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Webinar: NASA's Lubrication-Free Precision Gear Technology Brought to Earth

Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) is the next generation of alloys for precision gears. Please join us as Amorphology provides a rare glimpse into the specialized world of BMG (aka amorphous metal) development for terrestrial applications - focusing on precision gears and complex metal components. Article Courtesy of Amorphology
www.geartechnology.com/sc/lubrication-free-precision-gears/

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1 Powder Metal Gear Design and Inspection (September/October 1996)

Powder metallurgy (P/M) is a precision metal forming technology for the manufacture of parts to net or near-net shape, and it is particularly well-suited to the production of gears. Spur, bevel and helical gears all may be made by made by powder metallurgy processing.

2 Metallurgical Aspects to be Considered in Gear and Shaft Design (March/April 1999)

In his Handbook of Gear Design (Ref.1), Dudley states (or understates): "The best gear people around the world are now coming to realize that metallurgical quality is just as important as geometric quality." Geometric accuracy without metallurgical integrity in any highly stressed gear or shaft would only result in wasted effort for all concerned - the gear designer, the manufacturer, and the customer - as the component's life cycle would be prematurely cut short. A carburized automotive gear or shaft with the wrong surface hardness, case depth or core hardness may not even complete its basic warranty period before failing totally at considerable expense and loss of prestige for the producer and the customer. The unexpected early failure of a large industrial gear or shaft in a coal mine or mill could result in lost production and income while the machine is down since replacement components may not be readily available. Fortunately, this scenario is not common. Most reputable gear and shaft manufacturers around the world would never neglect the metallurgical quality of their products.

3 The Beginner's Guide to Powder Metal Gears (September/October 1995)

Increasingly gear designers and product engineers are capitalizing on the economic advantages of powder metallurgy (P/M) for new and existing gear applications. Powder metal gears are found in automobiles, outdoor power equipment transmissions and office machinery applications as well as power hand tools, appliances and medial components.

4 Automotive Transmission Design Using Full Potential of Powder Metal (August 2013)

For metal replacement with powder metal (PM) of an automotive transmission, PM gear design differs from its wrought counterpart. Indeed, complete reverse-engineering and re-design is required so to better understand and document the performance parameters of solid-steel vs. PM gears. Presented here is a re-design (re-building a 6-speed manual transmission for an Opel Insignia 4-cylinder, turbocharged 2-liter engine delivering 220 hp/320 N-m) showing that substituting a different microgeometry of the PM gear teeth -- coupled with lower Young’s modulus -- theoretically enhances performance when compared to the solid-steel design.

5 Powder Metal Through the Process Steps (September/October 2018)

Powder metal (PM) gears normally sell due to the lower cost and their relatively high mechanical performance. The reason behind the lower cost is that most of the machining is omitted due to the net-shape forming process. So how net-shape are powder metal gears? In this article some hard-to-find information about the tolerances through the manufacturing steps will be presented.

6 Powder Metal Magic (August 2012)

Capstan Atlantic, located in Wrentham, Massachusetts, produces powder metal gears, sprockets and complex structural components. The company has provided unique powder metal products in a variety of industries including automotive, business machines, appliances, lawn and garden equipment and recreational vehicles.

7 Powder Metallurgy Innovations (September/October 1999)

Powder metal. To gear makers today, the phrase conjures images of low power applications in non-critical systems. As powder metal technology advances, as the materials increase in density and strength, such opinions are changing. It is an ongoing, evolutionary process and one that will continue for some time. According to Donald G. White, the executive director of the Metal Powder Industries Federation, in his State-of-the-P/M Industry - 1999 report. "The P/M world is changing rapidly and P/M needs to be recognized as a world-class process - national, continental and even human barriers and prejudices must be eliminated - we must join forces as a world process - unified in approach and goals."

8 What's New and Noteworthy in Powder Metal (September/October 2017)

First, the facts: powder metallurgy is a cost-effective method of forming precision net-shape metal components that allows for more efficiently designed products. It saves valuable raw materials through recycling and the elimination of costly secondary-machining. PM competes with wrought steel gears as the technology continues to advance. You'll find PM components in everything from automobile transmissions to aircraft turbine engines, surgical equipment and power tools.

9 Heat Treat and Metal Education Opportunities (March/April 2021)

AGMA and ASM International offer a diverse range of steel, metallurgy and heat treat courses both in-person and virtually in 2021.

10 Suitability of High Density Powder Metal Gears for Gear Applications (January/February 2001)

The implementation of powder metal (PM)components in automotive applications increases continuously, in particular for more highly loaded gear components like synchromesh mechanisms. Porosity and frequently inadequate material properties of PM materials currently rule out PM for automobile gears that are subject to high loads. By increasing the density of the sintered gears, the mechanical properties are improved. New and optimized materials designed to allow the production of high-density PM gears by single sintering may change the situation in the future.

11 AGMA & MPIF Develop Standards, Information Sheet for Powder Metal Gears (September/October 1996)

AGMA and members of the Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) are three years into a joint project to develop specifications and an information sheet on rating powder metal gears. According to committee vice chairman Glen A. Moore of Burgess-Norton Mfg. Co., the first phase of the project, the publication of AGMA Standard "6009-AXX, Specifications for Powder Metallurgy Gears," should be completed in late 1996 or early 1997.

