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Articles About measurement
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Measurement institutions of seven different countries â€” China, Germany, Japan, Thailand, Ukraine, United Kingdom and the U.S. â€” participated in the implementation of the first international comparison of involute gear measurement standards. The German metrology institute Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) was chosen as the pilot laboratory as well as the organizer. Three typical involute gear measurement standards provided by the PTB were deployed for this comparison: a profile, a helix and a pitch measurement standard. In the final analysis, of the results obtained from all participants, the weighted mean was evaluated as reference value for all 28 measured parameters. However, besides the measurement standards, the measured parameters, and, most importantly, some of the comparison results from all participants are anonymously presented. Furthermore, mishandling of the measurement standards as occurred during the comparison will be illustrated.
In today's production environment, a variety of different measurement devices is used to assess the quality and accuracy of workpieces. These devices include CMMs, gear checkers, form testers, roughness testers, and more. It requires a high machine investment and a high handling effort - especially if a full end-of-line measurement is needed. One approach to reduce quality costs is to include all measurements in one single machine that is suitable and robust enough for use in production.
During the revision of ISO 1328-1:2013 Cylindrical gears â€” ISO system of flank tolerance classification, ISO Technical Committee TC 60 WG2 delegates discussed proposals that the standard should be modified to ensure that it is compatible with the ISO Geometrical Product Specification (GPS) series of standards (Refs. 1-3). This seems sensible because the gears are geometrical components, but after reviewing the implications, it was rejected because ISO TC 60 WG2 did not think the gear manufacturing industry was ready for such a radical change in measurement strategy. The feasibility of the implementation of gears into the GPS matrix of standards has been carried out and the results conclude that this is practical, provided some key issues related to measurement uncertainty and establishing appropriate KPIs are addressed.
PTB's two microgear measurement standards and their analyses using seven measurement methods which are then presented, evaluated and compared with each other.
In comparison with the traditional gear design approach based on preselected, typically standard generating rack parameters, the Direct Gear Design method provides certain advantages for custom high-performance gear drives that include: increased load capacity, efficiency and lifetime; reduced size, weight, noise, vibrations, cost, etc. However, manufacturing such directly designed gears requires not only custom tooling, but also customization of the gear measurement methodology. This paper presents definitions of main inspection dimensions and parameters for directly designed spur and helical, external and internal gears with symmetric and asymmetric teeth.
The purpose of this article is to clarify some terms and methods used in measuring the size of gears. There is also an explanation given of the error induced and how to correct for it in certain cases when the measurement is made using pins instead of balls.
When it comes to modern gear measurement, there are still essentially two primary tools that shops use. The first is a machine dedicated solely to measuring gears, which had been the primary method for many years, until recently.
From time to time, the editors of "Shop Floor" receive correspondence from readers relating to particular articles they have written for past issues. As one of the purposes of this column is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas, we reproduce here two of these letters and their replies. The subject of the first is the functional measurement of gears. (See Gear Technology, Sept/Oct, 1991, p. 17) Robert E. Smith writes the reply.
An expression is derived, giving the optimum number of teeth over which the span measurement should be made, for profile-shifted spur and helical gears.
Klingelnberg presents the technical aspects of its roughness measurement system.
The secret to meeting today's inspection demands is influenced by the technology and those in charge of operating it.
The purpose of gear inspection is to: Assure required accuracy and quality, Lower overall cost of manufacture by controlling rejects and scrap, Control machines and machining practices and maintain produced accuracy as machines and tools wear, Determine hear treat distortions to make necessary corrections.
Anyone involved in the design, manufacture and use of gears is concerned with three general characteristics relative to their application: noise, accuracy, and strength or surface durability. In the article, we will be dealing with probably the most aggravating of the group, gear noise.
Our experts tackle the topic of measuring involute masters, including both master gears and gear inspection artifacts.
AGMA introduced ANSI/AGMA 2015â€“2â€“A06â€” Accuracy Classification System: Radial System for Cylindrical Gears, in 2006 as the first major rewrite of the double-flank accuracy standard in over 18 years. This document explains concerns related to the use of ANSI/AGMA 2015â€“2â€“A06 as an accuracy classification system and recommends a revised system that can be of more service to the gearing industry.
Several articles have appeared in this publication in recent years dealing with the principles and ways in which the inspection of gears can be carried out, but these have dealt chiefly with spur, helical and bevel gearing, whereas worm gearing, while sharing certain common features, also requires an emphasis in certain areas that cause it to stand apart. For example, while worm gears transmit motion between nonparallel shafts, as do bevel and hypoid gears, they usually incorporate much higher ratios and are used in applications for which bevel would not be considered, including drives for rotary and indexing tables in machine tools, where close tolerance of positioning and backlash elimination are critical, and in situations where accuracy of pitch and profile are necessary for uniform transmission at speed, such as elevators, turbine governor drives and speed increasers, where worm gears can operate at up to 24,000 rpm.
