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(SPONSORED CONTENT)Meeting the Challenges of Gear Noise Analysis
With the surge in Electric Vehicles, gear noise reduction is of paramount importance. Gleason is at the forefront of gear noise analysis, offering a variety of industry-leading metrology tools with its GMSÂ® Analytical Gear Inspection Systems to help minimize noise by optimizing gear design and manufacturing. Download the Gleason Noise Analysis Whitepaper to learn more. Article Courtesy of Gleason Corporation
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Austempered irons and steels offer the design engineer alternatives to conventional material/process combinations. Depending on the material and the application, austempering may provide the producers of gear and shafts with the following benefits: ease of manufacturing, increased bending and/or contact fatigue strength, better wear resistance or enhanced dampening characteristics resulting in lower noise. Austempered materials have been used to improve the performance of gears and shafts in many applications in a wide range of industries.
Austempering heat treatments (austenitizing followed by rapid cooling to the tempering temperature) have been applied to nodular irons on an experimental basis for a number of years, but commercial interest in the process has only recently come to the surface.
This paper addresses Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) as an emerging Itechnology and defines its challenge by describing the state-of-the-art of incumbent materials. The writing is more philosophical in nature than technical and is presented to establish a perspective.
AGMA introduced ANSI/AGMA 2015â€“2â€“A06â€” Accuracy Classification System: Radial System for Cylindrical Gears, in 2006 as the first major rewrite of the double-flank accuracy standard in over 18 years. This document explains concerns related to the use of ANSI/AGMA 2015â€“2â€“A06 as an accuracy classification system and recommends a revised system that can be of more service to the gearing industry.
The design of any gearing system is a difficult, multifaceted process. When the system includes bevel gearing, the process is further complicated by the complex nature of the bevel gears themselves. In most cases, the design is based on an evaluation of the ratio required for the gear set, the overall envelope geometry, and the calculation of bending and contact stresses for the gear set to determine its load capacity. There are, however, a great many other parameters which must be addressed if the resultant gear system is to be truly optimum. A considerable body of data related to the optimal design of bevel gears has been developed by the aerospace gear design community in general and by the helicopter community in particular. This article provides a summary of just a few design guidelines based on these data in an effort to provide some guidance in the design of bevel gearing so that maximum capacity may be obtained. The following factors, which may not normally be considered in the usual design practice, are presented and discussed in outline form: Integrated gear/shaft/bearing systems Effects of rim thickness on gear tooth stresses Resonant response
If someone were to tell you that he had a gear material that was stronger per pound than aluminum, as wear-resistant as steel, easier to machine than free-machining steel and capable of producing gears domestically for 20% less than those now cut from foreign made forgings, would you consider that material to be "high tech"? Probably. Well, throw out all the pre-conceived notions that you may have had about "high tech" materials. The high-performance material they didn't teach you about in school is austempered ductile iron (ADI).
Face-milled hypoid pinions produced by the three-cut, Fixed Setting system - where roughing is done on one machine and finishing for the concave-OB and convex-IB tooth flanks is done on separate machines with different setups - are still in widespread use today.
CNC technology offers new opportunities for the manufacture of bevel gears. While traditionally the purchase of a specific machine at the same time determined a particular production system, CNC technology permits the processing of bevel gears using a wide variety of methods. The ideological dispute between "tapered tooth or parallel depth tooth" and "single indexing or continuous indexing" no longer leads to an irreversible fundamental decision. The systems have instead become penetrable, and with existing CNC machines, it is possible to select this or that system according to factual considerations at a later date.
Question: We just received permission to purchase our first CNC gear inspection system. With capital approvals so hard to come by, especially for inspection equipment, I want to be sure to purchase a system I can count of for years to come. My past experience with purchasing CNC equipment has shown me that serviceability of the computer and the CNC controller portion of the system can be a problem in just a few years because of the obsolescence factor. What information do I need to look for when selecting a supplier to reduce the risk of obsolescence, as well as to reduce the long-term servicing costs in the computer and controls portion of the system?
In terms of the tooth thickness, should we use the formulation with respect to normal or transverse coordinate system? When normalizing this thickness in order to normalize the backlash (backlash parameter), we should divide by the circular pitch. Thus, when normalizing, should this circular pitch be defined in the normal or traverse coordinate system, depending on which formulation has been used? Is the backlash parameter always defined with respect to the tangential plane or normal plane for helical gears?
Throughout the history of civilization attempts have been made to limit the number of the measuring systems in use with the result that today only two systems, English and metric, are practiced in the industrial nations. Globally, the metric system has been gaining ground, and the English system has been losing it. As of 1986, only the United States, Burma and Brunei remain uncommitted to metric conversion in the sense that no government controlled deadlines for the conversion have been established.
Gear engineers have long recognized the importance of considering system factors when analyzing a single pair of gears in mesh. These factors include important considerations such as load sharing in multi-mesh geartrains and bearing clearances, in addition to the effects of flexible components such as housings, gear blanks, shafts and carriers for planetary geartrains. However, in recent years, transmission systems have become increasingly complexâ€”with higher numbers of gears and componentsâ€”while the quality requirements and expectations in terms of durability, gear whine, rattle and efficiency have increased accordingly.
Gear noise is among the issues of greatest concern in today's modern gearboxes. Significant research has resulted in the application of enhancements in all phases of gear manufacturing, and the work is ongoing. With the introduction of Electric Vehicles (EV), research and development in this area has surged in recent years. Most importantly, powerful new noise analysis solutions are fast becoming available.
The complete industry news section from the June 2018 issue of Gear Technology.
The complete industry news section from the May 2018 issue of Gear Technology.
The complete Product News section from the January/February issue of Gear Technology.
The latest technology on display in Columbus, OH. October 24-26.
There is so much more to Gear Expo than gears or the machinery that makes them. That's because it takes much, much more to make a finished gear than even the most sophisticated machine. And it is exhibitors who are part of the "much, much, more" that are addressed in this article.
AGMA adds two new committees, Star Cutter Celebrates 90 years, plus other news from around the industry.
Dear Editor: Your article on the ITC's Report to the President on the condition of the U.S. gear industry (Sept./Oct. issue) was most interesting. I am wondering if the total report neglected to mention that some of our inability to export gears is due to our reluctance to provide metric countries with the metric module-based gears that overseas customers demand.
The complete Industry News section from the January/February 2013 issue of Gear Technology.
Market needs push in 2013, but will it get one? The construction/off-highway industries have been here before. New equipment, technologies and innovations during an economic standstill that some have been dealing with since 2007.
Siemens is helping the state of Georgia's STEM initiative by helping develop educational programs for the public schools.
The complete Industry News section from the July 2014 issue of Gear Technology.
The complete Product News section from the August 2014 issue of Gear Technology.
Sally Ride Science will be featured at IMTS 2014.
So there is little chance that they need the same software to assist with their work. Gone are the days when companies wrote their own code and process engineers thumbed the same tattered reference book.
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No one (not even you and I) consistently makes parts with perfect form and dimensions, so we must be able to efficiently check size and shape at many stages in the manufacturing and assembly process to eliminate scrap and rework and improve processes and profits. Automated inspection systems, which are widely used in all kinds of manufacturing operations, provide great efficiencies in checking individual features, but may not be as effective when asked to evaluate an entire part. You need to know why this is true and what you can do to improve your part yields.
Excessive machine tool vibration during a precision grinding operation can result in poor workpiece quality in the form of chatter, rough finishes, burn, etc. One possible reason for excessive vibration is directly associated with the relationship between natural frequencies of a machine tool system and the operating speed of the grinding wheel spindle.
The usage of modern thrusters allows combining the functions of the drive and the ship rudder in one unit, which are separated in conventional ship propulsion systems. The horizontally oriented propeller is supported in a vertically rotatable nacelle that is mounted underneath the ship's hull. The propeller can directly or indirectly be driven by an electric motor or combustion engine. Direct drive requires the installation of a low-speed electric motor in the nacelle. This present paper concentrates on indirect drives where the driving torque is transferred by bevel gear stages and shafts from the motor to the propeller.
Gleason's GMS analytical gear inspection systems provide all the right features at Eaton Corp.
Plastic gears are being used increasingly in applications, such as printers, cameras, small household appliances, small power tools, instruments, timers, counters and various other products. Because of the many variables involved, an engineer who designs gear trains on an occasional basis may find the design process to be somewhat overwhelming. This article outlines a systematic design approach for developing injection molded plastic spur and helical gears. The use of a computer program for designing plastic gears is introduced as an invaluable design tool for solving complex gearing equations.
Turnkey Design Services is manufacturing a planetary gear system to increase power density.
In this article, the authors calculated the numerical coordinates on the tooth surfaces of spiral bevel gears and then modeled the tooth profiles using a 3-D CAD system. They then manufactured the large-sized spiral bevel gears based on a CAM process using multi-axis control and multi-tasking machine tooling. The real tooth surfaces were measured using a coordinate measuring machine and the tooth flank form errors were detected using the measured coordinates. Moreover, the gears were meshed with each other and the tooth contact patterns were investigated. As a result, the validity of this manufacturing method was confirmed.
Compass Automation unveiled its Robotic Deburring System at Gear Expo 2009.
If a gear system is run continuously for long periods of timeâ€”or if the starting loads are very low and within the normal operating spectrumâ€”the effect of the start-up conditions may often be insignificant in the determination of the life of the gear system. Conversely, if the starting load is significantly higher than any of the normal operating conditions, and the gear system is started and stopped frequently, the start-up load may, depending on its magnitude and frequency, actually be the overriding, limiting design condition.
In the 1960's and early 1970's, considerable work was done to identify the various modes of damage that ended the lives of rolling element bearings. A simple summary of all the damage modes that could lead to failure is given in Table 1. In bearing applications that have insufficient or improper lubricant, or have contaminants (water, solid particles) or poor sealing, failure, such as excessive wear or vibration or corrosion, may occur, rather than contact fatigue. Usually other components in the overall system besides bearings also suffer. Over the years, builders of transmissions, axles, and gear boxes that comprise such systems have understood the need to improve the operating environment within such units, so that some system life improvements have taken place.
It's more important than ever to understand the full system your individual components are going into. Here's the latest in how software developers are helping you do that.
An experimental effort has been conducted on an aerospace-quality helical gear train to investigate the thermal behavior of the gear system. Test results from the parametric studies and the superfinishing process are presented.
By increasing the number of gears and the transmission-ratio spread, the engine will run with better fuel efficiency and without loss of driving dynamics. Transmission efficiency itself can be improved by: using fuelefficient transmission oil; optimizing the lubrication systems and pumps; improving shifting strategies and optimizing gearings; and optimizing bearings and seals/gaskets.
The GS:TE-LM thread grinder from Drake Manufacturing is fitted with a robot load/unload system that provides maximum throughput for high-volume production of ground threads.
A high-performance, 11-axis CNC system from NUM has enabled machine tool manufacturer Sicmat to create a gear honing machine that sets a new industry standard for post-hardening fine finishing.
September 3-11 the 1986 International Machine Tool Show, "The World of Manufacturing Technology", will be held at the McCormick Place Exposition Center in Chicago. More that 1000 exhibits from over thirty countries are planned. These exhibits will present a complete range of machine-tool products from 2-story high presses to complete manufacturing systems, lathes, lasers, CAD/CAM systems and robotics.
With all the advantages of building float into a planetary gear system, what advantages are there to using a carrier in the first place, rather than simply having your planets float in the system?
Dressable vitrified bond CBN grinding tools combine the advantages of other common tool systems in generating gear grinding. Yet despite those technological advantages, there is only a small market distribution of these grinding tools due to high tool costs. Furthermore, scant literature exists regarding generating gear grinding with dressable CBN. This is especially true regarding the influence of the grinding tool system on manufacturing-related component properties. The research objective of this report is to determine the advantages of dressable CBN tools in generating gear grinding.