12 Comparison of Surface Durability & Dynamic Performance of Powder Metal & Steel Gears (September/October 1995)

Surface-hardened, sintered powder metal gears are increasingly used in power transmissions to reduce the cost of gear production. One important problem is how to design with surface durability, given the porous nature of sintered gears. Many articles have been written about mechanical characteristics, such as tensile and bending strength, of sintered materials, and it is well-known that the pores existing on and below their surfaces affect their characteristics (Refs. 1-3). Power transmission gears are frequently employed under conditions of high speed and high load, and tooth surfaces are in contact with each other under a sliding-rolling contact condition. Therefore it is necessary to consider not only their mechanical, but also their tribological characteristics when designing sintered gears for surface durability.

13 Wear Investigation of Finish Rolled Powder Metal Gears (September/October 2017)

When manufacturing powder metal (PM) gears lead crowning is not achievable in the compaction process. This has to be accomplished either by shaving, grinding or honing. Each of these processes has their merits and draw backs. When employing rolling using a roll burnishing machine lead crowning can be accomplished but due to errors in profile a hard finishing operation such as grinding is used by the industry. In this paper a helical PM gear that has sufficient tolerance class after rolling has been tested in a test rig for durability and the wear has been studied.

14 High Performance Gears Using Powder Metallurgy (PM) Technology (November/December 2004)

Powder metallurgy (P/M) techniques have proven successful in displacing many components within the automobile drive train, such as: connecting rods, carriers, main bearing caps, etc. The reason for P/M’s success is its ability to offer the design engineer the required mechanical properties with reduced component cost.

15 Material Selection and Heat Treatment Part II Metalurgical Characteristics (September/October 1985)

The approximate tensile strength of any steel is measured by its hardness, Table 1. Since hardness is determined by both chemical composition and heat treatment, these are the two important metallurgical considerations in selecting gear steels.

16 The Powder Metal Method (June 2008)

Despite economic uncertainty, the future looks promising for PM Gears.

17 Metallurgical Investigation of Tiger Stripes on a Carburized High Speed Pinion (May 2014)

Tiger stripes on a high-speed pinion made of a carburized SAE 9310 steel were investigated. The morphology of the damage was typical of electric discharge damage. The cause of the stripes and potential damage to the gear tooth were analyzed and are presented in this report.

18 Tooth Root Optimization of Powder Metal Gears - Reducing Stress from Bending and Transient Loads (June/July 2013)

This paper will provide examples of stress levels from conventional root design using a hob and stress levels using an optimized root design that is now possible with PM manufacturing. The paper will also investigate how PM can reduce stresses in the root from transient loads generated by abusive driving.

19 2020 Powder Metal Trends (August 2020)

20/20 is considered to be perfect vision, but the year 2020 outlook is quite obscure. We can view the current state of the PM industry through short-term, fear-tinted glasses or gain a clearer picture of long-range opportunities. Just like U.S. manufacturing in general, the PM industry has been impacted negatively by the pandemic.

20 Influence of the Contact Conditions in Cold Rolling on the Density Profile of Powder Metallurgical (PM) Gears (June 2020)

Due to production by pressing and sintering, PM gears are porous. Since pores reduce the loaded area and are also probable crack initiators, the porosity determines the strength of the PM component. PM gears can be densified to increase their local density and, therefore, the load-carrying capacity. PM gears are compacted locally since they are mainly loaded directly at the surface. A common process to densify PM gears locally is the cold rolling process. The contact conditions in the cold rolling process determine the density profile and, therefore, the material properties of the PM component. The influence of the contact conditions in cold rolling of PM gears on the resulting density profile is yet to be investigated.

21 Utilization of Powder Metal and Shot Peening Residual Stress to Maximize Cost and Performance Benefit of Highly Loaded Gearing (November/December 2005)

This article focuses on bending fatigue strength improvements of P/M gearing from recent improvements in P/M technology, combined with shot peening.

22 The Effect of Metallurgy on the Performance of Carburized Gears (March/April 1996)

Gears are designed to be manufactured, processed and used without failure throughout the design life of the gear. One of INFAC's objectives (*see p.24) is to help manufacture of gears to optimize performance and life. One way to achieve this is to identify failure mechanisms and then devise strategies to overcome them by modifying the manufacturing parameters.

23 Noise Reduction in Plastic & Powder Metal Gear Sets (July/August 1996)

The data discussed in this article was taken from an upright vacuum cleaner. This was a prototype cleaner that was self-propelled by a geared transmission. It was the first time that the manufacturer had used a geared transmission in this application.

24 Optimal Polymer Gear Design: Metal-to-Plastic Conversion (May 2020)

Nowadays, the progress in polymer materials and injection molding processing has enabled a drastic expansion of plastic gear applications. They are used not only for lightly loaded motion transmissions, but also in moderately loaded power drives in automotive, agriculture, medical, robotics, and many other industries.

25 High-Performance Sintered-Steel Gears for Transmissions and Machinery: A Critical Review (August 2012)

Except for higher-end gear applications found in automotive and aerospace transmissions, for example, high-performance, sintered-steel gears match wrought-steel gears in strength and geometrical quality. The enhanced P/M performance is due largely to advances in powder metallurgy over last two decades, such as selective surface densification, new materials and lubricants for high density and warm-die pressing. This paper is a review of the results of a decade of research and development of high- performance, sintered-steel gear prototypes.

26 New ECM Furnace Improves Manufacture Efficiency of PM Components (March/April 2014)

The heat treatment processing of powder metal (PM) materials like Astaloy requires four steps -- de-waxing, HT sintering, carburizing and surface hardening -- which are usually achieved in dedicated, atmospheric furnaces for sintering and heat treat, respectively, leading to intermediate handling operations and repeated heating and cooling cycles. This paper presents the concept of the multi-purpose batch vacuum furnace, one that is able to realize all of these steps in one unique cycle. The multiple benefits brought by this technology are summarized here, the main goal being to use this technology to manufacture high-load transmission gears in PM materials.