Good timing leads to partnership between Process Equipment and Schafer Gear.
Surface roughness measuring of gear teeth can be a very frustrating experience. Measuring results often do not correlate with any functional characteristic, and many users think that they need not bother measuring surface roughness, since the teeth are burnished in operation. They mistakenly believe that the roughness disappears in a short amount of time. This is a myth! The surface indeed is shiny, but it still has considerable roughness. In fact, tests indicate that burnishing only reduces the initial roughness by approximately 25%.
Shop floor inspection and gaging equipment is putting advanced metrology systems right on the factory floor. Hereâ€™s a collection of articles on shop floor inspection and gages from companies like Gleason, Mahr, Comtorgage, United Tool Supply and Frenco.
Could the tip chamfer that manufacturing people usually use on the tips of gear teeth be the cause of vibration in the gear set? The set in question is spur, of 2.25 DP, with 20 degrees pressure angle. The pinion has 14 teeth and the mating gear, 63 teeth. The pinion turns at 535 rpm maximum. Could a chamfer a little over 1/64" cause a vibration problem?
The first commandment for gears reads "Gears must have backlash!" When gear teeth are operated without adequate backlash, any of several problems may occur, some of which may lead to disaster. As the teeth try to force their way through mesh, excessive separating forces are created which may cause bearing failures. These same forces also produce a wedging action between the teeth with resulting high loads on the teeth. Such loads often lead to pitting and to other failures related to surface fatigue, and in some cases, bending failures.
This paper presents the results of research directed at measuring the total stress in a pair of statically loaded and carburized spur gears. Measurements were made to examine the change in total stress as a function of externally applied load and depth below the surface.
The working surfaces of gear teeth are often the result of several machining operations. The surface texture imparted by the manufacturing process affects many of the gear's functional characteristics. To ensure proper operation of the final assembly, a gear's surface texture characteristics, such as waviness and roughness, can be evaluated with modern metrology instruments.
Eliot K. Buckingham explains the procedure for proper measurement over wires for worm gears, in response to last issue's article.
Temperature Induced Dimensional Changes Temperature causes various materials to change size at different rate, known as their Coefficients of Expansion (COE). The effects of this phenomenon on precision dimensional measurements are continuous and costly to industry. Precautions can be taken to allow parts and gages to temperature stabilize before conducting gage R & R studies, but the fact remains that on the shop floor temperatures vary all the time. The slow pace at which industry has accepted this reality probably has to do with the subtlety of these tiny size variations and our inability to sense gradual, but significant temperature changes.
In 1993, M & M Precision Systems was awarded a three-year, partial grant from the Advanced Technology Program of the Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Working with Pennsylvania State University, M&M embarked on a technology development project to advance gear measurement capabilities to levels of accuracy never before achieved.
Presumably, everyone who would be interested in this subject is already somewhat familiar with testing of gears by traditional means. Three types of gear inspection are in common use: 1) measurement of gear elements and relationships, 2) tooth contact pattern checks and 3) rolling composite checks. Single Flank testing falls into this last category, as does the more familiar Double Flank test.
Germany adopts ISO 1328 standard for the measurement of gears, plus other news and announcements from around the industry.
At Andrew Tool, CMMs have been an integral part of their manufacturing processes for years, but they had never faced a project with such intricate measurements, tight tolerances, heat treatments and a very short time frame requirement.
It may not be widely recognized that most of the inspection data supplied by inspection equipment, following the practices of AGMA Standard 2015 and similar standards, are not of elemental accuracy deviations but of some form of composite deviations. This paper demonstrates the validity of this â€ścompositeâ€ť label by first defining the nature of a true elemental deviation and then, by referring to earlier literature, demonstrating how the common inspection practices for involute, lead (on helical gears), pitch, and, in some cases, total accumulated pitch, constitute composite measurements.
This article describes a new technique for the size determination of external Involute splines by using a span measuring method. It provides application performance information demonstrating how this method and its measurements correlate with the traditional spline ring gage sizing method.
There are problems in dimensional measurement that should be simple to solve with standard measuring procedures, but aren't. In such cases, using accepted practices may result in errors of hundreds of microns without any warning that something is wrong.
Question: What is functional measurement and what is the best method for getting truthful answers?