Gear manufacturing schedules that provide both quality and economy are dependent on efficient quality control techniques with reliable measuring equipment. Given the multitude of possible gear deviations, which can be found only by systematic and detailed measuring of the gear teeth, adequate quality control systems are needed. This is especially true for large gears, on which remachining or rejected workpieces create very high costs. First, observation of the gears allows adjustment of the settings on the equipment right at the beginning of the process and helps to avoid unproductive working cycles. Second, the knowledge of deviations produced on the workpiece helps disclose chance inadequacies on the production side: e.g., faults in the machines and tools used, and provides an opportunity to remedy them.
The availability of technical software has grown rapidly in the last few years because of the proliferation of personal computers. It is rare to find an organization doing technical work that does not have some type of computer. For gear designers and manufacturers, proper use of the computer can mean the difference between meeting the competition or falling behind in today's business world. The right answers the first time are essential if cost-effective design and fabrication are to be realized. The computer is capable of optimizing a design by methods that are too laborious to undertake using hard calculations. As speeds continue to climb and more power per pound is required from gear systems, it no longer is possible to design "on the safe side" by using larger service factors. At high rotational speeds a larger gear set may well have less capacity because of dynamic effects. The gear engineer of today must consider the entire gear box or even the entire rotating system as his or her domain.
Designers are constantly searching for ways to reduce rotocraft drive system weight. Reduced weight can increase the payload, performance, or power density of current and future systems. One example of helicopter transmission weight reduction was initiated as part of the United States Army Advanced Rotocraft Transmission program. This example used a split-torque, face-gear configuration concept (Ref. 1). compared to a conventional design with spiral-bevel gears, the split-torque, face-gear design showed substantial weight savings benefits. Also, the use of face gears allows a wide-range of possible configurations with technical and economic benefits (Ref. 2).
Vehicle gear noise testing is a complex and often misunderstood subject. Gear noise is really a system problem.(1) most gearing used for power transmission is enclosed in a housing and, therefore, little or no audible sound is actually heard from the gear pair.(2) The vibrations created by the gears are amplified by resonances of structural elements. This amplification occurs when the speed of the gear set is such that the meshing frequency or a multiply of it is equal to a natural frequency of the system in which the gears are mounted.
The NASA Lewis Research Center investigated the effect of tooth profile on the acoustic behavior of spur gears through experimental techniques. The tests were conducted by Cleveland State University (CSU) in NASA Lewis' spur gear testing apparatus. Acoustic intensity (AI) measurements of the apparatus were obtained using a Robotic Acoustic Intensity Measurement System (RAIMS). This system was developed by CSU for NASA to evaluate the usefulness of a highly automated acoustic intensity measurement tool in the reverberant environment of gear transmission test cells.
"We have met the enemy and he is us," says Pogo, the cartoon character. The enemy is the crisis in our educational system, and "crisis" is the only term that accurately describes the situation. It is every bit as serious, if not more so, than the crisis that followed the Soviet launching of Sputnik in 1957 - and for many of the same reasons. Our failing public education system threatens our position int he global political and business arenas; and this time, it's not just the Soviets or the Japanese who need to be taken seriously as competitors. Every country int he world that graduates better prepared students than we do - and there are a great many of them - has us at a competitive disadvantage.
One of the best ways to learn the ISO 6336 gear rating system is to recalculate the capacity of a few existing designs and to compare the ISO 6336 calculated capacity to your experience with those designs and to other rating methods. For these articles, I'll assume that you have a copy of ISO 6336, you have chosen a design for which you have manufacturing drawings and an existing gear capacity calculation according to AGMA 2001 or another method. I'll also assume that you have converted dimensions, loads, etc. into the SI system of measurement.
Recently, there has been increased interest in the dynamic effects in gear systems. This interest is stimulated by demands for stronger, higher speed, improved performance, and longer-lived systems. This in turn had stimulated numerous research efforts directed toward understanding gear dynamic phenomena. However, many aspects of gear dynamics are still not satisfactorily understood.
This article presents an efficient and direct method for the synthesis of compound planetary differential gear trains for the generation of specified multiple speed ratios. It is a train-value method that utilizes the train values of the integrated train components of the systems to form design equations which are solved for the tooth numbers of the gears, the number of mating gear sets and the number of external contacts in the system. Application examples, including vehicle differential transmission units, rear-end differentials with unit and fractional speed ratios, multi-input functions generators and robot wrist joints are given.
There are different types of spiral bevel gears, based on the methods of generation of gear-tooth surfaces. A few notable ones are the Gleason's gearing, the Klingelnberg's Palloid System, and the Klingelnberg's and Oerlikon's Cyclo Palliod System. The design of each type of spiral bevel gear depends on the method of generation used. It is based on specified and detailed directions which have been worked out by the mentioned companies. However, there are some general aspects, such as the concepts of pitch cones, generating gear, and conditions of force transmissions that are common for all types of spiral bevel gears.
Many CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems have been developed and implemented to produce a superior quality design and to increase the design productivity in the gear industry. In general, it is true that a major portion of design tasks can be performed by CAD systems currently available. However, they can only address the computational aspects of gear design that typically require decision-making as well. In most industrial gear design practices, the initial design is the critical task that significantly effects the final results. However, the decisions about estimating or changing gear size parameters must be made by a gear design expert.
It used to be that a shop with hustle and plenty of big, fast machines could thrive using a manual system. But no more. Today's economic environment requires more and more in the way of topnotch service and quick turnaround - which frequently means a completely integrated shop floor control system.
Prior to receiving airworthiness certification, extensive testing is required during the development of rotary wing aircraft drive systems. Many of these tests are conducted to demonstrate the drive systemâ€™s ability to operate at extreme conditions, i.e. â€” beyond that called for in the normal to maximum power operating range.
Arrow Gear Company of Downers Grove, IL, has implemented a computer system that fully integrates exchange between all of its computer applications. The ELIMS (Electronic Linkage of Information Management Systems) project has increased manufacturing productivity and reduced lead times.
Mineral-oil-base lubricants show a significant decrease of kinematic viscosity with rising temperature, as exemplified in Figure 1 by lubricants for vehicle gears. An important attribute of lubricants is their viscosity index (VI), according to DIN/ISO 2909 (Ref. 4). Viscosity index is a calculated coefficient, which characterizes the change of viscosity of lubricants as a function of temperature. A high viscosity index represents a low variation of viscosity due to temperature and vice versa. A low viscosity-temperature-dependence is required for lubricants that are operated at significantly varying temperature conditions, such as vehicle engine and gear lubricants in summer and winter time. This way, the oils remain flowing and pumpable at low temperatures on the one hand; and on the other hand, sufficiently thick lubricant films can be formed at higher temperatures for a safe separation of the surfaces.
Hypoid gears are the paragon of gearing. To establish line contact between the pitches in hypoid gears, the kinematically correct pitch surfaces have to be determined based on the axoids. In cylindrical and bevel gears, the axoids are identical to the pitch surfaces and their diameter or cone angle can be calculated simply by using the knowledge about number of teeth and module or ratio and shaft angle. In hypoid gears, a rather complex approach is required to find the location of the teethâ€”even before any information about flank form can be considered. This article is part seven of an eight-part series on the tribology aspects of angular gear drives.
More and more gear shops are wrestling with the issue of whether or not solid modeling is right for their gear design work. The Q & A Page of The Gear Industry Home Page has had numerous questions asking how to model gears in solid modeling applications such as AutoCAD, Solidworks and Pr/Engineer. Given the problems people have been having, we are presenting the step-by-step process for modeling gears in Pr/Engineer, but first we thought it would be a good idea to explore the question of whether or not you should even try to design gears using Pro/Engineer or any other 3D solid modeling program.
Nondestructive examination (NDE) of ferrous and nonferrous materials has long proved an effective maintenance and anomaly characterization tool for many industries. Recent research has expanded its applicability to include the inspection of large, open gear drives. Difficulties inherent in other NDE methods make them time-consuming and labor-intensive. They also present the user with the environmental problem of the disposal of used oil. The eddy current method addresses these problems.
Over the last 15 years, there has been significant growth in the number of transmission types as well as their complexity: manual, conventional automatic, dual clutch, automated manual, continuously variable, split power and pure EV transmissions.
There's a reason they call it catastrophic gear failure: For example, if the line goes down at a large aluminum rolling mill because a gear set goes bad, the cost can run up to a whopping $200,000 a week. Even in smaller operations, the numbers alone (not to mention all the other problems) can be a plant manager's worst nightmare.
This report describes Klingelnberg's vision of Industry 4.0 gear production.
Accurate prediction of gear dynamic factors (also known as Kv factors) is necessary to be able to predict the fatigue life of gears. Standards-based calculations of gear dynamic factors have some limitations. In this paper we use a multibody dynamic model, with all 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) of a high-speed gearbox to calculate gear dynamic factors. The findings from this paper will help engineers to understand numerous factors that influence the prediction of dynamic factors and will help them to design more reliable gears.
Delta Research upgrades its Gleason Metrology Workhorses to meet the development requirements of the latest electrical drive vehicles.
Carburized and hardened gears have optimum load-carrying capability. There are many alternative ways to produce a hard case on the gear surface. Also, selective direct hardening has some advantages in its ability to be used in the production line, and it is claimed that performance results equivalent to a carburized gear can be obtained. This article examines the alternative ways of carburizing, nitriding, and selective direct hardening, considering equipment, comparative costs, and other factors. The objective must be to obtain the desired quality at the lowest cost.
Vibration and noise from wind turbines can be significantly influenced - and therefore reduced - by selecting suitable gearing modifications. New options provided by manufacturers of machine tools and grinding machines, and especially state-of-the-art machines and controls, provide combined gearing modifications - or topological gearing corrections - that can now be reliably machined. Theoretical investigations of topological modifications are discussed here with the actual machining and their possible use.
Gear flank breakage can be observed on edge zone-hardened gears. It occurs, for example, on bevel gears for water turbines, on spur gears for wind energy converters and on single- and double-helical gears for other industrial applications.
This article is part five of an eight-part series on the tribology aspects of angular gear drives. Each article will be presented first and exclusively by Gear Technology, but the entire series will be included in Dr. Stadtfeldâ€™s upcoming book on the subject, which is scheduled for release in 2011.
Zerol bevel gears are the special case of spiral bevel gears with a spiral angle of 0°. They are manufactured in a single-indexing face milling process with large cutter diameters, an extra deep tooth profile and tapered tooth depth.
The gear designer needs to know how to determine an appropriate case depth for a gear application in order to guarantee the required load capacity.
Before retiring from St. Louis Gear in 2000, Roy Harmon liked to tinker. Since the customer base at the time was seasonal, Harmon was looking for a project to keep himself busy. The engineer decided to challenge himself by designing a â€śSouth Pointing Chariot,â€ť a device he had read about in the book The Evolution of the Gear Art by Darle Dudley.
"General Explanations on Theoretical Bevel Gear Analysis" is part 1 of an eight-part series from Gleason's Dr. Hermann Stadtfeld.
This article is part four of an eight-part series on the tribology aspects of angular gear drives. Each article will be presented first and exclusively by Gear Technology, but the entire series will be included in Dr. Stadtfeldâ€™s upcoming book on the subject, which is scheduled for release in 2011.
Question: We are contemplating purchasing a hobbing machine with dry hobbing capabilities. What do we need to know about the special system requirements for this technology?
The popular perception today is that technological advancement is an engine running almost out of control. New products and processes are developing faster than we can keep up with them, as anyone who has had a new computer system crash into obsolescence practically before it's out of the box can tell you. But that's not the case everywhere. Transmission technology, for example.