27 Comparison of PM-HSS and Cemented Carbide Tools in High-Speed Gear Hobbing (September/October 2009)

This article examines the dry hobbing capabilities of two cutting tool materials—powder metallurgical high-speed steel (PM-HSS) and cemented carbide. Cutting trials were carried out to analyze applicable cutting parameters and possible tool lives as well as the process reliability. To consider the influences of the machinability of different workpiece materials, a case hardening steel and a tempered steel were examined.

28 Gear Material Quality: How To Judge It...Pitting: How To Prevent It (March/April 1993)

How do we know when the gear material we buy is metallurgically correct? How can we judge material quality when all gear material looks alike?

29 Bending Fatigue, Impact and Pitting Resistance of Ausform-Finished PM Gears (June 2010)

The powder metal (P/M) process is making inroads in automotive transmission applications due to substantially lower costs of P/M-steel components for high-volume production, as compared to wrought or forged steel parts. Although P/M gears are increasingly used in powered hand tools, gear pumps and as accessory components in automotive transmissions, P/M-steel gears are currently in limited use in vehicle transmission applications. The primary objective of this project was to develop high-strength P/M-steel gears with bending fatigue, impact resistance and pitting fatigue performance equivalent to current wrought steel gears.

30 Product News (November/December 2018)

The latest product news for the gear industry, including new products and services from Gleason, Liebherr, Forest City Gear, GMTA, Starrett and Kennametal.

31 PM Design Winners Announced at Powdermet 2011 (June/July 2011)

Design innovation, superior engineering properties, high end-market visibility and sustainability distinguish the winners of the 2011 Design Excellence awards, the annual powder metallurgy (PM) design competition sponsored by the Metal Powder Industries Federation.

32 The Additive Advantage (September/October 2019)

How 3-D printing is changing the powder metal performance game.

33 PM Community Gathers for Annual Event (August 2010)

The metal powder industry gathered in force this past June for PowderMet 2010, the 2010 International Conference on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials.

34 Product News (November/December 2019)

The complete Product News section from the November/December 2019 issue of Gear Technology.

35 Product News (January/February 2019)

The complete Product News section from the January/February issue of Gear Technology.

36 Influence of Different Manufacturing Processes on Properties of Surface-Densified PM Gears (September/October 2018)

The properties of both shot-peened and cold rolled PM gears are analyzed and compared. To quantify the effect of both manufacturing processes, the tooth root bending fatigue strength will be evaluated and compared to wrought gears.

37 Supply Chain Management Users Guide (July 2020)

We asked a few industry suppliers to provide some insight into gear manufacturers' supply chain challenges during the pandemic.

38 NVH Potential of PM Gears for Electrified Drivetrains (September/October 2018)

Electrification has already started to have a noticeable impact on the global automotive industry. As a result, the drivetrains of hybrid (HEV) and full electric vehicles (EV) are facing many challenges, like increased requirements for NVH in high speed e-Drives and the need for performance improvements to deal with recuperation requirements. Motivated by the positive validation results of surface densified manual transmission gears which are also applicable for dedicated hybrid transmissions (DHTs) like e-DCTs, GKN engineers have been looking for a more challenging application for PM gears within those areas.

39 Product News (January/February 2020)

Integrated Production Chains from Kapp Niles, an alternative to press quenching from Seco/Warwick, an expansion of the Profilator line and more.

40 The Perfect Time for Power Skiving (July 2020)

Italian gear manufacturer Metalcastello’s investment in new Gleason Power Skiving technology gives the company a strong competitive edge as the world’s industries gear up for the post-pandemic.

41 Industry News (November/December 2017)

Gear Technology hosts dinner for technical contributors to the gear industry during this year's AGMA Fall Technical Meeting and Gear Expo in Columbus, OH. Plus other news from around the industry.

42 Product News - Gear Expo 2017 (November/December 2017)

This special edition of Product News includes highlights from Gear Expo 2017 of new products that caught the editors' eyes.

43 Industry News (June 2020)

The complete Industry News section from the June 2020 issue of Gear Technology.

44 Events (June 2009)

PowderMet 2009, plus the full technical calendar for Gear Technology's June 2009 issue.

45 Product News (November/December 2016)

News about new Products in the Industry

46 Factors Influencing Fracture Toughness of High-Carbon Martensitic Steels (January/February 1989)

Plane strain fracture toughness of twelve high-carbon steels has been evaluated to study the influence of alloying elements, carbon content and retained austenite. The steels were especially designed to simulate the carburized case microstructure of commonly used automotive type gear steels. Results show that a small variation in carbon can influence the K IC significantly. The beneficial effect of retained austenite depends both on its amount and distribution. The alloy effect, particularly nickel, becomes significant only after the alloy content exceeds a minimum amount. Small amounts of boron also appear beneficial.

47 Austempered Nodular Cast Irons (March/April 1985)

Austempering heat treatments (austenitizing followed by rapid cooling to the tempering temperature) have been applied to nodular irons on an experimental basis for a number of years, but commercial interest in the process has only recently come to the surface.

48 Tolerance for Overload Stress (March/April 1985)

The performance of carburized components can be improved simply by changing the alloy content of the steel.

49 Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue Performance--Part II (March/April 2007)

This is part II of a two-part paper that presents the results of extensive test programs on the RCF strength of PM steels.

50 Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue Performance (January/February 2007)

This article summarizes results of research programs on RCF strength of wrought steels and PM steels.

51 Gear Material Risks and Rewards (August 2011)

Technology investments lead to product innovation at gear materials suppliers.

