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1 The Importance of Profile Shift, Root Angle Correction and Cutter Head Tilt (January/February 2016)

Chapter 2, Continued In the previous sections, development of conjugate, face milled as well as face hobbed bevel gearsets - including the application of profile and length crowning - was demonstrated. It was mentioned during that demonstration that in order to optimize the common surface area, where pinion and gear flanks have meshing contact (common flank working area), a profile shift must be introduced. This concluding section of chapter 2 explains the principle of profile shift; i.e. - how it is applied to bevel and hypoid gears and then expands on profile side shift, and the frequently used root angle correction which - from its gear theoretical understanding - is a variable profile shift that changes the shift factor along the face width. The end of this section elaborates on five different possibilities to tilt the face cutter head relative to the generating gear, in order to achieve interesting effects on the bevel gear flank form. This installment concludes chapter 2 of the Bevel Gear Technology book that lays the foundation of the following chapters, some of which also will be covered in this series.

2 Material Properties and Tooth Root Bending Strength of Shot Blasted, Case Carburized Gears with Alternative Microstructures (May 2021)

Selected results of research project concerning the above mentioned material properties and tooth root bending strength.

3 Defining the Spline Pressure Angle (August 2019)

A reader requests help designing the mating gear for an internal spline.

4 Analysis of the Influence of the Working Angles on the Tool Wear in Gear Hobbing (January/February 2018)

A calculation method is developed to estimate tool wear on hobs.

5 Strategies for Building Your Business (November/December 2017)

In this issue's column, Joe lays out the basic truth for most manufacturing companies: If you're not moving forward, you're falling behind.

6 The Valued Troublesome Employee (September/October 2017)

I'm sure it comes as no surprise that finding skilled people to work in your manufacturing facility is no simple task. But after finding them, and investing in the development of their abilities, what happens when one of them - an employee your company really needs - becomes a troublesome employee? This is among the trickiest situations a manager can face.

7 Designing Very Strong Gear Teeth by Means of High Pressure Angles (June 2017)

The purpose of this paper is to present a method of designing and specifying gear teeth with much higher bending and surface contact strength (reduced bending and surface contact stresses). This paper will show calculation procedures, mathematical solutions and the theoretical background equations to do this.

8 Can Lean Manufacturing Kill Your Job Shop (May 2017)

The presidents of two manufacturing companies were having a drink in the lobby before the start of their trade association's annual meeting...

9 It Doesn't Matter How Efficient Your Plant Is (March/April 2017)

To ensure profitability and avoid losses, accurately quoting jobs is the first line of defense.

10 Repair of Large, Surface-Degraded Industrial Gears - a New Approach (January/February 2017)

This paper presents a new approach to repair industrial gears by showing a case study where pressure angle modification is also considered, differently from the past repairing procedures that dealt only with the modification of the profile shift coefficient. A computer program has been developed to automatically determine the repair alternatives under two goals: minimize the stock removal or maximize gear tooth strength.

11 Business Development for the New Year (January/February 2017)

It's the New Year, and with it comes the opportunity to take a fresh look at your business objectives. Because business development is such a vital part of running a company, I'd like to present some guidelines I have found beneficial for securing new work and new customers.

12 Calculating Face Load Distribution Factor (March/April 2015)

How should we consider random helix angle errors fHő≤ and housing machining errors when calculating KHő≤? What is a reasonable approach?

13 Operating Pressure Angle (May 2013)

What is the difference between pressure angle and operating pressure angle?

14 The Two-Sided-Ground Bevel Cutting Tool (May/June 2003)

In the past, the blades of universal face hobbing cutters had to be resharpened on three faces. Those three faces formed the active part of the blade. In face hobbing, the effective cutting direction changes dramatically with respect to the shank of the blade. Depending on the individual ratio, it was found that optimal conditions for the chip removal action (side rake, side relief and hook angle) could just be established by adjusting all major parameters independently. This, in turn, results automatically in the need for the grinding or resharpening of the front face and the two relief surfaces in order to control side rake, hook angle and the relief and the relief angles of the cutting and clearance side.

15 Using Hobs for Skiving; A Pre-Finish and Finishing Solution (May/June 1993)

Our company manufactures a range of hardened and ground gears. We are looking into using skiving as part of our finishing process on gears in the 4-12 module range made form 17 CrNiMO6 material and hardened to between 58 and 62 Rc. Can you tell us more about this process?

16 Optimal Choice of the Shaft Angle for Involute Hobbing (November/December 2007)

With reference to the machining of an involute spur or helical gear by the hobbing process, this paper suggests a new criterion for selecting the position of the hob axis relative to the gear axis.

17 A Precise Prediction of the Tooth Root Stresses for Involute External Gears with Any Fillet Geometry under Consideration of the Exact Meshing Condition (September/October 2019)

This paper shows a method to calculate the occurring tooth root stress for involute, external gears with any form of fillets very precisely within a few seconds.

18 Influence of Relative Displacements Between Pinion and Gear on Tooth Root Stresses of Spiral Bevel Gears (July/August 1985)

The manufacturing quality of spiral bevel gears has achieved a very high standard. Nevertheless, the understanding of the real stress conditions and the influences. of certain parameters is not satisfactory.