This article offers an overview of the practical design of a naval gear for combined diesel or gas turbine propulsion (CODOG type). The vibration performance of the gear is tested in a back-to-back test. The gear presented is a low noise design for the Royal Dutch Navy's LCF Frigate. The design aspects for low noise operation were incorporated into the overall gear system design. Therefore, special attention was paid to all the parameters that could influence the noise and vibration performance of the gearbox. These design aspects, such as tooth corrections, tooth loading, gear layout, balance, lubrication and resilient mounting, will be discussed.
Powder metal. To gear makers today, the phrase conjures images of low power applications in non-critical systems. As powder metal technology advances, as the materials increase in density and strength, such opinions are changing. It is an ongoing, evolutionary process and one that will continue for some time. According to Donald G. White, the executive director of the Metal Powder Industries Federation, in his State-of-the-P/M Industry - 1999 report. "The P/M world is changing rapidly and P/M needs to be recognized as a world-class process - national, continental and even human barriers and prejudices must be eliminated - we must join forces as a world process - unified in approach and goals."
Indianapolis is a nice city. No. It's a great city for a convention. The facilities and the city are modern, clean and bright. The Convention Center is easy to get to by either car or plane, and its central location in the heart of town and the enclosed skyway system between it and major hotels put visitors close to amenities like restaurants, shopping and entertainment. The people are friendly and go out of their way to make visitors feel welcome.
Richard Spens has been rebuilding antique machine tools for nearly a decade. He is drawn to the ornate architecture and fascinated by the open design that allows you to see inside a machine as it operates. "Working with machines has been a lifelong thing with me," said Spens, now a design engineer. "I started building steam engines when I was 10 years old." What he's working on now, however, is bigger than any steam engine or machine tool. In rural Livonia, Michigan, Spens is converting an old dairy barn into an accurate recreation of a turn-of-the-century, belt driven gear shop. It's an outgrowth of his interest in antique machine tools and, he feels, a way to stem the tide that is costing America so many manufacturing and skilled trade jobs.
The type of lubricant and the method of applying it to the tooth flanks of large open gears is very important from the point of view of lubrication technology and maintenance. When selecting the type of lubricant and the application method, it is important to check whether it is possible to feed the required lubricant quantity to the load-carrying tooth flanks, This is necessary to avoid deficient lubrication, damage to the gear and operational malfunctions. It is important to determine the type of lubricant, which may be fluid or grease-like. The consistency of the lubricant will have a direct impact on the ability of the lubrication system to feed adequately the lubricant to the gear. The interactions between the common types of lubricant and the lubrication application methods for open gear drives are shown in Fig. 1.
This textbook, written for college level engineering students, gives a basic grounding in the complexities of product liability law. It also provides useful information to those of us involved in the manufacturing of gears and gear systems in that the fundamental concepts apply to all types of manufacturers.
So, you've been assigned the task to buy an induction heating system for heat treating: It's an intimidating, but by no means impossible, assignment. With the help of the information in this article, you could be able to develop common ground with your supplier and have the tools to work with him or her to get the right machine for your jobs.
The trend toward moving coordinate measuring machines to the shop floor to become an integral part of the manufacturing operations brings real time process control within the reach of many companies. Putting measuring machines on the shop floor, however, subjects them to harsh environmental conditions. Like any measuring system, CMMs are sensitive to any ambient condition that deviates from the "perfect" conditions of the metrology lab.
In 1993, M & M Precision Systems was awarded a three-year, partial grant from the Advanced Technology Program of the Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Working with Pennsylvania State University, M&M embarked on a technology development project to advance gear measurement capabilities to levels of accuracy never before achieved.
Today motion control systems are migrating from analog to digital technology at an ever increasing rate because digital technology at an ever-increasing rate because digital drives provide performance equal to or exceeding that of analog drives, plus information to run your machine more effectively and manage your quality program and your business. Most of this data is simply not available from analog drives.
This book is written for those among us, with or without a technical background, who have an occasional need to use, purchase or specify gears. The author assumes an audience that is not made up of experienced gear designers, but of people who do need to have a basic understanding of the criteria used by the designer. The subjects covered include not only the gears themselves, but their manufacturing methods, the systems that contain them and the terms used to describe them.
Many potential problems are not apparent when using new induction heat treating systems. The operator has been trained properly, and setup parameters are already developed. Everything is fresh in one's mind. But as the equipment ages, personnel changes or new parts are required to be processed on the old equipment ages, personnel changes or new parts are required to b processed on the old equipment, important information can get lost in the shuffle.
Question: When we purchase our first CNC gear hobbing machine, what questions should we ask about the software? What do we need to know to correctly specify the system requirements?
Crown gearings are not a new type of gear system. On the contrary, they have been in use since very early times for various tasks. Their earliest form is that of the driving sprocket, found in ancient Roman watermills or Dutch windmills. The first principles of gear geometry and simple methods of production (shaper cutting) were developed in the 1940s. In the 1950s, however, crown gears' importance declined. Their tasks were, for example, taken over by bevel gears, which were easier to manufacture and could transmit greater power. Current subject literature accordingly contains very little information on crown gears, directed mainly to pointing out their limitations (Ref. 1).
In one of my many visits to northern New York state, which included the St. Lawrence River (Thousand Islands Region) and the Adirondack Mountains, I visited Croghan, a village on the Beaver River, which is fed by the Stillwater Resevoir in the Adirondack Mountains. At the base of a dam within the village, I found the remnants of a water turbine and a bevel gear drive system. Having worked for The Gleason Works for many years, I was intrigued by the remains of the bevel gears, which appeared to have had wooden teeth at one time.
Andantex USA is a part of the worldwide Redex group, a longtime provider of high-precision motion control components and systems
Which transmission system will come out on top is a hot topic in the automotive community. With multiple transmission-centric conferences on the horizon, there will be plenty of debate, but how much will the answer actually affect gear manufacturers, and when?
Your automobile's differential is easily one of its most important components. This becomes crystal clear to anyone that has ever had to pony up to replace one. The differential, that mathy-driven, mechanically complex system that keeps axles and pinions running smoothly was invented by a watchmaker - for a watch.
Free form milling of gears becomes more and more important as a flexible machining process for gears. Reasons for that are high degrees of freedom as the usage of universal tool geometry and machine tools is possible. This allows flexible machining of various gear types and sizes with one manufacturing system. This paper deals with manufacturing, quality and performance of gears made by free form milling. The focus is set on specific process properties of the parts. The potential of free form milling is investigated in cutting tests of a common standard gear. The component properties are analyzed and flank load-carrying capacity of the gears is derived by running trials on back-to-back test benches. Hereby the characteristics of gears made by free form milling and capability in comparison with conventionally manufactured gears will be shown.
Oil-out conditions, or conditions in which an aircraft is operating without any oil in its gearbox or transmission, are devastating for an aircraft's hardware. Even the sturdiest gears usually can't last 30 minutes under such conditions before they catastrophically fail, and the whole system usually follows shortly after. That doesn't leave pilots with a whole lot of time to find a suitable location to land in the case of an oil-out emergency.
While the two have taught a variety of AGMA courses over the years, without question their most popular courses are Gear Failure Analysis (Errichello with longtime colleague Jane Muller) and Gearbox CSI: Forensic Analysis of Gear & Bearing Failures (Drago). Drago currently teaches Manufacturing & Inspection (with AGMA instructor Joseph W. Lenski, Jr.) and Gearbox System Design: The Rest of the Story - Everything but the Gears and Bearings (with AGMA instructor Steve Cymbala) as well.
Gear-loaded tooth contact analysis is an important tool for the design and analysis of gear performance within transmission and driveline systems. Methods for the calculation of tooth contact conditions have been discussed in the literature for many years. It's possible the method you've been using is underestimating transmission error in helical gears. Here's why.
Workholding Systems Continue to Focus on Speed and Efficiency to Improve Machining Operations
Schafer Gear Works greatly reduces gear inspection queue time and adds precious capacity by installing Gleason's new "shop-hardened" 300GMS P gear inspection system.
THE FINAL CHAPTER This is the last in the series of chapters excerpted from Dr. Hermann J. Stadtfeld's Gleason Bevel Gear Technology - a book written for specialists in planning, engineering, gear design and manufacturing. The work also addresses the technical information needs of researchers, scientists and students who deal with the theory and practice of bevel gears and other angular gear systems. While all of the above groups are of course of invaluable importance to the gear industry, it is surely the students who hold the key to its future. And with that knowledge it is reassuring to hear from Dr. Stadtfeld of the enthusiastic response he has received from younger readers of these chapter installments.
According to the U.K.-based WITT Energy website (witt-energy.com), "The WITT is the only device in the world that can capture energy from all movement and turn it into electricity. No other energy system can exploit the full spectrum of movement, enabling it to harvest power from water (sea, river or tidal), wind and human or animal motion."
The calculation begins with the computation of the ring gear blank data. The geometrically relevant parameters are shown in Figure 1. The position of the teeth relative to the blank coordinate system of a bevel gear blank is satisfactorily defined with...
New turnkey, "off-the-shelf" Gleason 2700AR system automates larger-gear load/unload to speed throughput, optimize process flow - and take the weight off the operator.
Gear designers face constant pressure to increase power density in their drivetrains. In the automotive industry, for example, typical engine torque has increased significantly over the last several decades. Meanwhile, the demands for greater fuel efficiency mean designers must accommodate these increased loads in a smaller, more lightweight package than ever before. In addition, electric and hybrid vehicles will feature fewer gears, with fewer transmission speeds, running at higher rpms, meaning the gears in those systems will have to endure life cycles far beyond what is typical with internal combustion engines.
Alongside the macro test parameters on tooth flanks for profile and tooth traces, surface properties (roughness) play a decisive role in ensuring proper toothed gear function. This article addresses roughness measurement systems on tooth flanks. In addition to universal test equipment, modified test equipment based on the profile method for use on gears is addressed in particular. The equipment application here refers to cylindrical gear flanks and bevel gear flanks. The most important roughness parameters, as well as the implementation of the precise measurement procedure will also be described under consideration of the applicable DIN EN ISO standards as well as the current VDI/VDE Directive 2612 Sheet 5.
This paper presents the geometric design of hypoid gears with involute gear teeth. An overview of face cutting techniques prevalent in hypoid gear fabrication is presented. Next, the specification of a planar involute rack is reviewed. This rack is used to define a variable diameter cutter based upon a system of cylindroidal coordinates; thus, a cursory presentation of cylindroidal coordinates is included. A mapping transforms the planar involute rack into a variable diameter cutter using the cylindroidal coordinates. Hypoid gears are based on the envelope of this cutter. A hypoid gear set is presented based on an automotive rear axle.
NVH â€” noise, vibration and harshness â€” is a key issue in the design and development of modern transmission and driveline systems.
The geometry of the bevel gear is quite complicated to describe mathematically, and much of the overall surface topology of the tooth flank is dependent on the machine settings and cutting method employed. AGMA 929-A06 â€” Calculation of Bevel Gear Top Land and Guidance on Cutter Edge Radius â€” lays out a practical approach for predicting the approximate top-land thicknesses at certain points of interest â€” regardless of the exact machine settings that will generate the tooth form. The points of interest that AGMA 929-A06 address consist of toe, mean, heel, and point of involute lengthwise curvature. The following method expands upon the concepts described in AGMA 929-A06 to allow the user to calculate not only the top-land thickness, but the more general case as well, i.e. â€” normal tooth thickness anywhere along the face and profile of the bevel gear tooth. This method does not rely on any additional machine settings; only basic geometry of the cutter, blank, and teeth are required to calculate fairly accurate tooth thicknesses. The tooth thicknesses are then transformed into a point cloud describing both the convex and concave flanks in a global, Cartesian coordinate system. These points can be utilized in any modern computer-aided design software package to assist in the generation of a 3D solid model; all pertinent tooth macrogeometry can be closely simulated using this technique. A case study will be presented evaluating the accuracy of the point cloud data compared to a physical part.