52 Austempered Ductile Iron: Technology Base Required for an Emerging Technology (October/November 1984)

This paper addresses Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) as an emerging Itechnology and defines its challenge by describing the state-of-the-art of incumbent materials. The writing is more philosophical in nature than technical and is presented to establish a perspective.

53 Selection of Material and Compatible Heat Treatments for Gearing (May/June 1986)

The manufacturing process to produce a gear essentially consist of: material selection, blank preshaping, tooth shaping, heat treatment, and final shaping. Only by carefully integrating of the various operations into a complete manufacturing system can an optimum gear be obtained. The final application of the gear will determine what strength characteristics will be required which subsequently determine the material and heat treatments.

54 Things Are Heating Up in 2015 (March/April 2015)

In this special section, our editors have gathered recent news and information related to the heat treatment of gears. Here you’ll find a comprehensive assortment of news and upcoming events that will help you understand the various heat treatment processes available for gears and choose the best option for your projects, whether you heat treat in-house or send your gears to a commercial heat treating provider.

55 Mechanical Behavior and Microstructure of Ausrolled Surfaces in Gear Steels (March/April 1995)

Ausforming, the plastic deformation of heat treatment steels in their metastable, austentic condition, was shown several decades ago to lead to quenched and tempered steels that were harder, tougher and more durable under fatigue-type loading than conventionally heat-treated steels. To circumvent the large forces required to ausform entire components such as gears, cams and bearings, the ausforming process imparts added mechanical strength and durability only to those contact surfaces that are critically loaded. The ausrolling process, as utilized for finishing the loaded surfaces of machine elements, imparts high quality surface texture and geometry control. The near-net-shape geometry and surface topography of the machine elements must be controlled to be compatible with the network dimensional finish and the rolling die design requirements (Ref. 1).

56 Alternative Gear Manufacturing (July/August 1998)

the gear industry is awash in manufacturing technologies that promise to eliminate waste by producing gears in near-net shape, cut production and labor costs and permit gear designers greater freedom in materials. These methods can be broken down into the following categories: alternative ways to cut, alternative ways to form and new, exotic alternatives. Some are new, some are old and some are simply amazing.

57 Industry News (October 2012)

The complete Industry News section from the October 2012 issue of Gear Technology.

58 Morphology of Micropitting (November/December 2012)

Understanding the morphology of micropitting is critical in determining the root cause of failure. Examples of micropitting in gears and rolling-element bearings are presented to illustrate morphological variations that can occur in practice.

59 Large Pinions for Open Gears - The Increase of Single Mesh Load (January/February 2013)

This paper introduces mandatory improvements in design, manufacturing and inspection - from material elaboration to final machining - with special focus on today's large and powerful gearing.

60 Heat Treat 2013 (March/April 2013)

An overview of the latest technology and trends in heat treating.

61 Product News (June/July 2013)

The complete Product News section from the June/July 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

62 Industry News (November/December 2013)

The complete Industry News section from the November/December 2013 issue of Gear Technology.

63 Product News (July 2014)

The complete Product News section from the July 2014 issue of Gear Technology.

64 Editorial (November/December 1989)

The press release on my desk this morning said, "The (precision metal working) industry cannot attract enough qualified applicants. As many as 1,500 jobs a year (in the Chicago are alone) are going unfilled." So what else is new? That's just hard proof confirming the suspicion many of us have had for some time. Some of the best, most qualified and experienced people in our shops are reaching retirement age, and there's no one around to fill their spots. And, if the situation is bad in the metal working trades in general, it's even more critical in the gearing industry. Being small and highly specialized, gear manufacturing attracts even less attention and finds recruitment harder than the other precision metal trades.

65 New Consideration of Non-Metallic Inclusions Calculating Local Tooth Root Load Carrying Capacity of High-Strength, High-Quality Steel Gears (March/April 2019)

The effects of non-metallic inclusions in steel matrix on tooth root strength based on theoretical approach of Murakami.

66 Engagement of Metal Debris into Gear Mesh (September/October 2010)

A series of bench-top experiments was conducted to determine the effects of metallic debris being dragged through meshing gear teeth. A test rig that is typically used to conduct contact fatigue experiments was used for these tests. Several sizes of drill material, shim stock and pieces of gear teeth were introduced and then driven through the meshing region. The level of torque required to drive the “chip” through the gear mesh was measured. From the data gathered, chip size sufficient to jam the mechanism can be determined.

67 Effect of Web & Flange Thickness on Nonmetallic Gear Performance (November/December 1995)

Gears are manufactured with thin rims for several reasons. Steel gears are manufactured with thin rims and webs where low weight is important. Nonmetallic gears, manufactured by injection molding, are designed with thin rims as part of the general design rule to maintain uniform thickness to ensure even post-mold cooling. When a thin-rimmed gear fails, the fracture is thought the root of the gear, as shown in Fig. 1a, rather than the usual fillet failure shown in Fig. 1b.

68 Multi-Metal Composite Gear-Shaft Technology (January/February 1995)

A research program, conducted in conjunction with a U.S. Army contract, has resulted in the development of manufacturing technology to produce a multi-metal composite gear/shaft representing a substantial weight savings compared to a solid steel component. Inertia welding is used to join a steel outer ring to a light-weight titanium alloy web and/or shaft through the use of a suitable interlayer material such as aluminum.

69 Girth Gears - More than Just Metal and Teeth (May 2017)

Large, multi-segmented girth gears do not behave like the relatively compact, rigid, monolithic structures we typically envision when discussing gear manufacturing. Girth gears are very large, non-rigid structures that require special care during the machining of individual mating segments as well as the assembled gear blank itself.