19 Design Against Tooth Interior Fatigue Fracture (November/December 2000)

In a modern truck, the gear teeth are among the most stressed parts. Failure of a tooth will damage the transmission severely. Throughout the years, gear design experience has been gained and collected into standards such as DIN (Ref. 1) or AGMA (Ref. 2). Traditionally two types of failures are considered in gear design: tooth root bending fatigue, and contact fatigue. The demands for lighter and more silent transmissions have given birth to new failure types. One novel failure type, Tooth Interior Fatigue Fracture (TIFF), has previously been described by MackAldener and Olsson (Refs. 3 & 4) and is further explored in this paper.

20 The Effect of Manufaturing Microgeometry Variations on the Load Distribution Factor and on Gear Contact and Root Stresses (July 2009)

Traditionally, gear rating procedures consider manufacturing accuracy in the application of the dynamic factor, but only indirectly through the load distribution are such errors in the calculation of stresses used in the durability and gear strength equations. This paper discusses how accuracy affects the calculation of stresses and then uses both statistical design of experiments and Monte Carlo simulation techniques to quantify the effects of different manufacturing and assembly errors on root and contact stresses.

21 True Bending Stress in Spur Gears (August 2007)

In this paper, an accurate FEM analysis has been done of the ‚Äútrue‚ÄĚ stress at tooth root of spur gears in the function of the gear geometry. The obtained results confirm the importance of these differences.

22 Tooth Flank Corrections of Wide Face Width Helical Gears that Account for Shaft Deflections (January/February 2005)

This paper discusses the influence of tip relief, root relief, load modification, end relief and their combinations on gear stresses and transmission errors due to shaft deflections.

23 Size and Material Influence on the Tooth Root, Pitting, Scuffing and Wear Load-Carrying Capacity of Fine-Module Gears (September 2011)

In this study, limiting values for the load-carrying-capacity of fine-module gears within the module range 0.3‚Äď1.0 mm were determined and evaluated by comprehensive, experimental investigations that employed technical, manufacturing and material influence parameters.

24 Tooth Root Stresses of Spiral Bevel Gears (May/June 1988)

Service performance and load carrying capacity of bevel gears strongly depend on the size and position of the contact pattern. To provide an optimal contact pattern even under load, the gear design has to consider the relative displacements caused by deflections or thermal expansions expected under service conditions. That means that more or less lengthwise and heightwise crowning has to be applied on the bevel gear teeth.

25 Designing Hardened & Ground Spur Gears to Operate With Minimum Noise (May/June 1994)

When designing hardened and ground spur gears to operate with minimum noise, what are the parameters to be considered? should tip and/or root relief be applied to both wheel and pinion or only to one member? When pinions are enlarged and he wheel reduced, should tip relief be applied? What are the effects on strength, wear and noise? For given ratios with enlarged pinions and reduced wheels, how can the gear set sized be checked or adjusted to ensure that the best combination has been achieved?

26 Tooth Root Optimization of Powder Metal Gears - Reducing Stress from Bending and Transient Loads (June/July 2013)

This paper will provide examples of stress levels from conventional root design using a hob and stress levels using an optimized root design that is now possible with PM manufacturing. The paper will also investigate how PM can reduce stresses in the root from transient loads generated by abusive driving.

27 Impact of Root Geometry Manufacturing Deviations from a Theoretical Hob Rack on Gear Bending Stress (August 2019)

This study emphasizes the importance of a closed-loop approach togear design and manufacturing to assure designed root fillet shapes are attained in production, and gears meet the design intent.

28 Calculation of Tooth Root Load Carrying Capacity of Beveloid Gears (June 2014)

In this paper, two developed methods of tooth root load carrying capacity calculations for beveloid gears with parallel axes are presented, in part utilizing WZL software GearGenerator and ZaKo3D. One method calculates the tooth root load-carrying capacity in an FE-based approach. For the other, analytic formulas are employed to calculate the tooth root load-carrying capacity of beveloid gears. To conclude, both methods are applied to a test gear. The methods are compared both to each other and to other tests on beveloid gears with parallel axes in test bench trials.

29 The Pros and Cons of Fully Ground Root Fillets (August 2014)

For maximum life in carburized and ground gearing, I have been advised that fully grinding a radius into the root gives maximum resistance against fatigue failures. Others have advised that a hobbed and unground radius root form is best. Which is best, and why?

30 Influence of Hobbing Tool Generating Scallops on Root Fillet Stress Concentrations (July 2016)

While designing gear and spline teeth, the root fillet area and the corresponding maximum tensile stress are primary design considerations for the gear designer. Root fillet tensile stress may be calculated using macro-geometry values such as module, minor diameter, effective fillet radius, face width, etc.

31 Calculation of the Tooth Root Strength of Worm Wheel Teeth Based on Local Stresses (November/December 2016)

How local stresses obtained from FEA can be used to determine fatigue strength of worm wheel teeth.

32 Inclusion-Based Bending Strength Calculation of Gears (May 2017)

Reduced component weight and ever-increasing power density require a gear design on the border area of material capacity. In order to exploit the potential offered by modern construction materials, calculation methods for component strength must rely on a deeper understanding of fracture and material mechanics in contrast to empirical-analytical approaches.

33 The Influence of a Grinding Notch on the Gear Bending Strength Rating (November/December 2018)

To achieve the requested quality, most gears today are ground. The usual grinding process includes treating the gear flank but disengaging before reaching the root rounding area. If the gear is premanufactured with a tool without protuberance, then at the position where the grinding tool retracts from the flank a grinding notch in the tooth root area is produced. Such a notch may increase the bending stresses in the root area, thus reducing the strength rating.

34 Training - A Top Priority for Investment (January/February 2020)

In this edition of Arvin's Angle, Joe explains why training isn't an expense. It's an investment.