This paper proposes a new method â€” using neural oscillators â€” for filtering out background vibration noise in meshing plastic gear pairs in the detection of signs of gear failure. In this paper these unnecessary frequency components are eliminated with a feed-forward control system in which the neural oscillatorâ€™s synchronization property works. Each neural oscillator is designed to tune the natural frequency to a particular one of the components.
The recently available capability for the free-form milling of gears of various gear types and sizes â€” all within one manufacturing system â€” is becoming increasingly recognized as a flexible machining process for gears.
The hobbing and generation grinding production processes are complex due to tool geometry and kinematics. Expert knowledge and extensive testing are required for a clear attribution of cause to work piece deviations. A newly developed software tool now makes it possible to simulate the cutting procedure of the tool and superimpose systematic deviations on it. The performance of the simulation software is illustrated here with practical examples. The new simulation tool allows the user to accurately predict the effect of errors. With this knowledge, the user can design and operate optimal, robust gearing processes.
Klingelnberg presents the technical aspects of its roughness measurement system.
Composite spur gears were designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center. The composite web was bonded only to the inner and outer hexagonal features that were machined from an initially all-metallic aerospace quality spur gear. The hybrid gear was tested against an all-steel gear and against a mating hybrid gear. Initial results indicate that this type of hybrid design may have a dramatic effect on drive system weight without sacrificing strength.
It is widely recognized that the reduction of CO2 requires consistent light-weight design of the entire vehicle. Likewise, the trend towards electric cars requires light-weight design to compensate for the additional weight of battery systems. The need for weight reduction is also present regarding vehicle transmissions. Besides the design of the gearbox housing, rotating masses such as gear wheels and shafts have a significant impact on fuel consumption. The current technology shows little potential of gear weight reduction due to the trade-off between mass optimization and the manufacturing process. Gears are usually forged followed or not by teeth cutting operation.
Universal tractor transmission oil (UTTO) is multifunctional tractor oil formulated for use in transmissions, final drives, differentials, wet brakes, and hydraulic systems of farm tractors employing a common oil reservoir. In the present work, the gear protection properties of two formulated vegetable-based UTTO oils, one synthetic ester-based UTTO oil, one synthetic ester gear oil, and one mineral based UTTO oil are investigated.
Bodine Electric Co. of Chicago, IL., has a 97-year history of fine-and medium-pitch gear manufacturing. Like anywhere else, traditions, old systems, and structures can be beneficial, but they can also become paradigms and obstacles to further improvements. We were producing a high quality product, but our goal was to become more cost effective. Carbide hobbing is seen as a technological innovation capable of enabling a dramatic, rather than an incremental, enhancement to productivity and cost savings.
Designing and sizing a rack-and-pinion system, per AGMA and ISO gear calculation.
In the design of any new gear drive, the performance of previous similar designs is very carefully considered. In the course of evaluating one such new design, the authors were faced with the task of comparing it with two similar existing systems, both of which were operating quite successfully. A problem arose, however, when it was realized that the bending stress levels of the two baselines differed substantially. In order to investigate these differences and realistically compare them to the proposed new design, a three-dimensional finite-element method (FEM) approach was applied to all three gears.
Question: We are interested in purchasing our first gear hobbing machine. What questions should we ask the manufacturer, and what do we need to know in order to correctly specify the CNC hardware and software system requirements?
Above all, a gear is not just a mechanical transmission, but is developed to a system fulfilling multiple demands, such as clutch integration, selectable output speeds, and controls of highest electronic standards. This paper shows the basics for high-speed gear design and a selection of numerous applications in detailed design and operational needs.
Tribology Aspects in Angular Transmission Systems, Part 2
One of the most effective methods in solving the edge loading problem due to excess misalignment and deflection in aerospace actuation gearing is to localize tooth-bearing contact by crowning the teeth. Irrespective of the applied load, if the misalignment and/or deflection are large enough to cause the contact area to reduce to zero, the stress becomes large enough to cause failure. The edge loading could cause the teeth to break or pit, but too much crowning may also cause the teeth to pit due to concentrated loading. In this paper, a proposed method to localize the contact bearing area and calculate the contact stress with crowning is presented and demonstrated on some real-life examples in aerospace actuation systems.
Micropitting has become a major concern in certain classes of industrial gear applications, especially wind power and other relatively highly loaded, somewhat slow-speed applications, where carburized gears are used to facilitate maximum load capacity in a compact package. While by itself the appearance of micropitting does not generally cause much perturbation in the overall operation of a gear system, the ultimate consequences of a micropitting failure can, and frequently are, much more catastrophic.
Bore finishing system from Sunnen helps Cloyes Gear and Products achieve high accuracy, productivity and process capability.
This article presents a new spur gear 20-degree design that works interchangeably with the standard 20-degree system and achieves increased tooth bending strength and hence load carrying capacity.
Bevel gear systems are particularly sensitive to improper assembly. Slight errors in gear positioning can turn a well-designed, quality manufactured gear set into a noisy, prone-to-failure weak link in your application.
In addition to the face milling system, the face hobbing process has been developed and widely employed by the gear industry. However, the mechanism of the face hobbing process is not well known.
Long before oil, climate change and energy demand were making headlines in Washington, Minnesota State Auditor Rebecca Otto and her husband installed a wind energy system on their property in Minnesota.
Dontyne Systems, a U.K. company founded by Michael Fish and David Palmer, recently unveiled a new software program for its Gear Production Suite.
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is adapted, validated and applied to spinning gear systems with emphasis on predicting windage losses. Several spur gears and a disc are studied. The CFD simulations return good agreement with measured windage power loss.
Super-reduction hypoid gears (SRH) are bevel worm gears with certain differences regarding hypoid gears. If two axes are positioned in space and the task is to transmit motion and torque between them using some kind of gears with a ratio above 5 and even higher than 50, the following cases are commonly known. Tribology Aspects in Angular Transmission Systems, Part VIII.
Gear metrology is a revolving door of software packages and system upgrades. It has to be in order to keep up with the productivity and development processes of the machines on the manufacturing floor. Temperature compensation, faster inspection times and improved software packages are just a few of the advancements currently in play as companies prepare for new opportunities in areas like alternative energy, automotive and aerospace/defense.
Industrial gear standards have been used to support reliability through the specification of requirements for design, manufacturing and verification. The consensus development of an international wind turbine gearbox standard is an example where gear products can be used in reliable mechanical systems today. This has been achieved through progressive changes in gear technology, gear design methods and the continual development and refinement of gearbox standards.
Calculation of gear tooth flexibility is of interest for at least two reasons: (a) It controls, at least in part, the vibratory properties of a transmission system hence, fatigue resistance and noise: (b) it controls load sharing in multiple tooth contact.
One of the current research activities here at California State University at Fullerton is systematization of existing knowledge of design of planetary gear trains.
The Pentac Plus is the latest generation of Gleasonâ€™s Pentac bevel gear cutting system. It is designed to allow much higher tool life and improved productivity, especially for cutters using multiple face blade geometry.
Excess lubricant supply in gearing contributes to power loss due to churning as well as the requirements of the lubrication system itself. Normally, a much larger amount of oil than required is used for cooling because so much of it is thrown away by centrifugal force. To lower the amount of lubricant required and reduce those losses, it is necessary to discover the ideal location of the supplying nozzle.
As is well known in involute gearing, â€śperfectâ€ť involute gears never work perfectly in the real world. Flank modifications are often made to overcome the influences of errors coming from manufacturing and assembly processes as well as deflections of the system. The same discipline applies to hypoid gears.
Google â€ślean manufacturingâ€ť and you will find a virtually endless font of information regarding formal lean implementation. Youâ€™ll see definitions for Japanese words such as kaizen, gemba, muda, mura, kanban, and so on. You will also find other variations or iterations of lean, e.g.: Six Sigma, Lean Sigma, TPS (Toyota Production System), TOC (Theory of Constraints), JIT (Just in Time), and others.
In most transmission systems, one of the main power loss sources is the loaded gear mesh. In this article, the influences of gear geometry parameters on gear efficiency, load capacity, and excitation are shown.
An experimental effort has been conducted on an aerospace-quality helical gear train to investigate the thermal behavior of the gear system as many important operational conditions were varied.
Beveloids are helical gears with nonparallel shafts, with shaft angles generally between 5 degrees and 15 degrees. This is part VI in the Tribology Aspects in Angular Transmission Systems Series
As a result of extensive research into the vibration characteristics of gear drives, a systematic approach has evolved, by which damaging resonances can be eliminated. The method combines finite element techniques with experimental signature and modal analyses. Implementation of the bulk of the method can be carried out early in the design stage. A step-by-step description of the approach, as it was applied to an existing accessory drive, is given in the text. It is shown how premature bearing failures were eliminated by detuning the torsional oscillations of a gearshaft. A dramatic reduction in vibration levels was achieved as a result of detuning the problem gear. The proposed approach can be extended to other types of rotating machines.
For environmental and economic reasons, the use of coolant in machining processes is increasingly being questioned. Rising coolant prices and disposal costs, as well as strains on workers and the environment, have fueled the debate. The use of coolant has given rise to a highly technical system for handling coolant in the machine (cooling, filtering) and protecting the environment (filter, oil-mist collector). In this area the latest cutting materials - used with or without coolant - have great potential for making the metal-removal process more economical. The natural progression to completely dry machining has decisive advantages for hobbing.
The manufacturing process to produce a gear essentially consist of: material selection, blank preshaping, tooth shaping, heat treatment, and final shaping. Only by carefully integrating of the various operations into a complete manufacturing system can an optimum gear be obtained. The final application of the gear will determine what strength characteristics will be required which subsequently determine the material and heat treatments.
Optimization is applied to the design of a spiral bevel gear reduction for maximum life at a given size. A modified feasible directions search algorithm permits a wide variety of inequality constraints and exact design requirements to be met with low sensitivity to initial values. Gear tooth bending strength and minimum contact ration under load are included in the active constraints. The optimal design of the spiral bevel gear reduction includes the selection of bearing and shaft proportions in addition to gear mesh parameters. System life is maximized subject to a fixed back-cone distance of the spiral bevel gear set for a specified speed ratio, shaft angle, input torque and power. Significant parameters in the design are the spiral angle, the pressure angle, the numbers of teeth on the pinion and gear and the location and size of the four support bearings. Interpolated polynomials expand the discrete bearing properties and proportions into continuous variables for gradient optimization. After finding the continuous optimum, a designer can analyze near-optimal designs for comparison and selection. Design examples show the influence of the bearing lives on the gear parameters in the optimal configurations. For a fixed back-cone distance, optimal designs with larger shaft angles have larger service lives.
Surface measurement of any metal gear tooth contact surface will indicate some degree of peaks and valleys. When gears are placed in mesh, irregular contact surfaces are brought together in the typical combination of rolling and sliding motion. The surface peaks, or asperities, of one tooth randomly contact the asperities of the mating tooth. Under the right conditions, the asperities form momentary welds that are broken off as the gear tooth action continues. Increased friction and higher temperatures, plus wear debris introduced into the system are the result of this action.
Durability is the most important criterion used to define the quality of a gear. The freezing of metals has been acknowledged for almost thirty years as an effective method for increasing durability, or "wear life," and decreasing residual stress in tool steels. The recent field of deep cryogenics (below -300 degrees F) has brought us high temperature superconductors, the superconducting super collider, cryo-biology, and magnotehydrodynamic drive systems. It has also brought many additional durability benefits to metals.
This method of testing large gearboxes or, indeed, any power transmission element, had numerous advantages and offers the possibility of large savings in time, energy, and plant, if the overall situation is conducive to its use. This usually requires that several such units need to be tested, and that they can be conveniently connected to each to each other in such a way as to form a closed-loop drive train. No power sink is required, and the drive input system has only to make up power losses. The level of circulating power is controlled by the torque, which is applied statically during rotation, and the drive speed. Principles, advantage, and limitations are described, together with recent experiences in the only known large-scale usage of this technique in Australia.