70 Doodling with Metal (August 2011)

Inside the mechanical mind of a gear artist.

71 Frozen Gears (March/April 1993)

Durability is the most important criterion used to define the quality of a gear. The freezing of metals has been acknowledged for almost thirty years as an effective method for increasing durability, or "wear life," and decreasing residual stress in tool steels. The recent field of deep cryogenics (below -300 degrees F) has brought us high temperature superconductors, the superconducting super collider, cryo-biology, and magnotehydrodynamic drive systems. It has also brought many additional durability benefits to metals.

72 Transient EHL Analysis of Helical Gears (August 2016)

This paper addresses the lubrication of helical gears - especially those factors influencing lubricant film thickness and pressure. Contact between gear teeth is protected by the elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) mechanism that occurs between nonconforming contact when pressure is high enough to cause large increases in lubricant viscosity due to the pressure-viscosity effect, and changes of component shape due to elastic deflection. Acting together, these effects lead to oil films that are stiff enough to separate the contacting surfaces and thus prevent significant metal-to-metal contact occurring in a well-designed gear pair.

73 Microsecond Heat Treatment of Gears (March/April 2000)

The performance of metal surfaces can be dramatically enhanced by the thermal process of rapid surface melting and re-solidification (RMRS). When the surface of a metal part (for instance, a gear) is melted and re-solidified in less than one thousandth of a second, the resulting changes in the material can lead to: Increased wear and corrosion resistance, Improved surface finish and appearance, Enhanced surface uniformity and purity, and Sealing of surface cracks and pores.

74 Effect of Non-Metallic Inclusions on Bending Fatigue Performance in High Strength 4140 Steel (March/April 2018)

Three samples of quenched and tempered 4140 steel, with varying levels of oxygen and sulfur, were submitted to a series of bending fatigue tests.

75 Plastic Gear Design Basics (July/August 1996)

Plastic gears are serious alternatives to traditional metal gears in a wide variety of applications. The use of plastic gears has expanded from low-power, precision motion transmission into more demanding power transmission applications. As designers push the limits of acceptable plastic gear applications, more is learned about the behavior of plastics in gearing and how to take advantage of their unique characteristics.

76 Composite Electroless Nickel Coatings for the Gear Industry (January/February 1997)

Electroless Nickel (EN) plating, a process dating back to the 1940s, is one of the predominant metal finishing methods today. It is especially suitable for the gear industry, whose end uses span innumerable other industries, providing an endless assortment of requirements, environments, materials and specifications. EN plating has a broad array of functional features, which include:

77 Inreasing Hardness Through Cryogenics (March/April 1997)

The Instrumented Factory for Gears (INFAC) conducted a metallurgical experiment that examined the effects of carburizing process variables and types of cryogenic treatments in modifying the microstructure of the material. The initial experiment was designed so that, following the carburizing cycles, the same test coupons could be used in future experiment.

78 Bigger and Better Than Ever (July/August 1999)

Gear Expo 99, AGMA's biennial showcase for the gear industry, has left the Rust Belt this year and landed in Music City U.S.A., Nashville, Tennessee. The event, with exhibitors from around the globe showing off the latest in gear manufacturing as well as metal working processes, will be held at the Nashville Convention Center, October 24-27, 1999. According to Kurt Medert, AGMA vice president and Gear Expo show manager, "In choosing Nashville, AGMA;s Trade Show Advisory Council found a city that is an excellent trade show site. It has the right mix of convention center, nearby hotels, and a clean downtown area with entertainment readily available for the exhibitors and visitors alike. Nashville is in the heart of southern industry, which we see as a focus of growth for the gear industry and its customers."

79 Dry Machining for Gear Shaping (November/December 2001)

Economic production is one of the main concerns of any manufacturing facility. In recent years, cost increases and tougher statutory requirements have increasingly made cutting fluids a problematic manufacturing and cost factor in metalworking. Depending on the cutting fluid, production process and supply unit, cutting-fluid costs may account for up to 16% of workpiece cost. In some cases, they exceed tool cost by many times (Ref. 1). The response by manufacturers is to demand techniques for dry machining (Ref. 2).

80 Shop Floor Safety - Things to Think About (January/February 2000)

It should be a point of pride that the gear industry is actually safer than most other metalworking industries.

81 A Practical Guide for Molding Better Plastic Geared Transmissions (May/June 2000)

Plastic gears and transmissions require a different design approach than metal transmissions. Different tools are available to the plastic transmission designer for optimizing his geared product, and different requirements exist for inspection and testing. This paper will present some of the new technology available to the plastic gear user, including design, mold construction, inspection, and testing of plastic gears and transmissions.

82 Gear Up for Performance: An Introduction to Synthetic Lubricants for Fractional Horespower Applications (September/October 2000)

Editor's Note: The following article details the advantages of synthetic lubricants in certain applications. However, the user should be aware of certain design issues arising from the extract chemistry of the synthetic. For example, some synthetics may have low solvency for additives. Others may not be compatible with mineral oils or nonmetallic components such as seals and paints. Some synthetics may absorb water and may not have the same corrosion resistance as mineral oils. Finally, the user should consider biodegradability or toxicity before switching to any new lubricant. Many of these concerns are present in petroleum-based lubricants as well, so consult a lubrication specialist before specifying a lubricant.

83 Industry News (September/October 2018)

Liebherr and Wenzel announce sales and service agreement; MPIF releases new powder metal standard; Gear Motions announces promotions; Profilator opens new factory and more gear industry news.

