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The tooth-by-tooth, submerged induction hardening process for gear tooth surface hardening has been successfully performed at David Brown for more than 30 years. That experience - backed up by in-depth research and development - has given David Brown engineers a much greater understanding of, and confidence in, the results obtainable from the process. Also, field experience and refinement of gear design and manufacturing procedures to accommodate the induction hardening process now ensure that gears so treated are of guaranteed quality.
In the typical gear production facility, machining of gear teeth is followed by hear treatment to harden them. The hardening process often distorts the gear teeth, resulting in reduced and generally variable quality. Heat treating gears can involve many different types of operations, which all have the common purpose of producing a microstructure with certain optimum properties. Dual frequency induction hardening grew from the need to reduce cost while improving the accuracy (minimizing the distortion) of two selective hardening processes: single tooth induction and selective carburizing.
In recent years, there has been significant interest in expanding the use of induction hardening in gear manufacturing operations. Over the past several years, many of the limits to induction hardening have shrunk, thanks to recent advances in technology, materials and processing techniques.
Many potential problems are not apparent when using new induction heat treating systems. The operator has been trained properly, and setup parameters are already developed. Everything is fresh in one's mind. But as the equipment ages, personnel changes or new parts are required to be processed on the old equipment ages, personnel changes or new parts are required to b processed on the old equipment, important information can get lost in the shuffle.
Part I, which was published in the September/October 2008 issue, covered gear materials, desired microstructure, coil design and tooth-by-tooth induction hardening. Part II covers spin hardening and various heating concepts used with it.
Contact fatigue and bending fatigue are two main failure modes of steel gears, while surface pitting and spalling are two common contact fatigue failures -- caused by alternating subsurface shear stresses from the contact load between two gear mates. And when a gear is in service under cyclic load, concentrated bending stresses exist at the root fillet -- the main driver of bending fatigue failures. Induction hardening is becoming an increasingly popular response to these problems, due to its process consistency, reduced energy consumption, clean environment and improved product quality -- but not without issues of its own (irregular residual stresses and bending fatigue). Thus a new approach is proposed here that flexibly controls the magnitude of residual stress in the regions of root fillet and tooth flank by pre-heating prior to induction hardening. Using an external spur gear made of AISI 4340 as an example, this new concept/process is demonstrated using finite element modeling and DANTE commercial software.
This paper examines the expanding capabilities of induction hardening of gears through methods like spin hardening or tooth-by-tooth techniques.
So, you've been assigned the task to buy an induction heating system for heat treating: It's an intimidating, but by no means impossible, assignment. With the help of the information in this article, you could be able to develop common ground with your supplier and have the tools to work with him or her to get the right machine for your jobs.
Induction hardening is widely used in both the automotive and aerospace gear industries to minimize heat treat distortion and obtain favorable compressive residual stresses for improved fatigue performance. The heating process during induction hardening has a significant effect on the quality of the heat-treated parts. However, the quenching process often receives less attention even though it is equally important.
This article covers preventive maintenance and modification to machinery to induction harden different types of gear.
Induction hardening is a heat treating technique that can be used to selectively harden portions of a gear, such as the flanks, roots and tips of teeth, providing improved hardness, wear resistance, and contact fatigue strength without affecting the metallurgy of the core and other parts of the component that don’t require change. This article provides an overview of the process and special considerations for heat treating gears. Part I covers gear materials, desired microsctructure, coil design and tooth-by-tooth induction hardening.
New technology from Eldec/EMAG helps control the induction hardening process.
Carburized gears have higher strengths and longer lives compared with induction-hardened or quench-tempered gears. But in big module gears, carburizing heat-treatment becomes time-consuming and expensive and sometimes cannot achieve good hardness due to the big mass-effect. Also, it is not easy to reduce distortion of gears during heat treatment.
Carburized and hardened gears have optimum load-carrying capability. There are many alternative ways to produce a hard case on the gear surface. Also, selective direct hardening has some advantages in its ability to be used in the production line, and it is claimed that performance results equivalent to a carburized gear can be obtained. This article examines the alternative ways of carburizing, nitriding, and selective direct hardening, considering equipment, comparative costs, and other factors. The objective must be to obtain the desired quality at the lowest cost.
In a very general sense, increasing the hardness of a steel gear increases the strength of the gear. However, for each process there is a limit to its effectiveness. This article contains background information on each of the processes covered. In each section what is desired and what is achievable is discussed. Typical processes are presented along with comments on variables which affect the result. By reviewing the capabilities and processes, it is possible to determine the limits to each process.
The induction hardening and tempering of gears and critical components is traditionally a hot subject in heat treating. In recent years, gear manufacturers have increased their knowledge in this technology for quality gears.