Solutions to the governing equations of a spur gear transmission model, developed in a previous article are presented. Factors affecting the dynamic load are identified. It is found that the dynamic load increases with operating speed up to a system natural frequency. At operating speeds beyond the natural frequency the dynamic load decreases dramatically. Also, it is found that the transmitted load and shaft inertia have little effect upon the total dynamic load. Damping and friction decrease the dynamic load. Finally, tooth stiffness has a significant effect upon dynamic loadings the higher the stiffness, the lower the dynamic loading. Also, the higher the stiffness, the higher the rotating speed required for peak dynamic response.
Cubic boron nitride (CBN) finishing of carburized gearing has been shown to have certain economic and geometric advantages and, as a result, it has been applied to a wide variety of precision gears in many different applications. In critical applications such as aerospace drive systems, however, any new process must be carefully evaluated before it is used in a production application. Because of the advantages associated with this process, a test program was instituted to evaluate the load capacity of aerospace-quality gears finished by the CBN process as compared to geometrically identical gears finished by conventional grinding processes. This article presents a brief description of the CBN process, its advantages in an aerospace application, and the results of an extensive test program conducted by Boeing Helicopters (BH) aimed at an evaluation of the effects of this process on the scoring, surface durability, and bending fatigue properties of spur gears. In addition, the results of an x-ray diffraction study to determine the surface and subsurface residual stress distributions of both shot-peened and nonshot-peened CBN-ground gears as compared to similar conventionally ground gears are also presented.
The paper describes a procedure for the design of internal gear pairs, which is a generalized form of the long and short addendum system. The procedure includes checks for interference, tip interference, undercutting, tip interference during cutting, and rubbing during cutting.
This article discusses an application driven approach to the computer-aided sizing of spur gear teeth. The methodology is bases on the index of tooth loading and environment of application of the gear. It employs handbook knowledge and empirical information to facilitate the design process for a novice. Results show that the approach is in agreement with the textbook data. However, this technique requires less expert knowledge to arrive at the conclusion. The methodology has been successfully implemented as a gear tooth sizing module of a parallel axis gear drive expert system.
March 19-22, 1989. first International Applied Mechanical Systems Design Conference. Convention Center, Nashville, TN. March 28-30, 1989. Gear Design Seminar, University of Northern Iowa
March 19-22, 1989. First International Applied Mechanical Systems Design Conference. Convention Center, Nashville, TN. April 25-27, 1989. ASME 5th Annual Power Transmission & Gearing Conference, Chicago, IL
Worm gear speed reducers give the design engineer considerable options, but these gear systems present a challenge to the lubrication engineer. Heat energy generated by the high rate of sliding and friction in the contact zone causes worm gears to be relatively inefficient compared to other gear types. Because worm gears operate under a boundary or near-boundary lubrication regime, a satisfactory lubricant should contain a friction modifier to alleviate these conditions.
The south-pointing chariot exhibited at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., (circa 2600 BC)is shown in Fig. 1. Although the mechanism is ancient, it is by no means either primitive or simplistic. The pin-tooth gears drive a complex system, wherein the monk on the top of the chariot continues to point in a preset direction, no matter what direction the vehicle in moved, without a slip of the wheels.(1)
Modern manufacturing processes have become an ally of the product designer in producing higher quality, higher performing components in the transportation industry. This is particularly true in grinding systems where the physical properties of CBN abrasives have been applied to improving cycle times, dimensional consistency, surface integrity and overall costs. Of these four factors, surface integrity offers the greatest potential for influencing the actual design of highly stressed, hardened steel components.
The concept of "transmission error" is relatively new and stems from research work in the late 1950s by Gregory, Harris and Munro,(1) together with the need to check the accuracy of gear cutting machines. The corresponding commercial "single flank" testing equipment became available in the 1960s, but it was not until about ten years ago that it became generally used, and only recently has it been possible to test reliably at full load and full speed.
Among the various types of gearing systems available to the gear application engineer is the versatile and unique worm and worm gear set. In the simpler form of a cylindrical worm meshing at 90 degree axis angle with an enveloping worm gear, it is widely used and has become a traditional form of gearing. (See Fig. 1) This is evidenced by the large number of gear shops specializing in or supplying such gear sets in unassembled form or as complete gear boxes. Special designs as well as standardized ratio sets covering wide ratio ranges and center distanced are available with many as stock catalog products.
Almost all machines or mechanical systems contain precision contact elements such as bearings, cams, rears, shafts, splines and rollers. These components have two important common requirements: first, they must possess sufficient mechanical properties, such as, high hardness, fatigue strength and wear resistance to maximize their performance and life; second, they must be finished to close dimensional tolerances to minimize noise, vibration and fatigue loading.
The last decade has been a period of far-reaching change for the metal working industry. The effect of higher lubricant costs, technical advances in machine design and increasing competition are making it essential that manufacturers of gears pay more attention to testing, selecting and controlling cutting fluid systems. Lubricant costs are not a large percentage of the process cost relative to items such as raw materials, equipment and labor, and this small relative cost has tended to reduce the economic incentive to evaluate and to change cutting fluids.
NC and CNC metal cutting machines are among the most popular machine tools in the business today, There is also a strong trend toward using flexible machining centers and flexible manufacturing systems. The same trend is apparent in gear cutting. Currently the trend toward CNC tools has increased, and sophisticated controls and peripheral equipment for gear cutting machines are now available; however, the investment in a CNC gear machine has to be justified on the basis of economic facts as well as technical advantages.
The load capacity rating of gears had its beginning in the 18th century at Leiden University when Prof. Pieter van Musschenbroek systematically tested the wooden teeth of windmill gears, applying the bending strength formula published by Galilei one century earlier. In the next centuries several scientists improved or extended the formula, and recently a Draft International Standard could be presented.
These are changing times for industry. Trauma and uncertainty are always a part of change, and change is not always for the better. Change is usually forced, most frequently by competition. Our competitive free enterprise system should be able to respond to competition because that's its basis. These are critical years. If we do not respond effectively to change and competition, it could be disasterous.
Curvic Couplings were first introduced in 1942 to meet the need for permanent couplings and releasing couplings (clutches), requiring extreme accuracy and maximum load carrying capacity, together with a fast rate of production. The development of the Curvic Coupling stems directly from the manufacture of Zerol and spiral bevel gears since it is made on basically similar machines and also uses similar production methods. The Curvic Coupling can therefore lay claim to the same production advantages and high precision associated with bevel gears.
October 5-8, 1986 AGMA Fall technical Conference & Gearing Exhibit September 17-19, 1986 Ohio State University Gear Noise Seminar November 11-13, 1986 SME Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic November 19-21, 1986 Seminar: Gear System Design for Minimum Noise
During the revision of ISO 1328-1:2013 Cylindrical gears â€” ISO system of flank tolerance classification, ISO Technical Committee TC 60 WG2 delegates discussed proposals that the standard should be modified to ensure that it is compatible with the ISO Geometrical Product Specification (GPS) series of standards (Refs. 1-3). This seems sensible because the gears are geometrical components, but after reviewing the implications, it was rejected because ISO TC 60 WG2 did not think the gear manufacturing industry was ready for such a radical change in measurement strategy. The feasibility of the implementation of gears into the GPS matrix of standards has been carried out and the results conclude that this is practical, provided some key issues related to measurement uncertainty and establishing appropriate KPIs are addressed.
For years, politicians, educators and business leaders have generated various ideas to revitalize U.S. manufacturing and engineering. These include manufacturing initiatives, internal training programs and an emphasis on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in the classroom. The declining expertise in these fields, however, continues to be a growing problem in every facet of manufacturing and engineering.
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Textron Systems Canada Inc. recently announced that the company has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Ontario Drive an... Read News
28 Mag Megaflex System Scales Up High Volume Machining (March 27, 2012)
Astraeus Wind Energy's Mag Megaflex machining system has passed its initial supplier qualification by completing "Operation 20&q... Read News
29 Hardinge Releases FlexC Collet System (March 11, 2013)
Hardinge Inc. announces the release of the 80 mm FlexC vulcanized collet system. The collet chucks mount directly to the machine spindle.... Read News
30 Sunnen Releases HTE Honing System (May 22, 2014)
Sunnen's new HTE honing system, the company's most cost-effective small-diameter hone, produces ideal bore geometry and surface finish, while eliminating problems from bad tool-to-part alignment... Read News
31 Gleason Acquires Distech Systems (June 2, 2014)
Gleason Corporation recently announced that it has acquired Distech Systems Inc., located in Rochester, NY. Distech is a leader in the d... Read News
32 Gleason Updates 1500GMS Inspection System (November 18, 2013)
Gleason Corporation’s 1500GMS Analytical Gear Inspection System has been updated to deliver improved inspection speeds and offer ma... Read News
33 Abtex Offers Tri-Ten Deburring System (March 14, 2014)
Abtex Corporation has designed and built the largest and most technologically advanced Tri-Ten deburring system in its 34 year history... Read News
34 R&P Metrology Offers Special Measuring System (March 7, 2014)
Responding to specific customer requirements, R&P Metrology GmbH announced a new model in their full line of custom metrology systems... Read News
35 Walter Introduces Cut SX System (February 11, 2014)
Walter has introduced the Walter Cut SX grooving and parting system, a flexible new approach for both turning and milling operations that... Read News
36 Guyson Corp. Acquires Automated Blasting Systems (December 9, 2013)
The Guyson Corporation of U.S.A. has announced the acquisition of all assets of Automated Blasting Systems, Inc., of South Windsor, CT. A... Read News
37 Gleason Offers Retrofit Package for Inspection Systems (November 25, 2013)
Gleason Corporation’s GMM and GMS Series of Analytical Gear Inspection Systems currently in service can be easily updated with a ne... Read News
38 Forkardt Offers OmniGrip Collet System (November 19, 2013)
Forkardt OmniGrip Collet Systems are flexible, sealed collet heads that interchange in seconds and are available with spindle mounts for ... Read News
39 Sandvik Expands EH System (October 16, 2013)
October 1st marked the expansion of Sandvik Coromant’s exchangeable-head (EH) system to include a wide assortment of solid carbide ... Read News
40 Oelheld Offers Vomat Filtration System (May 23, 2013)