84 Net-Shape Forged Gears - The State of the Art (January/February 2002)

Traditionally, high-quality gears are cut to shape from forged blanks. Great accuracy can be obtained through shaving and grinding of tooth forms, enhancing the power capacity, life and quietness of geared power transmissions. In the 1950s, a process was developed for forging gears with teeth that requires little or no metal to be removed to achieve final geometry. The initial process development was undertaken in Germany for the manufacture of bevel gears for automobile differentials and was stimulated by the lack of available gear cutting equipment at that time. Later attention has turned to the forging of spur and helical gears, which are more difficult to form due to the radial disposition of their teeth compared with bevel gears. The main driver of these developments, in common with most component manufacturing, is cost. Forming gears rather than cutting them results in increased yield from raw material and also can increase productivity. Forging gears is therefore of greater advantage for large batch quantities, such as required by the automotive industry.

85 A Gear with a Sweet Tooth (July/August 2002)

Gear manufacturers typically use plastic, steel or other metals to make their gears, but Andrew Shotts made his first gears out of sugar and chocolate.

86 Minimization of In-Process Corrosion of Aerospace Gears (July/August 2002)

Carbon steels have primarily been used to manufacture aerospace gears due to the steels' mechanical characteristics. An alloyed low carbon steel is easily case-hardened to obtain a hard wear surface while maintaining the ductile core characteristics. The microstructure achieved will accept the heavy loading, shocks, and elevated temperatures that gears typically experience in applications. The carbon steel machinability allows for general machining practices to be employed when producing aerospace gears versus the more advanced metal removal processes required by stainless and nickel-based alloys.

87 Gear Shaving Basics - Part I (November/December 1997)

Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process also improves tooth surface finish and eliminates by means of crowned tooth forms the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service.

88 Hybrid Gear Preliminary Results: Application of Composites to Dynamic Mechanical Components (May 2013)

Composite spur gears were designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center. The composite web was bonded only to the inner and outer hexagonal features that were machined from an initially all-metallic aerospace quality spur gear. The hybrid gear was tested against an all-steel gear and against a mating hybrid gear. Initial results indicate that this type of hybrid design may have a dramatic effect on drive system weight without sacrificing strength.

89 Deciding When to Go Plastic (July 2014)

Can my metal gear(s) be replaced with plastic gears?

90 Solving the Forgings Paradox (March/April 2015)

The process of forging metal into shapes possesses a surprisingly long and storied history. For example, the method of hot rolling can trace its protracted existence all the way back to an enigmatic Italian polymath named Leonardo da Vinci (you may have heard of him), who reportedly invented the rolling mill one lazy day in the 1400s.

91 Plastic Gearing Continues Converting the Unconverted (March/April 2016)

Plastic gears are everywhere today - throughout your car, at the oceans' lowest depths, in deep space. The question, when is a metal gear a candidate for plastic conversion, can be addressed in three words, i.e. what's the application?

92 Coming Clean on Gearbox Lubrication (September/October 2017)

Design and manufacture of gears is among the most complex and difficult disciplines of the industrial arts. From initial conception to machining and finishing, making gears ain't bean-bag. And guess what? Once those gears roll off the assembly line, it doesn't get any simpler. That's because gears - the metal ones at least - require the correct lubrication in order to prevent - or delay as long as possible - such things as wear, scuffing and Hertzian fatigue.

93 Broaching in the 21st Century (May 2018)

Back around 2005-2010, the most exciting things that were happening in broaching had little to do with broaching. What was happening - and continues to evolve today - was the emergence of on-the-edge CNC, software and servo drive technology. Together, they practically transformed a metalworking process as old as water into a viable, alternative consideration for producing high-volume part runs.

94 Plastic Gear Design Remains a Work in Progress (July 2018)

Despite the development and availability of a number of newly engineered, rugged materials intended for plastic gear applications, some engineers/designers continue to believe metal is better.

95 Gear Hobbing Without Coolant (November/December 1994)

For environmental and economic reasons, the use of coolant in machining processes is increasingly being questioned. Rising coolant prices and disposal costs, as well as strains on workers and the environment, have fueled the debate. The use of coolant has given rise to a highly technical system for handling coolant in the machine (cooling, filtering) and protecting the environment (filter, oil-mist collector). In this area the latest cutting materials - used with or without coolant - have great potential for making the metal-removal process more economical. The natural progression to completely dry machining has decisive advantages for hobbing.

96 Minimizing Gear Distortion During Heat Treating (March/April 1996)

Graded hardening technology has proven over the years to yield very good results when used in the heat treating of carburized gears. It is especially advantageous for smaller companies, subject to higher competitive pressures. Unfortunately, despite the fact that graded hardening is a very well-known method, its use has been limited. We strongly recommend this technology to all of those who need to produce gears with high metallurgical quality.

97 The Process of Gear Shaving (May/June 1984)

Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.

98 Innovative CNC Gear Shaping (January/February 1994)

The Shaping Process - A Quick Review of the Working Principle. In the shaping process, cutter and workpiece represent a drive with parallel axes rotating in mesh (generating motion) according to the number of teeth in both cutter and workpiece (Fig. 1), while the cutter reciprocates for the metal removal action (cutting motion).

99 AMB 2010 Points to Recovery (January/February 2011)

With 86,202 visitors, The International Exhibition for Metal Working (AMB 2010) in Stuttgart, Germany, managed to slightly exceed attendance from the 2008 show (85,143). The metalworking industry celebrated its comeback with visitors from more than 80 countries. In addition, AMB 2010 set a new record with 1,346 exhibitors (2008: 1,306).

100 Non-Standard Cylindrical Gears (November/December 2004)

Curved face width (CFW) spur gears are not popular in the gear industry. But these non-metallic gears have advantages over standard spur gears: higher contact ratio, higher tooth stiffness, and lower contact and bending stresses.

