November 14, 2018)
Index has announced the hiring of 15 new employees over the past five months, with 12 of those filling newly created positions. Represent... Read News
23 Index Provides Single-Setup Machining of Large Parts with G420 Turn-Mill Center (January 29, 2019)
Index has announced the launch of its new G420 turn-mill center. The machine features identical 3,500 rpm twin spindles with 315-mm (400 ... Read News
24 Index Hires Midwest Regional Sales Manager (February 4, 2019)
Index has announced the hiring of Mark Smith as its regional sales manager for the Midwest. Smith’s territory includes Indiana, Ken... Read News
25 Index Integrates Automation Cell with Production Turning Centers (July 23, 2019)
Index has announced that the iXcenter automation cell is now available with its C Series of highly productive turning centers. Docked to ... Read News
26 CMTS 2019: Index and Mitcham Machine Tools (July 30, 2019)
At CMTS 2019, Index and Mitcham Machine Tools will be demonstrating how to increase output per operator via integrated automation and sin... Read News
27 EMO Hannover 2019: Index Corporation (August 6, 2019)
At EMO 2019, Index will be showcasing a diverse array of its highly productive turning centers, as well as focusing on the role digitaliz... Read News
28 IMTS 2016: INDEX Corp. (S-8136) (September 7, 2016)
G220 Turn-Mill CenterThe new INDEX G220 Turn-Mill Center includes a motorized 5-axis 18,000-rpm (max) milling spindle and a tool turret w... Read News