The trend toward moving coordinate measuring machines to the shop floor to become an integral part of the manufacturing operations brings real time process control within the reach of many companies. Putting measuring machines on the shop floor, however, subjects them to harsh environmental conditions. Like any measuring system, CMMs are sensitive to any ambient condition that deviates from the "perfect" conditions of the metrology lab.
Much of the information in this article has been extracted from an AGMA Technical Paper, "What Single Flank Testing Can Do For You", presented in 1984 by the author
No one (not even you and I) consistently makes parts with perfect form and dimensions, so we must be able to efficiently check size and shape at many stages in the manufacturing and assembly process to eliminate scrap and rework and improve processes and profits. Automated inspection systems, which are widely used in all kinds of manufacturing operations, provide great efficiencies in checking individual features, but may not be as effective when asked to evaluate an entire part. You need to know why this is true and what you can do to improve your part yields.
A programmable algorithm is developed to separate out the effect of eccentricity (radial runout) from elemental gear inspection date, namely, profile and lead data. This algorithm can be coded in gear inspection software to detect the existence, the magnitude and the orientation of the eccentricity without making a separate runout check. A real example shows this algorithm produces good results.
Mitutoyo offers capable, affordable and flexible gear inspection option via coordinate measuring machines and gear inspection software.
In todayâ€™s globalized manufacturing, all industrial products having dimensional constraints must undergo conformity specifications assessments on a regular basis. Consequently, (standardization) associated with GD&T (geometrical dimensioning and tolerancing) should be un-ambiguous and based on common, accepted rules. Of course gears - and their mechanical assemblies - are special items, widely present in industrial applications where energy conversion and power transmission are involved.
Revolutionary new inspection technologies are helping gear manufacturers develop and produce more complex, higher quality gears in a fraction of the time it used to take.
A reader asks: We are currently revising our gear standards and tolerances, and a few problems with the new standard AGMA 2002-C16 have arisen. Firstly, the way to calculate the tooth thickness tolerance seems to need a "manufacturing profile shift coefficient" that isn't specified in the standard; neither is another standard referred to for this coefficient. This tolerance on tooth thickness is needed later to calculate the span width as well as the pin diameter. Furthermore, there seems to be no tolerancing on the major and minor diameters of a gear.
A reader asks: We are currently revising our gear standards and tolerances and a few questions with the new standard AGMA 2002-C16 have risen. Firstly, the way to calculate the tooth thickness tolerance seems to need a "manufacturing profile shift coefficient" that isn't specified in the standard; neither is another standard referred to for this coefficient. This tolerance on tooth thickness is needed later to calculate the span width as well as the pin diameter. Furthermore, there seems to be no tolerancing on the major and minor diameters of a gear.
This article describes some of the most important tests for prototypes conducted at Winergy AG during the product development process. It will demonstrate that the measurement results on the test rig for load distribution are in accordance with the turbine measurements.
The NASA Lewis Research Center investigated the effect of tooth profile on the acoustic behavior of spur gears through experimental techniques. The tests were conducted by Cleveland State University (CSU) in NASA Lewis' spur gear testing apparatus. Acoustic intensity (AI) measurements of the apparatus were obtained using a Robotic Acoustic Intensity Measurement System (RAIMS). This system was developed by CSU for NASA to evaluate the usefulness of a highly automated acoustic intensity measurement tool in the reverberant environment of gear transmission test cells.
Until recently, there was a void in the quality control of gear manufacturing in this country (Ref. 1). Gear measurements were not traceable to the international standard of length through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The U.S. military requirement for traceability was clearly specified in the military standard MIL-STD-45662A (Ref. 2). This standard has now been replaced by commercial sector standards including ISO 9001:1994 (Ref. 3), ISO/IEC Guide 25 (Ref, 4), and the U.S. equivalent of ISO/IEC Guide 25 - ANSI/NCSL Z540-2-1997 (Ref. 5). The draft replacement to ISO/IEC Guide 25 - ISO 17025 states that measurements must either be traceable to SI units or reference to a natural constant. The implications of traceability to the U.S. gear industry are significant. In order to meet the standards, gear manufacturers must either have calibrated artifacts or establish their own traceability to SI units.
Alongside the macro test parameters on tooth flanks for profile and tooth traces, surface properties (roughness) play a decisive role in ensuring proper toothed gear function. This article addresses roughness measurement systems on tooth flanks. In addition to universal test equipment, modified test equipment based on the profile method for use on gears is addressed in particular. The equipment application here refers to cylindrical gear flanks and bevel gear flanks. The most important roughness parameters, as well as the implementation of the precise measurement procedure will also be described under consideration of the applicable DIN EN ISO standards as well as the current VDI/VDE Directive 2612 Sheet 5.