In order to increase the load carrying capacity of hardened gears, the distortion of gear teeth caused by quenching must be removed by precision cutting (skiving) and/or grinding. In the case of large gears with large modules, skiving by a carbide hob is more economical than grinding when the highest accuracy is not required.
Quality gear manufacturing depends on controlled tolerances and geometry. As a result, ferritic nitrocarburizing has become the heat treat process of choice for many gear manufacturers. The primary reasons for this are: 1. The process is performed at low temperatures, i.e. less than critical. 2. the quench methods increase fatigue strength by up to 125% without distorting. Ferritic nitrocarburizing is used in place of carburizing with conventional and induction hardening. 3. It establishes gradient base hardnesses, i.e. eliminates eggshell on TiN, TiAIN, CrC, etc. In addition, the process can also be applied to hobs, broaches, drills, and other cutting tools.
This issue, GT Extras brings you "Heat Treat and Induction Hardening of Industrial Gears," a treasure trove of heat treating related technical articles and a call for help in preparation for AGMA's 100th anniversary.
News Items About induction
1 Induction Hardening and Tempering System for Driveline Components (May 11, 2010)
Inductoheat, Inc., an induction heating equipment manufacturer, recently delivered an induction hardening and tempering system to a leadi... Read News
2 Inductoheat Ships Induction Hardening and Tempering System (December 6, 2010)
Inductoheat, Inc., a leading induction heating equipment manufacturer, recently shipped an induction hardening and tempering system to a ... Read News
3 GH IA Develops Induction Hardening Machine (May 21, 2012)
GH Induction Atmospheres (GH IA), part of the worldwide GH Group, has built an induction heating machine that hardens, tempers, and ... Read News
4 Mobile Induction Heater Treats Metal Parts (December 11, 2009)
Digimac is a compact, transportable induction heating system from GH Induction Group. It is capable of outputs up to 25 kW and 20 kHz. ... Read News
5 Induction Heating Companies Combine Sales Efforts (February 7, 2006)
Inductoheat Inc., Radyne Corp., Newelco and HIS combined their sales efforts to serve induction heating and forging customers. Accord... Read News
6 Ajax TOCCO Magnethermic Bright Annealing Induction Furnace Produces Ready-to-Ship Finish (October 26, 2016)
Ajax TOCCO Magnethermic recently shipped a bright annealing induction furnace to a major stainless steel tube manufacturer in the Northea... Read News
7 Artur Pajak named VP of EFD Induction Group (January 26, 2015)
EFD Induction Group, a maker of induction-based industrial heating solutions, recently announced the appointment of Artur Pająk... Read News
8 Ajax Tocco Ships Induction Heating Dryer System to China (January 18, 2016)
Ajax Tocco Magnethermic recently shipped a 1,900 kW/100,000 hz induction heating dryer system to a steel strip galvanizing producer in Ch... Read News
9 EMAG Eldec Modular Induction (MIND) Hardening Systems Offer Flexibility and Simplicity (December 16, 2015)
EMAG subsidiary Eldec has developed new modular induction hardening systems designed to simplify the gear hardening process and increase ... Read News
10 EMAG Eldec Induction Hardening Systems Offer Precision Hardening, Lower Power Consumption (January 15, 2016)
EMAG subsidiary Eldec has developed modular induction hardening systems. The technology ensures efficient processes that integrate harden... Read News
11 Ajax TOCCO Selling 5/10 kW TOCCOtron AC Induction Heating Systems (September 4, 2015)
Ajax TOCCO Magnethermic recently delivered 5/10 kW TOCCOtron AC induction heating systems to an international on-site heat treating firm.... Read News
12 Ajax Tocco Supplies Induction Billet Heating System (June 17, 2016)
Ajax Tocco Magnethermic recently shipped a 1,000 kW PowerZone billet heating system to LC Manufacturing, located in Lake City, MI. The 1,... Read News
13 New Scanner from Induction Tooling (February 20, 2005)
The Model No. Scan I.T-LRS36 scanner from Induction Tooling was introducted at Gear Expo 2005. According to the companys literat... Read News
14 Induction Heating Seminar Leads to Big Plans in 2008 (November 21, 2007)
The First Mexican Induction Heating and NDT seminar, held at the Plaza Camelinas Hotel in Queretaro, Mexico, featured several world-recog... Read News
15 IHEA Announces Induction Division (February 12, 2016)
The Industrial Heating Equipment Association (IHEA) is excited to announce the launch of its Induction Division which represents a very i... Read News
16 EFD Induction Awarded Orders for Induction Scanners to Harden Sun Gears and Output Shafts (May 26, 2015)
EFD Induction USA has recently won major orders from two American tier-one automotive suppliers.The orders involve EFD Induction ‘H... Read News
17 Maiorino Joins GH Induction (January 4, 2013)
GH Induction Atmospheres (GH IA), part of the worldwide GH Group, has hired a veteran sales professional to penetrate the market for its ... Read News