The Vomat FA 480 – 960 series filtration systems process from 120 to 240 US-Gallons per minute. With dimensions of 55 x 99 x 48 inc... Read News
41 MecWash System Boasts High Contaminant Removal Rate (September 10, 2013)
MecWash Systems introduces BladeWash aqueous parts washers. Developed specifically for cleaning the internal cooling channels in tu... Read News
42 Ipsen Awarded Patent on Vacuum Loading System (June 6, 2014)
Ipsen was recently awarded U.S. Patent No. 8,662,888 B2 for the development of a new loading system. Chief Engineer Craig Moller, the nam... Read News
43 Abtex Introduces Machine Compatible Deburring System (March 19, 2012)
Abtex Corporation has expanded its Tri-Ten series of deburring systems to include a model that is designed to accept precision ground par... Read News
44 Ingersoll Offers Modular Milling System (September 9, 2013)
Chip-Surfer from Ingersoll provides a modular milling system for NC, Swiss and live tooling applications. Highlights include interchangea... Read News
45 Dontyne Systems Expands Office Space (August 18, 2014)
Dontyne Systems continues to expand its customer base across the world and has secured work for development of customer specific software... Read News
46 Vomat Offers Advanced Filtration System (September 4, 2013)
The Vomat FA 480 – 960 series filtration systems process from 120 to 240 US-Gallons per minute and offer dimensions of 55 x 99 x 48... Read News
47 Chinese Company Orders Nitrex Nitriding System (May 28, 2013)
Nitrex Metal received a follow-up order for a nitriding system from Shaoguan Hongda Gear Co. Ltd, a Chinese contract manufacturer of tran... Read News
48 Tool Grind Workholding System Limits Runout (March 20, 2013)
MicroPlus, ANCA's new high accuracy workholding and tool support system, significantly reduces tool runout during grinding, enabling ... Read News
49 New CMM System from Mitutoyo (December 16, 2003)
The new Mitutoyo CMM auto body system is a large machine configured around a single or optional dual, horizontal CNC/CMM three-axis probe... Read News
50 IPTEX 2012 Booth Preview: Dontyne Systems Booth A25 (January 17, 2012)
Dontyne software and consultancy services are aimed at the efficient design and manufacture of geared systems and their use in the transm... Read News
51 Kinefac Introduces New Automated Production System (April 6, 2006)
Kinefac is introducing a new Robo-Roller, which is a quick changeover, automated production system for rolling threads, knurls, worms and... Read News
52 Mahr Federal Introduces Universal Optical Measuring System (April 27, 2006)
The Helio-Scope from Mahr is a universal optical measuring system designed to facilitate precision control of complex turned parts. Wi... Read News
53 REpower Systems and Essar Group To Partner in Indian Wind Energy Market (April 22, 2006)
RREpower Systems has entered into a licensed agreement with India's Essar Group to facilitate entry into that country's growin... Read News
54 MAG Industrial Automation Systems Receives American Axle Supplier Award (April 17, 2006)
The Powertrain Technologies Group of MAG Industrial Automation Systems of Sterling Heights, Michigan, has received a Supplier Recogniti... Read News
55 Engineered Tools Opens Gear Cutting Systems Division (April 15, 2006)
Engineered Tools Corp. of Caro, MI, has introduced its new gear cutting system division. Cutter body repair will take place at ETC... Read News
56 Schott Systeme Streamlines Gear Design Software (April 15, 2006)
Schotte Systeme published a new video outlining how one single universal function has been designed to consolidate both 2D and 3D move... Read News
57 PCB Piezotronics New Rotary Torque Sensor System (April 12, 2006)
The rotary torque sensor system from the Force/Torque Division of PCB Piezotronics is designed for automotive driveline and powertrain dy... Read News
58 Drakes Newest Thread Grinder Utilizes Robot Load/Unload System (April 11, 2006)
The GS: TE-LM thread grinder from Drake Manufacturing is fitted with a robot load/unload system that provides maximum throughput for high... Read News
59 Bosch and Getrag Collaborate on Hybride Systems with Dual Clutch Transmissions (April 5, 2006)
GETRAG and Bosch signed a cooperative agreement covering the development and marketing of parallel hybrid systems in conjunction with dua... Read News
60 Inductoheats Heat Treating System Compatible with Numerous Power Supplies (January 16, 2007)
The InductoScan modular heat treat system from Inductoheat is designed to increase versatility, reduce maintenance and installation cost... Read News
61 Allegro MicroSystems New Motor Driver Completes Product Family (April 4, 2006)
Allegro MicroSystems announced a new DMOS full-bride motor driver to complement their parallel input DC motor driver family. Designed... Read News
62 HD Systems Merges with Harmonic Drive Technologies (February 6, 2006)
HD Systems Inc. and Harmonic Drive Technologies, Nabtesco Inc. have merged, effective Jan. 1, 2006. The newly formed joint companny wi... Read News
63 SEW-Eurodrive Introduces New Food Industry Drive System (April 29, 2005)
The Food Industry Option Package from SEW-Eurodrive is a drive system with specialized components to meet the damp conditions and chemica... Read News
64 Aerotech Introduces New Gantry System (April 13, 2005)
The ASGS1000 Series Cartesian gantry system from Aerotech is designed for a range of automation platforms like high-speed pick-and-place,... Read News
65 New Process Monitoring System from Marposs (April 13, 2005)
A new tool and process monitoring system from Marposs is designed to provide continuous monitoring of metalworking processes through seve... Read News
66 New High-Speed Inspection System from Renishaw (February 9, 2005)
Introduced at EMO, the Renscan5 high-speed inspection system from Renishaw delivers part inspection speeds up to 20 times faster than con... Read News
67 St. Denis Promoted at HD Systems (February 3, 2005)
Brian St. Denis was promoted to vice president of HD Systems from his previous position as engineering manager. According to the ... Read News
68 New Size 17 Gearhead from HD Systems (February 2, 2005)
The Quantum Series from HD Systems is the highest torque capacity harmonic gearhead that the company has ever produced. According to H... Read News
69 Marposs Announces Plans to Release New Probing System at WESTEC (January 16, 2007)
Marposs Corp. will showcase its new Mida E83 probing system with optical transmission for CNC machining centers and milling machines boot... Read News
70 Schott Systems New Video Highlights Bending Capabilities (February 8, 2007)
One of the newest features of Schott Systeme advanced 3D modeling tools included within its CAD CAM software is the 'Pictures by PC ... Read News
71 BIG Kaiser Introduces Twin Cutter Boring System (June 8, 2011)
BIG Kaiser's 319 SW series is an exceptionally rigid, new style, twin cutter rough boring system. These corrosion-resistant boring he... Read News
72 Induction Hardening and Tempering System for Driveline Components (May 11, 2010)
Inductoheat, Inc., an induction heating equipment manufacturer, recently delivered an induction hardening and tempering system to a leadi... Read News
73 GWJ Technology Launches New Version of System Calculation for Gearboxes (March 2, 2015)
GWJ Technology GmbH, a manufacturer of calculation software for machine elements and gears, recently launched a new version of its system... Read News
74 Inductoheat Ships Induction Hardening and Tempering System (December 6, 2010)
Inductoheat, Inc., a leading induction heating equipment manufacturer, recently shipped an induction hardening and tempering system to a ... Read News
75 Big Kaiser Releases ER Collet Chuck System (November 17, 2010)
Big Kaiser has recently introduced the Mega ER Grip, a new premium ER collet chuck system featuring a runout accuracy of .00012" (th... Read News
76 Gleason Offers Upgrade Package for Inspection Systems (October 18, 2010)
Early models of Gleason's GMM SIGMA series of analytical gear inspection systems can now be equipped with an upgrade package that com... Read News
77 Veeco to Display Surface Metrology System at IMTS (September 8, 2010)
In booth# E-5439, Veeco Instruments Inc. will display its NPFLEX 3-D Metrology System for characterizing surfaces previously too difficul... Read News
78 RoboMax System Automates Quality Control (August 27, 2010)
The RoboMax system, developed by Carl Zeiss, does not require an operator and can run fully automatically 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ... Read News
79 Measuring System Goes Wireless (July 14, 2010)
The MikroCAD Lite measuring system from GFMesstechnik is now available without a PC, so all data acquisition and evaluation is performe... Read News
80 Sunnen Delivers Vertical CNC Honing System (April 28, 2010)
Sunnen's new SV-400 Series vertical CNC honing system combines a wide choice of tooling options, large work envelope, and up to 1524 ... Read News
81 mG miniGears Installs Furnace Loading System (June 25, 2007)
mG miniGears installed a furnace loading system in its powder metal department to avoid defects, especially for gears where small damage of the... Read News
82 Dry Cutting System Manufactures Straight Bevels (April 9, 2010)
Gleason Corporation introduced Coniflex Plus, a high-speed dry cutting tool system for manufacturing straight bevel gears. According to G... Read News
83 Kurt Manufacturing Signs Agreement with Leader Chuck Systems (March 8, 2010)
Kurt Manufacturing Company, located in Minneapolis, MN, recently signed an exclusive agreement with Leader Chuck Systems Ltd. in B... Read News
84 Measuring System Eliminates Need for Gaging (February 23, 2009)
Designed with a small footprint for the shop environment, OneTouch optical measuring systems provide quick, micron-level accuracy on indi... Read News
85 Honing System Allows Robotic Part Loading of Landing Gear Components (July 24, 2008)
The SVC-310 vertical CNC honing system from Sunnen sizes small and medium gas/diesel engine blocks, large gears, air compressors, aerosp... Read News
86 MAG Powertrain Installs MQL System for Ford (November 26, 2007)
MAG Powertrain is installing a Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) machining system at the Ford Van Dyke Transmission Plant in Sterling He... Read News
87 Northstar Aerospace Receives Contract for New Drive System Development (August 30, 2007)
Northstar Aerospace was awarded a $4.5 million development contract from The Boeing Co. for its Enhanced Rotor Rotorcraft Drive System (E... Read News
88 Sunnen's SV-310 Bore Sizing System Designed for Small Engines, Compressors (August 21, 2007)
Sunnen's new SV-310 vertical CNC honing system combines a choice of tooling options, large work envelope, and 762mm/30" str... Read News
89 Inductoheat Ships Five IROSS Frequency Systems (August 2, 2007)
Inductoheat Inc. shipped five IROSS induction line frequency systems to supplier of engine crankshaft vibration dampers.Units are designe... Read News
90 Big Kaiser 318 Series - A Complete Tooling System (February 11, 2011)
Big Kaiser has introduced the new, large diameter Kaiser 318 Series-a complete tooling system supporting a variety of aluminum and steel ... Read News
91 Mitutoyo Offers Sales and Support for Renishaw Probe System (April 4, 2014)
Mitutoyo America Corporation is pleased to announce sales and support of the Renishaw PH20 probe system with the Crysta-Apex S500/700/900 series... Read News
92 Timken Power Systems Facility Achieves ISO 9001:2008 Certification (March 4, 2015)
The Timken Company recently announced its power systems service facility in Princeton, WV, has earned ISO 9001:2008 Quality Manageme... Read News
93 Gleason Inspection System Offers Key Measurements on Single Platform (April 11, 2017)
Gleason Corporation’s new 300GMSL Multi-Sensor Gear Inspection System will have its European première at the Control Show in... Read News
94 Ajax Tocco Supplies Induction Billet Heating System (June 17, 2016)
Ajax Tocco Magnethermic recently shipped a 1,000 kW PowerZone billet heating system to LC Manufacturing, located in Lake City, MI. The 1,... Read News
95 Mitutoyo Quick Vision Active CNC Vision Measurement System Offers Interchangeable Objective Zoom Lenses (July 1, 2016)
Mitutoyo America Corporation has announced the addition of the Quick Vision Active series to the line-up of vision measurement systems. T... Read News
96 Third Wave Systems AdvantEdge v7.4 Now Available (December 29, 2017)
AdvantEdge v7.4 is now available from Third Wave Systems. The release includes time history data averaging, report improvements, milling ... Read News
97 Seco 150.10-JETI System Optimizes Coolant Delivery (September 15, 2016)
Designed to achieve increased productivity, tool life and part quality, the new Seco 150.10-JETI system significantly improves the heat r... Read News
98 Varvel Introduces New Automation System (March 28, 2019)