CMM Inspection vs. GMM Inspection. Speed is the name of the game.
The data discussed in this article was taken from an upright vacuum cleaner. This was a prototype cleaner that was self-propelled by a geared transmission. It was the first time that the manufacturer had used a geared transmission in this application.
Your May/June issue contains a letter from Edward Ubert of Rockwell International with some serious questions about specifying and measuring tooth thickness.
With growing markets in aerospace and energy technologies, measuring hob cutters used in gear cutting is becoming an essential requirement for workpieces and machine tools. Zoller, a provider of solutions for tool pre-setters, measuring and inspection machines and tool management software, has developed a new partnership with Ingersoll/Germany for shop floor checking of hob cutters by a combined hardware and software approach.
In response to Ed Uberts letter, we have come a long way in gearing since WWII. The Europeans do use long addendum pinions in many cases. This modification does improve load capacity, sliding conditions and the working life of a gearset. When modifying a pinion tooth it is necessary to modify the gear tooth or adjust the center distance accordingly but we will leave that to the designers.
Much information has been written on gear inspection, analytical. functional. semiautomatic and automatic. In most cases, the charts, (if you are lucky enough to have recording equipment) have been explained.
This letter is in response to your article asking the readers where their interests lie. The division of Rockwell International where I work has engineering departments in Cicero.
Question: We just received permission to purchase our first CNC gear inspection system. With capital approvals so hard to come by, especially for inspection equipment, I want to be sure to purchase a system I can count of for years to come. My past experience with purchasing CNC equipment has shown me that serviceability of the computer and the CNC controller portion of the system can be a problem in just a few years because of the obsolescence factor. What information do I need to look for when selecting a supplier to reduce the risk of obsolescence, as well as to reduce the long-term servicing costs in the computer and controls portion of the system?
The two-flank roll test measures kickout (tooth-to-tooth composite error) and tooth thickness. In this article, it will be shown that measured values vary with the number of teeth on the master gear.
Wait a minute, we don't measure pitch diameter. We're sometimes asked to measure it by customers, though, especially ones with older drawings.
The presence of significant errors in the two-flank roll test (a work gear rolled in tight mesh against a master gear) is well-known, but generally overlooked.
The status on traceability of gear artifacts in the United States.
Klingelnberg measuring centers eliminate trial-and-error with modern analysis tools.
Investment in Gleason GMM Series inspection equipment helps drive Milwaukee Gear's expansion into profitable new markets around the worldâ€”all hungry for high-precision custom gears and gear drives.
Xspect Solutions Provides Wenzel Bridge-Type CMM Equipped with OpenDMIS Software for Basic Gear Measuring Capability with CMM Flexibility.
Transmission error (TE) is recognized as one of the most important causes of gear acoustic emissions...
A new inspection method has several advantages over traditional methods, especially for very large or very small gears.
Our experts discuss runout and helix accuracy, as well as the maximum number of teeth in a shaper cutter.
When parts you manufacture pass through numerous processes such as deep hole drilling, machining, hobbing and grinding, a CMM is essential when your customers require 100 percent in-process and final inspection.
Quality gear inspection means doing the "right" inspections "right." A lot of time and money can be spent doing the wrong types of inspections related to function and doing them incorrectly. As we will discover later, such things as runout can creep into the manufacturing and inspection process and completely ruin any piece of data that is taken. this is one of the most important problems to control for quality inspection.
Metrology is a vital component of gear manufacturing. Recent changes in this area, due in large part to the advent of computers, are highlighted in this article by comparison with more traditional methods.
Runout is a troublemaker! Good shop practice for the manufacture or inspection of gears requires the control of runout. Runout is a characteristic of gear quality that results in an effective center distance variation. As long as the runout doesn't cause loss of backlash, it won't hurt the function of the gear, which is to transmit smooth motion under load from one shaft to another. However, runout does result in accumulated pitch variation, and this causes non-uniform motion, which does affect the function of the gears. Runout is a radial phenomenon, while accumulated pitch variation is a tangential characteristic that causes transmission error. Gears function tangentially. It is also possible to have a gear with accumulated pitch variation, but little or no runout.
This section will deal with the use of gear inspection for diagnostic purposes rather than quality determination. The proper evaluation of various characteristics in the data can be useful for the solution of quality problems. It is important to sort out whether the problem is coming from the machine, tooling and/or cutters, blanks, etc. An article by Robert Moderow in the May/June 1985 issue of Gear Technology is very useful for this purpose.