101 Repair via Isotropic Superfinishing of Aircraft Transmission Gears (May 2009)

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that transmission gears of rotary-wing aircraft, which are typically scrapped due to minor foreign object damage (FOD) and grey staining, can be repaired and re-used with signifi cant cost avoidance. The isotropic superfinishing (ISF) process is used to repair the gear by removing surface damage. It has been demonstrated in this project that this surface damage can be removed while maintaining OEM specifications on gear size, geometry and metallurgy. Further, scrap CH-46 mix box spur pinions, repaired by the ISF process, were subjected to gear tooth strength and durability testing, and their performance compared with or exceeded that of new spur pinions procured from an approved Navy vendor. This clearly demonstrates the feasibility of the repair and re-use of precision transmission gears.

102 Events (May/June 2006)

The complete Events section from May/June 2006, including profiles of the University of Wisconsin gear seminars and the MPIF international conference on powder metallurgy.

103 Manufacturing Net-Shaped, Cold-Formed Gears (May 2008)

A net-shaped metal forming process has been developed for manufacturing quality, durable, high-yield and cost-efficient gears for high-volume production.

104 Gear Garden Germinates from County's Industrial History (July 2008)

A new breed of blossoms sprouted this spring in York, PA cultivated from gears, sprockets, railroad spikes and other recycled metal items.

105 Induction Hardening of Gears and Critical Components - Part I (September/October 2008)

Induction hardening is a heat treating technique that can be used to selectively harden portions of a gear, such as the flanks, roots and tips of teeth, providing improved hardness, wear resistance, and contact fatigue strength without affecting the metallurgy of the core and other parts of the component that don’t require change. This article provides an overview of the process and special considerations for heat treating gears. Part I covers gear materials, desired microsctructure, coil design and tooth-by-tooth induction hardening.

106 New Developments in Gear Hobbing (March/April 2010)

Several innovations have been introduced to the gear manufacturing industry in recent years. In the case of gear hobbing—the dry cutting technology and the ability to do it with powder-metallurgical HSS—might be two of the most impressive ones. And the technology is still moving forward. The aim of this article is to present recent developments in the field of gear hobbing in conjunction with the latest improvements regarding tool materials, process technology and process integration.

107 At the PEEK of the Polymer Food Chain (June 2010)

In the hypercompetitive race to increase automobile efficiency, Metaldyne has been developing its balance shaft module line with Victrex PEEK polymer in place of metal gears. The collaborative product development resulted in significant reductions in inertia, weight and power consumption, as well as improvement in noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance.

108 Lubricants and Lubrication of Plastic Gears (September/October 1993)

Surface measurement of any metal gear tooth contact surface will indicate some degree of peaks and valleys. When gears are placed in mesh, irregular contact surfaces are brought together in the typical combination of rolling and sliding motion. The surface peaks, or asperities, of one tooth randomly contact the asperities of the mating tooth. Under the right conditions, the asperities form momentary welds that are broken off as the gear tooth action continues. Increased friction and higher temperatures, plus wear debris introduced into the system are the result of this action.

109 Best Practices to Improve Results in Gear Deburring (September/October 2020)

All cutting and machining operations produce some type of burr or leave sharp edges on metal components. These unwanted byproducts are especially troublesome when producing precision components such as gears. The burrs can loosen from the gear - either during assembly or later when the gear is in operation - and damage components or lead to critical part failure.

110 The Process of Gear Shaving (January/February 1986)

Gear shaving is a free-cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of the gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helical angle, tooth profile and eccentricity. The process can also improve tooth surface finish and eliminate, by crowned tooth forms, the danger of tooth end load concentrations in service. Shaving provides for form modifications that reduce gear noise. These modifications can also increase the gear's load carrying capacity, its factor of safety and its service life.

111 Gear Shaving Basics, Part I (November/December 1997)

Gear shaving is a free cutting gear finishing operation which removes small amounts of metal from the working surfaces of gear teeth. Its purpose is to correct errors in index, helix angle, tooth profile and eccentricity.

112 Economics of CNC Gear Hobbing (March/April 1987)

NC and CNC metal cutting machines are among the most popular machine tools in the business today, There is also a strong trend toward using flexible machining centers and flexible manufacturing systems. The same trend is apparent in gear cutting. Currently the trend toward CNC tools has increased, and sophisticated controls and peripheral equipment for gear cutting machines are now available; however, the investment in a CNC gear machine has to be justified on the basis of economic facts as well as technical advantages.

113 Cutting Fluid Selection and Process Controls for the Gear Manufacturing Industry (July/August 1987)

The last decade has been a period of far-reaching change for the metal working industry. The effect of higher lubricant costs, technical advances in machine design and increasing competition are making it essential that manufacturers of gears pay more attention to testing, selecting and controlling cutting fluid systems. Lubricant costs are not a large percentage of the process cost relative to items such as raw materials, equipment and labor, and this small relative cost has tended to reduce the economic incentive to evaluate and to change cutting fluids.

114 Deburring & Finishing Gears with Power Brushes (March/April 1989)

Why Brushes? In this age of hi-tech, robots, automatic machines, machining cells, etc., is there a niche somewhere for power brushes? Let me answer by asking another question. What tool does the gear manufacturer have in his arsenal that allows him to deburr green gears, hardened gears, hobbed gears, ground gears and shaved gears? What tool allows him to deburr powder metal gears - green and sintered - brass gears, bronze gears, stainless gears made of exotic materials such as inconel, waspaloy, or hastaloy, and fiber and plastic gears? How about spur gears, helical gears, sprockets, both internal and external splines, clutch teeth and pump gears?