The Varvel Group has introduced Dadistel, an automation system for control of production in mechanical machining departments that enables... Read News
99 TDM Systems Announces North American Smart Manufacturing Initiative (March 5, 2019)
TDM Systems Inc. has announced a new smart manufacturing initiative in North America. A team of TDM experts will spearhead the initi... Read News
100 Aven SharpVue System Features HD Camera with 30x Magnification (November 9, 2016)
Aven's SharpVue system was developed with the operator in mind. It combines advanced digital microscope technology with comfort and e... Read News
101 Dana Completes Purchase of Oerlikon Group's Drive Systems Segment (March 1, 2019)
Dana Incorporated has completed the acquisition of the Drive Systems segment of the Oerlikon Group, including the Graziano and Fairfield ... Read News
102 KISSsoft Offers Drive System Analysis (November 22, 2016)
In static system analysis, the deformation of the housing can be taken into account in the KISSsoft Release 03/2016, and therefore its ef... Read News
103 Mitutoyo CNC Cylindricity Measuring System Boasts High Rotational Accuracy (December 20, 2016)
Mitutoyo has announced the release of the RA-6000CNC, a custom-built CNC roundness/cylindricity measuring system with best-in-class accur... Read News
104 Liebherr Gantry Robot System Offers Speed and Flexibility (January 23, 2017)
The new LP 100 gantry robot system introduced recently by Liebherr-Verzahntechnik GmbH is ideal for handling smaller and lighter componen... Read News
105 Third Wave Systems AdvantEdge Software Offers Process Kinematics for Cylindrical Hobbing (March 10, 2017)
Third Wave Systems has released the new AdvantEdge Gear Machining v1.0. As part of the new release, the first version will include cylind... Read News
106 Starrett Introduces High Performance Automatic Vision System (December 14, 2018)
The L.S. Starrett Company has introduced its AV450 Automatic Vision System. Versatile, accurate, fast, and American made, the new 3-axis ... Read News
107 AFC-Holcroft Roller Hearth Annealing Furnace Installed for Major Automotive Systems and Components Supplier (April 17, 2017)
A leading global automotive supplier of systems and components has purchased a new roller hearth annealing furnace from AFC-Holcroft. The... Read News
108 Ricardo Software Ignite Vehicle System Simulator Incorporates Modelon's Optimica Compiler Toolkit (May 3, 2016)
Ricardo Software recently announced a key partnership that will deliver immediate benefits to users of its Ignite complete vehicle system... Read News
109 Kennametal Develops Vibration-Free Boring System (December 6, 2018)
Kennametal has developed a new boring system that boasts an effective anti-chatter mechanism, and also offers an extensive range of index... Read News
110 Mitutoyo Introduces Laser Scan Micrometer to Sensor Systems Product Line (November 29, 2018)
Mitutoyo America Corporation is pleased to announce the release of the LSM-6902H Laser Scan Micrometer to its sensor systems product line... Read News
111 ALD Vacuum Systems Sells SyncroTherm Vacuum Heat Treating System (May 10, 2017)
ALD Vacuum Systems, Inc. has received a purchase order from a North American based aerospace manufacturer for a SyncroTherm brand, fully-... Read News
112 TDM Systems Shopfloor Manager Software Module Follows Tool Circulation from Start to Finish (February 14, 2018)
TDM Systems, a subsidiary of Sandvik Machining Solutions has announced the introduction of TDM Shopfloor Manager in the TDM 2017 Global L... Read News
113 Sunnen Introduces SSH-1680 Honing System (March 25, 2015)
Sunnen’s new SSH-1680 honing system makes the efficiency, accuracy and consistency of power-stroke honing, affordable to&... Read News
114 Oerlikon Drive Systems India Gets Certified as Great Place to Work (May 17, 2017)
Oerlikon Drive Systems India has been certified by Great Place to Work Institute - a global authority in building, sustaining and recogni... Read News
115 Affolter AF71 Universal Loading System Offers Three Methods for Part Feeding (July 7, 2017)
Affolter has recently unveiled the AF71, a new multi-axis part load and unload system. The loading head is equipped with a double gripper... Read News
116 Third Wave Systems AdvantEdge Software Expanded to Include Gear Machining (July 11, 2017)
Third Wave Systems has successfully developed and simulated the complex processes involved in spiral bevel gear machining. With this Adva... Read News
117 IMPCO Microfinishing Worldstar 1680 Offers Fully Flexible Microfinishing System for Automotive Applications (February 13, 2018)
A new design CNC microfinishing system by IMPCO Microfinishing, polishes the critical cylindrical bearing journals of a range of differen... Read News
118 Sandvik Coromant CoroCut QD Parting-Off System Receives Upgrades in Stability (February 12, 2018)
Cutting tool and tooling system specialist Sandvik Coromant has unveiled a new blade for its CoroCut QD parting-... Read News
119 Seco/Warwick Nitriding System and Tempering Furnaces Sold to Global Steel and Specialty Alloy Manufacturer (November 22, 2017)
A global manufacturer of steel and specialty alloys has purchased a Seco/Warwick nitriding system with vacuum purge and two tempering uni... Read News
120 Third Wave Systems Models and Optimizes 5-Axis Machined Composite Components (January 8, 2018)
In 2013, Third Wave Systems (TWS) was awarded a $3 million contract by the United States Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, one of t... Read News
121 ANCA LaserPlus Measuring System Added to EDGe PCD Cutting Tool Eroding Machine (December 12, 2017)
ANCA is launching new technology to bring new benefits to its customers with the LaserPlus system on their EDGe machine. The EDGe is used... Read News
122 Brevini Gear Systems Focuses on Waste Reduction (May 3, 2016)
Brevini Gear Systems (BGS) has reduced its environmental impact through a waste disposal program that will help it achieve a ‘zero-... Read News
123 Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Third Edition Available for Download (August 17, 2016)
Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, 3rd Edition is now available for download. This Sourcebook is pa... Read News
124 Ajax TOCCO Selling 5/10 kW TOCCOtron AC Induction Heating Systems (September 4, 2015)
Ajax TOCCO Magnethermic recently delivered 5/10 kW TOCCOtron AC induction heating systems to an international on-site heat treating firm.... Read News
125 EMAG Eldec Induction Hardening Systems Offer Precision Hardening, Lower Power Consumption (January 15, 2016)
EMAG subsidiary Eldec has developed modular induction hardening systems. The technology ensures efficient processes that integrate harden... Read News
126 EMAG VT and VL Machines Feature Integrated O-automation System for Transporting Workpieces (August 12, 2015)
At Gear Expo 2015, EMAG USA will feature manufacturing systems for precision metal components alongside the North American premier of its... Read News
127 Continental Invests in LK Metrology Multi-Sensor Inspection System (December 31, 2019)
Continental needed a high capacity system capable of rapid inspection cycles combined with fast surface scanning and accurate feature mea... Read News
128 MC Machinery Systems Launches Small Electric Press Brake (December 10, 2019)
MC Machinery Systems recently introduced its new ball screw press brake, the BB306, at Fabtech 2019. This fully electric press brake is d... Read News
129 A3 Webinar Examines Automated System Purchases (January 6, 2020)
A3 will present the webinar "How to Purchase an Automated System," on January 9, 2019 from 12:00 - 1:00 ET. This webinar will h... Read News
130 EMAG Eldec Modular Induction (MIND) Hardening Systems Offer Flexibility and Simplicity (December 16, 2015)
EMAG subsidiary Eldec has developed new modular induction hardening systems designed to simplify the gear hardening process and increase ... Read News
131 Schunk EGN Safety Gripping System is Continuously Powered (June 18, 2015)
The EGN Safety is the first certified safety gripping system from Schunk for use with human and robot interaction. It is certified in acc... Read News
132 Gleason Renames Distech Systems to Gleason Automation Systems (December 18, 2015)
Gleason Corporation announced a new name and operating structure for Distech Systems effective January 1, 2016. The automation business w... Read News
133 Oerlikon's Drive Systems Segment Inaugurates Third Plant In India (April 28, 2015)
Oerlikon’s Drive Systems Segment recently inaugurated its third plant at Sanand in Gujarat, India. This is the 10th production faci... Read News
134 AFC-Holcroft Assigns Southern Thermal Systems to Sales in Southern United States (January 4, 2016)
AFC-Holcroft has named sales representative company Southern Thermal Systems to a territory covering Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexi... Read News
135 Ajax Tocco Ships Induction Heating Dryer System to China (January 18, 2016)
Ajax Tocco Magnethermic recently shipped a 1,900 kW/100,000 hz induction heating dryer system to a steel strip galvanizing producer in Ch... Read News
136 SMT Offers System Deflection Analysis Webinar (December 3, 2019)
System deflection takes misalignment into account and solves Force = Stiffness x Deflection equation for all components and connections. ... Read News
137 Mahr Federal System Generates Single Pass Surface and Contour Measurements (January 25, 2016)
Mahr Federal has introduced a new "entry level" surface finish and contour measuring system that can generate both surface and ... Read News
138 TDM Releases Latest Tool Management System (November 4, 2019)
With the new release of TDM Global Line 2019, TDM Systems offers many of the functions of its core solution. The TDM core solution is com... Read News
139 Dürr Ecoclean EcoCDuty Cleaning System Built to Process Large Loads (March 15, 2016)
Dürr Ecoclean has developed a solvent-based cleaning system, the large-chamber EcoCDuty, for heat-treating contractors, metalforming... Read News
140 Briney Tooling Systems Custom Dual Contact CAT50 Eliminates Customer's Need to Replace Catalogue of Lathes (March 17, 2016)
Recently, Briney Tooling Systems worked closely with a manufacturer to develop a custom Dual Contact CAT50 stick turning toolholder for a... Read News
141 Mitutoyo Introduces MiSCAN Vision System (October 31, 2019)
Mitutoyo America Corporation is pleased to announce the release of the MiSCAN Vision System. MiSCAN is a multiple sensor microscopic-form... Read News
142 Starrett Appoints Metrology Systems Vice President (December 11, 2019)
The L.S. Starrett Company has announced the appointment of David Allen as vice president, Starrett Metrology Systems, effective November ... Read News
143 Fives Machining Systems Diagnostic Communication System Added to Cincinnati and Giddings & Lewis Machine Tools (May 2, 2016)
Fives Machining Systems is introducing a new remote diagnostics capability that allows machine operators to connect with Fives Cinci... Read News
144 Marposs Offers Fast Gear Measuring System (October 22, 2019)
Marposs recently announced its M62 Scan, a universal gear inspection system that performs a very quick and efficient inspection of cylind... Read News
145 Jergens Adds OK-Vise Clamping Systems to its Lineup (December 9, 2015)
Jergens, Inc. announced the addition of OK-Vise clamping systems to its range of workholding solutions. At the heart of the product offer... Read News
146 EMAG Machines Rotor Shafts with End-to-End Production Systems (December 17, 2019)
Lightweight construction has been one of the primary challenges in automotive engineering for decades. Each component, from gears to driv... Read News
147 International Precision Gear Manufacturer, Gear Technology, Receives High Quality Management Systems Certification (February 27, 2009)
ISO 9001:2000 and AS 9100B:2004 certifications, the highest standards of quality, safety and manufacturing efficiency, have been awarded ... Read News
148 VAC-U-MAX Industrial Vacuum Cleaning System Extracts Fluid and Solids (February 18, 2008)
Powered by compressed air, the VAC-U-MAX 55MW filters liquids and removes metal chips from coolant in order to increase coolant life and ... Read News
149 EMAG Machining Processes Separated into Categories for Modular Manufacturing Systems (February 1, 2018)
"We have separated the machining process for gears into four easily manageable sub-processes," says Peter Loetzner, president a... Read News
150 Stainless Steel Gears From QTC Features the Fairloc Integral Fastening System (October 6, 2008)
A new series of Modules 0.5, 0.8, and 1 spur gears from Quality Transmission Components features the patented Fairloc integral hub fast... Read News
151 AxleTech Expands Systems Capability with Acquisition of U.S. Gear (November 24, 2008)
AxleTech International recently announced the acquisition of Chicago-based U.S. Gear, a designer and manufacturer of specialized differ... Read News