How well you conduct your inspections can be the difference-maker for securing high-value contracts from your customers. And as with most other segments of the gear industry, inspection continues striving to attain â€śexact scienceâ€ť status. With that thought in mind, following is a look at the state of gear inspection and what rigorous inspection practices deliver—quality.
A reader clarifies technology presented in the March/April 2011 issue.
Gleason's GMS analytical gear inspection systems provide all the right features at Eaton Corp.
Gear manufacturing schedules that provide both quality and economy are dependent on efficient quality control techniques with reliable measuring equipment. Given the multitude of possible gear deviations, which can be found only by systematic and detailed measuring of the gear teeth, adequate quality control systems are needed. This is especially true for large gears, on which remachining or rejected workpieces create very high costs. First, observation of the gears allows adjustment of the settings on the equipment right at the beginning of the process and helps to avoid unproductive working cycles. Second, the knowledge of deviations produced on the workpiece helps disclose chance inadequacies on the production side: e.g., faults in the machines and tools used, and provides an opportunity to remedy them.
It has previously been demonstrated that one gear of an interchangeable series will rotate with another gear of the same series with proper tooth action. It is, therefore, evident that a tooth curve driven in unison with a mating blank, will "generate" in the latter the proper tooth curve to mesh with itself.
Meeting the many challenges of large gear inspection.
In this article, the focus is put on one technology, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and more specifically, residual stress measurement by way of XRD for both process development and quality control.
The traditional way of controlling the quality of hypoid gears' tooth flank form is to check the tooth flank contact patterns. But it is not easy to exactly judge the tooth flank form quality by the contact pattern. In recent years, it has become possible to accurately measure the tooth flank form of hypoid gears by the point-to-point measuring method and the scanning measuring method. But the uses of measured data of the tooth flank form for hypoid gears have not yet been well developed in comparison with cylindrical involute gears. In this paper, the tooth flank form measurement of generated face-milled gears, face-hobbed gears and formulate/generated gears are reported. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of scanning and point-to-point measuring of 3-D tooth flank forms of hypoid gears and introduce some examples of uses of measured data for high-quality production and performance prediction.
This paper outlines the comparison of efficiencies for worm gearboxes with a center distance ranging from 28 - 150 mm that have single reduction from 5 to 100:1. Efficiencies are calculated using several standards (AGMA, ISO, DIN, BS) or by methods defined in other bibliographic references. It also deals with the measurement of torque and temperature on a test rig — required for the calibration of an analytical model to predict worm gearbox efficiency and temperature. And finally, there are examples of experimental activity (wear and friction measurements on a blockon- ring tribometer and the measurements of dynamic viscosity) regarding the effort of improving the efficiency for worm gear drivers by adding nanoparticles of fullerene shape to standard PEG lubricant
Designing a gear set implies a considerable effort in the determination of the geometry that fulfills the requirements of load capacity, reliability, durability, size, etc. When the objective is to design a new set of gears, there are many alternatives for the design, and the designer has the freedom to choose among them. Reverse engineering implies an even bigger challenge to the designer, because the problem involves already manufactured gears whose geometry is generally unknown. In this case, the designer needs to know the exact geometry of the actual gears in order to have a reference for the design.
The oil-off (also known as loss-of-lubrication or oil-out) performance evaluation of gears is of significant interest to the Department of Defense and various rotorcraft manufacturers, so that the aircraft can safely land in an accidental loss-of-lubricant situation. However, unlike typical gear failure modes such as pitting or bending fatigue where early detection is possible, gear failure in an oil-off situation is very rapid and likely catastrophic. Failures rapidly result in the loss of torque transmission and the inability to control the aircraft.
Throughout the history of civilization attempts have been made to limit the number of the measuring systems in use with the result that today only two systems, English and metric, are practiced in the industrial nations. Globally, the metric system has been gaining ground, and the English system has been losing it. As of 1986, only the United States, Burma and Brunei remain uncommitted to metric conversion in the sense that no government controlled deadlines for the conversion have been established.
A trial test of the calibration procedures outlined in ISO 18653â€”Gears: Evaluation of Instruments for the Measurement of Individual Gears, shows that the results are reasonable, but a minor change to the uncertainty formula is recommended. Gear measuring machine calibration methods are reviewed. The benefits of using workpiece-like artifacts are discussed, and a procedure for implementing the standard in the workplace is presented. Problems with applying the standard to large gear measuring machines are considered and some recommendations offered.
Developed here is a new method to automatically find the optimal topological modification from the predetermined measurement grid points for bevel gears. Employing this method enables the duplication of any flank form of a bevel gear given by the measurement points and the creation of a 3-D model for CAM machining in a very short time. This method not only allows the user to model existing flank forms into 3-D models, but also can be applied for various other purposes, such as compensating for hardening distortions and manufacturing deviations which are very important issues but not yet solved in the practical milling process.