115 Achievable Carburizing Specifications (January/February 1990)

A widespread weakness of gear drawings is the requirements called out for carburize heat treating operations. The use of heat treating specifications is a recommended solution to this problem. First of all, these specifications guide the designer to a proper callout. Secondly, they insure that certain metallurgical characteristics, and even to some extent processing, will be obtained to provide the required qualities in the hardened gear. A suggested structure of carburizing specifications is give.

116 AGMA, ISO, and BS Gear Standards Part I - Pitting Resistance Ratings (November/December 1990)

A study of AGMA 218, the draft ISO standard 6336, and BS 436: 1986 methods for rating gear tooth strength and surface durability for metallic spur and helical gears is presented. A comparison of the standards mainly focuses on fundamental formula and influence factors, such as the load distribution factor, geometry factor, and others. No attempt is made to qualify or judge the standards other than to comment on the facilities or lack of them in each standard reviewed. In Part I a comparison of pitting resistance ratings is made, and in the subsequent issue, Part II will deal with bending stress ratings and comparisons of designs.

117 Optimum Shot Peening Specification - I (November/December 1991)

Shot peening is widely recognized as a prove, cost-effective process to enhance the fatigue characteristics of metal parts and eliminate the problems of stress corrosion cracking. Additional benefits accrue in the areas of forming and texturizing. Though shot peening is widely used today, the means of specifying process parameters and controlling documents for process control are not widely understood. Questions regarding shot size, intensity, and blueprint specification to assure a high quality and repeatable shot peening process are continually asked by many design and materials engineers. This article should answer many of the questions frequently asked by engineering professionals and to further assist companies interested in establishing a general shot peening specification.

118 Gear Blanking (May/June 1992)

The term "blanking" refers to the initial metal cutting operations in the process planning sequence which produce the contour of a part starting from rough material. The scope of blanking is: To remove the excess material To machine the part to print specifications, except for those surfaces with subsequent finishing operations. To leave adequate machining stock for finishing operations. To prepare good quality surfaces for location and clamping of the part throughout the process.

119 No Shortage of New Technology at EMO Hannover (August 2011)

Metalworking technology specialists will be front and center for six days at EMO Hannover 2011 (September 19–24). More than 2,000 companies from 38 countries will be on-hand to show off products and services, spotlighting their performance capabilities.

120 Technical Calendar (September/October 1988)

September 27-29. American Society for Metals 11th Annual Heat Treating Conference October 10-12. AGMA Fall Technical Meeting. Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, LA November 1-3. SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic, Sheraton Meridian, Indianapolis, IN

121 Events (May 2008)

2008 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy, plus the technical calendar. Complete Events section from May 2008 Gear Technology.

122 Industry News (August 2017)

Results from the 2017 Powder Metallurgy Design Excellence Awards, plus other news from around the industry.

123 There's a Story Here (January/February 2018)

As the founder, president and co-host of Manufacturing Talk Radio, as well as publisher of Metals & Manufacturing Outlook eZine, I am excited to report that the economic outlook for 2018 is just too good not to tout. Whatever "final GDP number" the government divines for 2017, the year will finish above 3% for the first time in a decade.

124 Computer Aided Design (CAD) of Forging and Extrusion Dies for the Production of Gears by Forming (January/February 1985)

Material losses and long production times are two areas of conventional spur and helical gear manufacturing in which improvements can be made. Metalforming processes have been considered for manufacturing spur and helical gears, but these are costly due to the development times necessary for each new part design. Through a project funded by the U.S. Army Tank - Automotive Command, Battelle's Columbus Division has developed a technique for designing spur and helical gear forging and extrusion dies using computer aided techniques.

125 AMB 2012 Focuses on Technology Integration and Education (October 2012)

A large number of technologies aimed primarily at higher productivity were presented by exhibitors at the AMB, International Exhibition for Metal Working at the Stuttgart Trade Fair Centre in September. Following the successful 2010 show, AMB 2012 boasted further developments in energy and resource efficiency, higher productivity, life cycle performance, quality assurance and user-friendliness.

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87 Bodycote Acquires Nitrex Metal Technologies and Relocates Texas Facility (September 23, 2016)
Bodycote has acquired Nitrex Metal Technologies. Nitrex Metal Technologies specializes in precision gas nitriding and ferritic nitrocarbu... Read News

88 Houghton International Fluid Equipment Solutions Add Control Options for Water-Based Metal Cutting (August 12, 2016)
Houghton International has launched two new fluid equipment solutions that provide manufacturers with significantly greater control of fl... Read News

89 MPIF Announces Award-Winning Powder Metal Parts (June 21, 2016)
The winners in the 2016 Powder Metallurgy (PM) Design Excellence Awards competition, sponsored by the Metal Powder Industries Federation ... Read News

90 NTB, Siemens, Sandvik Coromant, Iscar and Kennametal Announce New Website for Learning About the GTC (February 19, 2016)
NTB Interstate University of Technology Buchs today announced a new website, gtc-tools.com, which provides information to the public on t... Read News

91 Cimcool Cimpulse Metalworking Fluids Formulated for Use in High-Pressure Systems (August 31, 2015)
Milacron Fluid Technologies brand Cimcool recently announced the launch of Cimpulse.Cimpulse 51MP, Cimpulse 45MP and Cimpulse 33MP are ne... Read News

92 REM Chemicals and Rosler GmbH Partner in Metal Finishing (February 13, 2005)
REM Chemicals Inc.and Rosler GmbH developed a 20-year global marketing partnership for chemically-accelerated mass finishing processes, m... Read News