The purpose of this article is to describe an analytical method free of the drawbacks mentioned above and providing absolutely reliable results.
Part I of this paper describes the theory behind double-flank composite inspection, detailing the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. Part II, which will appear in the next issue, includes a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection, especially for large-volume operations. Part II covers statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.
With the ongoing push towards electric vehicles (EVs), there is likely to be increasing focus on the noise impact of the gearing required for the transmission of power from the (high-speed) electric motor to the road. Understanding automotive noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) and methodologies for total in-vehicle noise presupposes relatively large, internal combustion (IC) contributions, compared to gear noise. Further, it may be advantageous to run the electric motors at significantly higher rotational speed than conventional automotive IC engines, sending geartrains into yet higher speed ranges. Thus the move to EV or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) places greater or different demands on geartrain noise. This work combines both a traditional NVH approach (in-vehicle and rig noise, waterfall plots, Campbell diagrams and Fourier analysis) - with highly detailed transmission error measurement and simulation of the complete drivetrain - to fully understand noise sources within an EV hub drive. A detailed methodology is presented, combining both a full series of tests and advanced simulation to troubleshoot and optimize an EV hub drive for noise reduction.
I have heard that X-ray diffraction does not tell the whole story and that I should really run a fatigue test. I understand this may be the best way, but is there another method that gives a high degree of confidence in the residual stress measurement?
Part I of this paper, which appeared in the January/February issue of Gear Technology, described the theory behind double-flank composite inspection. It detailed the apparatus used, the various measurements that can be achieved using it, the calculations involved and their interpretation. The concluding Part II presents a discussion of the practical application of double-flank composite inspection -- especially for large-volume operations. It also addresses statistical techniques that can be used in conjunction with double-flank composite inspection, as well as an in-depth analysis of gage R&R for this technique.
simplified equations for backlash and roll test center distance are derived. Unknown errors in measured tooth thickness are investigate. Master gear design is outlined, and an alternative to the master gear method is described. Defects in the test radius method are enumerated. Procedures for calculating backlash and for preventing significant errors in measurement are presented.
One of the best ways to learn the ISO 6336 gear rating system is to recalculate the capacity of a few existing designs and to compare the ISO 6336 calculated capacity to your experience with those designs and to other rating methods. For these articles, I'll assume that you have a copy of ISO 6336, you have chosen a design for which you have manufacturing drawings and an existing gear capacity calculation according to AGMA 2001 or another method. I'll also assume that you have converted dimensions, loads, etc. into the SI system of measurement.
In recent years, gear inspection requirements have changed considerably, but inspection methods have barely kept pace. The gap is especially noticeable in bevel gears, whose geometry has always made testing them a complicated, expensive and time-consuming process. Present roll test methods for determining flank form and quality of gear sets are hardly applicable to bevel gears at all, and the time, expense and sophistication required for coordinate measurement has limited its use to gear development, with only sampling occurring during production.
Surface measurement of any metal gear tooth contact surface will indicate some degree of peaks and valleys. When gears are placed in mesh, irregular contact surfaces are brought together in the typical combination of rolling and sliding motion. The surface peaks, or asperities, of one tooth randomly contact the asperities of the mating tooth. Under the right conditions, the asperities form momentary welds that are broken off as the gear tooth action continues. Increased friction and higher temperatures, plus wear debris introduced into the system are the result of this action.
A much-used method for checking the tooth thickness of an involute gear tooth is to measure the dimension over two balls placed in most nearly opposite spaces in the case of external gears, and the dimension between the balls in the case of internal gears. This measurement is then checked against a pre-calculated dimension to denote an acceptable part.
The quality of molded plastic gears is typically judged by dimensional feature measurements only. This practice overlooks potential deficiencies in the molding process.
Non-uniform gear wear changes gear topology and affects the noise performance of a hypoid gear set. The aggregate results under certain vehicle driving conditions could potentially result in unacceptable vehicle noise performance in a short period of time. This paper presents the effects of gear surface parameters on gear wear and the measurement/testing methods used to quantify the flank wear in laboratory tests.
One of the major problems of plastic gear design is the knowledge of their running temperature. Of special interest is the bulk temperature of the tooth to predict the fatigue life, and the peak temperature on the surface of the tooth to avert surface failure. This paper presents the results of an experimental method that uses an infrared radiometer to measure the temperature variation along the profile of a plastic gear tooth in operation. Measurements are made on 5.08, 3.17, 2.54, 2.12 mm module hob cut gears made from nylon 6-6, acetal and UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene). All the tests are made on a four square testing rig with thermoplastic/steel gear pairs where the plastic gear is the driver. Maximum temperature prediction curves obtained through statistical analysis of the results are presented and compared to data available from literature.
News Items About measurement
1 Kapp Niles Metrology Offers Roughness Measurement (March 18, 2021)
Discover the option of roughness measurement from Kapp Niles Metrology for determining surface roughness of gear teeth. The tactile measu... Read News
2 Mahr Custom RPM Gage Designed for Dynamic Measurement of Cylindrical Parts (January 31, 2017)
The MarSolutions team at Mahr Federal has developed a customized RPM gage for the dynamic measurement of cylindrical parts such as commut... Read News
3 Mahr Federal's UD 120 Generates Measurements in Single Pass (July 1, 2010)
The new MarSurf UD 120 from Mahr Federal can generate both surface and contour measurements in a single pass. Designed for economy, the s... Read News
4 Sensor Allows Fully Automated Measurement on CMMs (August 18, 2011)
Renishaw has added a new probe option to its revolutionary Revo five-axis measurement system, which for the first time, allows surfa... Read News
5 Gleason Demonstrates Gear Measurement Technology at Control 2013 (May 10, 2013)
Gleason Metrology Systems will demonstrate their latest advances in gear measurement technology at Control 2013, May 14-17 in Stuttgart, ... Read News
6 CAS DataLoggers Offers Vibration Measurement System (May 28, 2020)
The Delphin vibration measurement system is highly accurate because it captures vibration frequencies, phase changes and amplitudes befor... Read News
7 Mitutoyo Quick Vision Active CNC Vision Measurement System Offers Interchangeable Objective Zoom Lenses (July 1, 2016)
Mitutoyo America Corporation has announced the addition of the Quick Vision Active series to the line-up of vision measurement systems. T... Read News
8 New Gear Measurement Software from Wilcox (January 28, 2004)
The PC-DMIS gear measuring software from Wilcox is designed for any CMM. The software is an alternative to dedicated gear measurement... Read News
9 Mahr Offers MarSurf GD Series for Roughness Measurements (April 3, 2019)
Mahr Inc. has announced the addition of the MarSurf GD series for roughness measurements to its new line of surface measuring instruments... Read News
10 API Offers Robot Performance Measurement and Calibration Solution (November 23, 2018)
Laser measurement technology company, API, announces the launch of a Laser Tracker based industrial robot performance and calibration sol... Read News
11 LK Metrology Launches New CMM Measurement Services Department (January 28, 2020)
Located in their new North American Tech Center, LK Metrology has built a new CMM measurement services department for performing contract... Read News
12 Starrett Digital Gages Offer Diverse Force Measurements (October 12, 2018)
The L.S. Starrett Co. has introduced its DFC and DFG Series of Digital Handheld Force Gages. Depending on the series, advanced automati... Read News
13 Mitutoyo Releases Hand-Held Measurement Tool (February 3, 2012)
Mitutoyo America Corporation announces availability of its new, High-Accuracy Digimatic Digital Micrometer, the first micrometer to offer... Read News
14 Mahr Federal Unveils Larger and More Flexible Measurement System (January 6, 2006)
The new MarForm MMQ 400 Formtester from Mahr Federal is a ground-up redesign which is more robust, less sensitive to environmental influe... Read News
15 GKS Inspection Systems Expands In-House Measurement Capabilities (January 18, 2006)
GKS Inspection Services, Inc., a division of Laser Design, Inc., has expanded its Detroit-area dimensional inspec... Read News
16 Marposs Introduces Bluetooth Measurement Products (April 2, 2006)
Marposs Corp. will introduce its Merlin gage computer-based embedded technology and M1 Wave electronic bore gage containing Bluetooth wir... Read News
17 Faro Unveils Advanced Portable Computer-Aided Measurement Arm (November 2, 2007)
Faro Technologies Inc. recently announced the release of the Quantum FaroArm—the first eight-foot arm proven to measure accurately ... Read News
18 alpha & Wittenstein Increase Measurement Accuracy (February 18, 2008)
New sensor technology from alpha & Wittenstein integrates torque and force sensors into the housing of servo gear reducers, enabling ... Read News
19 Touch Trigger Probe Increases Measurement Throughput (June 2, 2010)
Renishaw's new PH20 probe head increases touch-trigger CMM inspection throughput up to three times using fast, infinite, rotary posit... Read News
20 Heidenhain Metrology Unit Offers Reliable Basic Measurement of 1D Values (May 19, 2020)
With its rugged industrial design, Heidenhain’s new shop-floor hardened Gage-Chek 2000 evaluation electronics box is now available.... Read News
21 Adams Company Invests in Gear Measurement System (October 7, 2010)
The Adams Company, a custom manufacturer of bevel, helical, spur, worm gears and shafts, are continuing to acquire the latest equipm... Read News
22 VAST Increases Measurement Performance (November 22, 2010)
Carl Zeiss recently introduced VAST Performance scanning. The new VAST Performance Kit is optionally available for the PRISMO, CenterMax ... Read News
23 MarCheck Offers Reliable Measurements (January 13, 2011)
Mahr Federal has introduced a new MarCheck measuring and evaluation unit for its high precision Linear 100 universal length measuring ins... Read News
24 Sunnen Bore Gages Offer Precise Hole Measurement (November 29, 2012)
Sunnen's PG Bore Gages take an intuitive approach to hole gaging with a mechanical design and speedometer-type scale for quick visual... Read News
25 Jenoptik Wavemore System Offers High-Accuracy Measurement (May 1, 2012)
The new Jenoptik Wavemove automated surface roughness and contour measuring system includes up to seven CNC axes for complete high-accura... Read News
26 Jenoptik Industrial Metrology Hommel-Etamic Wavemove Measuring Station Features Eight-Axis CNC Measurement Technology (November 7, 2017)
The Jenoptik Industrial Metrology division offers a fully automated measuring station which can be operated directly by staff on the prod... Read News
27 API Acquires Exact Laser Measurements (July 22, 2019)
Automated Precision, Inc (API) has announced the acquisition of Exact Laser Measurements, a leading provider of portable metrology servic... Read News
28 Mitutoyo LEGEX 4 CNC Machine Provides High-Accuracy Measurements (July 6, 2015)
Mitutoyo America Corporation recently released the latest LEGEX CNC coordinate measuring machine (CMM). The LEGEX 4 delivers accuracy in ... Read News
29 Hexagon Offers Latest ROMER Absolute Arm for High-End 3D Measurements (January 21, 2016)
Hexagon Manufacturing Intelligence announced its new, top-of-the-line addition to the ROMER Absolute Arm portable coordinate measuring ma... Read News
30 Klingelnberg Offers Complete Measurement of Complex Components (May 31, 2019)
Whether turning blanks, ground workpieces, or rolling bearings – Klingelnberg Precision Measuring Centers of G variant – the ... Read News
31 Mitutoyo America 519 Series Mu-Checker Probes and Displays Allow Multi-Point Measurements of Small Parts (July 21, 2016)
Mitutoyo America Corporation introduces the 519 Series of high-accuracy Mu-Checker probes and displays. These electronic gaging systems a... Read News
32 Phase II Ultrasonic Hardness Tester Provides Portable Measurement of Both Hard and Soft Metals (August 2, 2016)
This handheld device allows the measure of hardness on small, large, flat, round, thin or thick workpieces. This rugged metal body unit i... Read News
33 Marposs Optoquick 3.0 High Precision Gage Delivers Both Tactile and Optical Measurement Technology in One Package (February 23, 2017)
Marposs announces the introduction of Optoquick 3.0, its latest addition to the industrial gauging solutions portfolio. Optoquick is a hi... Read News
34 Gleason Inspection System Offers Key Measurements on Single Platform (April 11, 2017)
Gleason Corporation’s new 300GMSL Multi-Sensor Gear Inspection System will have its European première at the Control Show in... Read News
35 Mahr Federal Depth Gaging Equipment Provide Wireless Data Transmission to Expedite Measurement Process (May 31, 2017)
Mahr Federal expands its line of wireless gaging products to include a range of depth gaging products. Digital Depth Gage MarCal 30 EWR, ... Read News
36 Coordinate Metrology Society Holds Portable Measurement Technology Conference (August 18, 2017)
The Coordinate Metrology Society (CMS) oversaw the 2017 Coordinate Metrology Society Conference (CMSC) in Snowbird, Utah, hosted hundreds... Read News
37 Mahr Inc. MarOpto MT 100 Fizeau Interferometer Towers Offers In-Production Measurement Solution (November 6, 2017)
Mahr Inc. has introduced the MarOpto MT 100, the first in a new series of Fizeau interferometer towers for measuring optics directly in p... Read News
38 Mahr Federal System Generates Single Pass Surface and Contour Measurements (January 25, 2016)
Mahr Federal has introduced a new "entry level" surface finish and contour measuring system that can generate both surface and ... Read News