152 Skills Certification System Targets High Unemployment, Unfilled Manufacturing Jobs (April 2, 2009)
The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) is partnering with the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) and The Manufacturing Ins... Read News
153 Excel Gear Designs, Prototypes Navy Gun System Gearboxes (September 10, 2009)
Roscoe, IL-based Excel Gear has transitioned from prototype to production of 38:1 ratio gearboxes designed for positioning the gun mount ... Read News
154 New Gear Inspection System from M&M Precision (January 4, 2005)
The new in-line, in-process inspection equipment from M&M Precision is designed around a completely modular concept, allowing for ease of... Read News
155 American Stress Technologies Introduces New Inspection System (February 15, 2005)
For the gear manufacturer plagued with nightmares about the possibility of grinding damage, GearScan 600 from American Stress Technologie... Read News
156 Vomat Releases UBF Filtration System (October 2, 2019)
The Vomat UBF concept is a vacuum band filter equipped to handle a wide variety of sludge materials, such as ceramic, HSS, brass, aluminu... Read News
157 New Gear Drive System from ASI Technologies (April 12, 2005)
The MK400 Series transaxle from ASI Technologies combines the precision of a single piece casting, which can improve the accuracy of gear... Read News
158 IMPCO Machine Tools Introduces New Laser Checking System (April 12, 2005)
The new OPTI-Scan Class II CE-certified laser heads from IMPCO Machine Tools are designed to perform final inspection of precisely machin... Read News
159 Parker Hannifins Actuators Eliminate Need for In-House Positioning System (August 9, 2007)
The PROmech actuators from Parker Hannifin are designed for analytical, OEM and lab instrument manufacturers.The actuators come completel... Read News
160 Seco/Vacuum Technologies Vector Vacuum Brazing Furnace Systems Sold to Defense Contractors (March 14, 2018)
In addition to the aerospace, automotive and energy industries, the defense industry is one of the key sectors where Seco/Warwick Group p... Read News
161 KlĂĽber Lubrication Offers Heat Transfer Oils for Open or Closed Heating and Cooling Systems (August 29, 2019)
Klüber Lubrication, a worldwide manufacturer of specialty lubricants, introduces heat transfer oils for use in open or closed heatin... Read News
162 Hannover Messe 2020 to Examine Digital Ecosystems (November 27, 2019)
At Hannover Messe 2020, processes and technologies that up until quite recently were regarded as separate and distinct will be showcased ... Read News
163 Mahr Federal Unveils Larger and More Flexible Measurement System (January 6, 2006)
The new MarForm MMQ 400 Formtester from Mahr Federal is a ground-up redesign which is more robust, less sensitive to environmental influe... Read News
164 ANCA iView Measuring System Enables Faster and More Accurate Grinding (December 18, 2018)
A survey by McKinsey showed that in manufacturing, approximately 749 billion hours are worked each year around the world. Of these, about... Read News
165 Modelon and Siemens PLM Software Enhance System Simulation Capabilities Through Partnership (January 10, 2019)
Siemens PLM Software and Modelon recently announced a partnership to use Modelon’s OPTIMICA Compiler Toolkit as the default Model... Read News
166 GKS Inspection Systems Expands In-House Measurement Capabilities (January 18, 2006)
GKS Inspection Services, Inc., a division of Laser Design, Inc., has expanded its Detroit-area dimensional inspec... Read News
167 EMAG Introduces Automation System for Modular Machines (January 16, 2019)
EMAG recently introduced its TrackMotion automation concept, a technology that provides the same high levels of quality in terms of flexi... Read News
168 GWJ Expands Latest Version of System Calculation Software (February 22, 2019)
GWJ Technology, Germany, a manufacturer and provider of calculation software for mechanical engineering and gear manufacturing, recently ... Read News
169 Open Mind and Grob Systems Announce Joint 5-Axis Machining Seminar (April 26, 2019)
Open Mind Technologies USA, a developer of CAD/CAM software solutions worldwide, has announced a joint 5-Axis Machining Technology Semina... Read News
170 EMAG Eldec Offers Induction Heating System for Elektror (June 17, 2019)
Air is an indispensable working medium in industrial production: It is used, for example, to extract excess humidity or dust, cool down h... Read News
171 Large Boring Tool Modular System Reduces Weight by Half (October 13, 2009)
The CKN modular connection from Big Kaiser Precision Tooling Inc. provides a high-strength tool connection for large boring tools that us... Read News
172 Trico Introduces Sensei Lubrication Intelligence System (May 12, 2017)
Trico Corporation, a provider of lubrication management solutions, recently introduced Sensei, a real-time lubrication intelligence syste... Read News
173 Marposs Electrical Gauge Actuators Provides Increased Control and Reduced Maintenance time for E-Fenar and BlĂş Systems (January 4, 2018)
Marposs has enhanced its gauging solutions for grinding machines with new electrical gauge actuators. As compared to former hydraulic and... Read News
174 Gear Grinders Find Value in RUF Briquetting Systems (May 7, 2014)
Briquetting is a way to regain value from the materials you already have, and gear grinding operations are finding the value they thought was lost in their grinding sludge... Read News
175 Cleaning Technologies Introduces CleanVeyor System (May 7, 2013)
CleanVeyor Ultrasonic parts washer utilizes a combination of spray, immersion, and ultrasonic cleaning technologies and has proven succes... Read News
176 Siemens Supports Diversity through STEM Education (May 29, 2013)
In a survey conducted by U.S. Black Engineer & Information Technology (USBE&IT) magazine, Siemens has been named a “Top Sup... Read News
177 Mitutoyo Releases Compact Measuring System (June 19, 2013)
Mitutoyo America Corporation announces availability of the innovative, new Ko-ga-me measurement head - designed to bring full capability ... Read News
178 Gear Expo Preview: Dontyne Systems Booth #1052 (August 14, 2013)
Genesis Partners has developed and tested a non-involute tooth form that projects up to a 40 percent improvement in various physical and ... Read News
179 Vomat Filtration Systems Sustain NAS 7 Quality for Extended Periods of Time (April 1, 2016)
Cooling lubricants optimally cleaned to NAS 7 (3-5 microns) are an important parameter in the overall manufacturing process of tool grind... Read News
180 Benteler Partners with Foerster on NDT System (January 27, 2016)
Foerster completes delivery on biggest order in 65-year corporate history. Benteler, who chose to partner with Foerster in the past, deci... Read News
181 PTG Offers Profile Management System (March 28, 2014)
With technologies such as the Zenith 400 Rotor Grinding Center and the Holroyd TG Series of rotor grinding machines, Precision Technologies Group company, Holroyd Precision Limited... Read News
182 EMAG Systems Provides Complete Turnkey Solutions from Single Source (January 21, 2020)
The production of comprehensive manufacturing solutions from a single source is the main requirement for many mechanical engineering prod... Read News
183 Cimcool Cimpulse Metalworking Fluids Formulated for Use in High-Pressure Systems (August 31, 2015)
Milacron Fluid Technologies brand Cimcool recently announced the launch of Cimpulse.Cimpulse 51MP, Cimpulse 45MP and Cimpulse 33MP are ne... Read News
184 Kwik Mark Tag Master 3 Dot Peen Marking System Feeds Tags from Top (October 24, 2016)
The new Tag Master 3 feeder was developed to eliminate the problematic tag feeding issues of escaping tags from the bottom of the magazin... Read News
185 EMAG Showcases Manufacturing Systems at Technology Days (June 3, 2014)
To celebrate their 20th anniversary, EMAG USA opened its doors to manufacturers and vendors to join them for their open house Technology ... Read News
186 CD-adapco Speed Machine Design Tool Integrated into Star-CCM Modeling System (July 28, 2015)
CD-adapco recently integrated Speed, an electric machine design tool, with Star-CCM+, an all-in-one tool that models heat transfer, fluid... Read News
187 Vomat Introduces Flexible Filtration System (July 8, 2014)
In tool grinding all individual processing steps are part of a coherent value chain. Therefore it is important that the filtration proces... Read News
188 Exsys to Showcase Compact Base Holder and Preci-Flex Tooling Systems at WESTEC (July 23, 2015)
At WESTEC 2015, Exsys Tool, Inc. will showcase advanced manufacturing technologies in booth 1919. Amongst other products, Exsys will... Read News
189 ALD-Holcroft to Provide SyncroTherm Heat Treating System to Woodward (May 15, 2015)
ALD-Holcroft (Wixom, MI) recently entered into an agreement with Woodward, Inc. (Fort Collins, CO) to provide a fully-integrated SyncroTh... Read News
190 Kwik Mark Releases Portable Handheld Dot Peen Marking System (May 15, 2015)
The Micro Mark portable dot peen marker from Kwik Mark Inc. features a compact (3" x 5" x 6") head size, and a 1.0" x... Read News
191 Gleason Announces 175GMS Analytical Gear Inspection System (December 15, 2014)
Gleason Corporation, a developer and manufacturer of gear production machinery and related equipment, recently announced the introdu... Read News
192 Solar Atmosphere's Launch Abort System Aids 'Orion' Launch (January 9, 2015)
On Friday, Dec. 5, 2014, NASA’s new spacecraft Orion launched successfully from Cape Canaveral and completed its first test flight.... Read News
193 Gleason to Introduce 300GMSP Analytical Gear Inspection System (April 6, 2015)
Gleason Corporation will introduce its latest gear metrology innovation at the upcoming Control Show in Stuttgart, Germany, from May 5-8.... Read News
194 Röhm to Showcase Duro-TA XT Key Bar Chuck and Power-Grip Clamping System at IMTS (May 18, 2016)
At IMTS 2016 in Booth W-2528, Röhm Products of America will show its strength as a one-stop clamping and gripping supplier by presen... Read News
195 AFC Ships Single Row Pusher Furnace System (November 9, 2012)
A manufacturer located in the South Central region of the United States is the recipient of a new AFC-Holcroft Single Row Pusher Furnace... Read News
196 Vomat Filtration Systems Provide 100 Percent Separation of Clean and Dirty Grinding Oil (December 20, 2017)
To manufacture precision tools, tool manufacturers must optimally coordinate all parameters involved in the process such as edge preparat... Read News
197 Gleason Introduces 350GMS Inspection System (November 2, 2010)
Complete inspection of gears as large as 350 mm in diameter now can be performed up to 40 percent faster (gear design dependant... Read News
198 Sunnen Offers All-Electric Design with Honing System (May 13, 2010)
The new HTA Series actuator hone introduces the first all-electric, lean design, engineered specifically for production of gas-meter tube... Read News
199 Shaoguan Hongda Gear Co Purchases Turnkey Nitriding System (June 7, 2010)
Nitrex Metal Inc. received an order from Shaoguan Hongda Gear Co. Ltd., a Chinese manufacturer of transmission components, for a turnkey ... Read News
200 Mitutoyo Quick Image CNC 2D Vision Measuring System Introduces New Models with Moving Stage (November 29, 2017)
Mitutoyo America Corporation announced the release of the Quick Image CNC (QI-C), the latest addition in the Quick Image Series of 2D vis... Read News
201 ECM Process Deburrs Injection System Components (August 9, 2010)
Deburring may not be a core process in machining, but it is still considered a necessary evil. Although other machining operations have b... Read News
202 Third Wave Systems AdvantEdge 7.4 Improves Report Generation Feature (November 28, 2017)
The next release for AdvantEdge focuses on improvements related to the reporting generation feature, data collection and additional enhan... Read News
203 Gleason Introduces Gleason Metrology Systems (September 10, 2010)
Gleason Corporation recently announced that it has changed the name of its subsidiary in West Carrollton, Ohio from Gleason M&M Preci... Read News
204 Adams Company Invests in Gear Measurement System (October 7, 2010)
The Adams Company, a custom manufacturer of bevel, helical, spur, worm gears and shafts, are continuing to acquire the latest equipm... Read News
205 Seco Tools New Tooling Systems Designed for Flexibility, Delivering Precision (November 2, 2017)
Seco continues to evolve and develop tooling solutions that exceed the demands of the metalcutting industry. Two of the company's lat... Read News
206 Heimatec Releases Flexible Tool Adapter System (October 28, 2010)
Heimatec, a manufacturer of live tools, angle heads and multi-spindle drill heads, recently announced the availability of its newest... Read News
207 China Spends 2.5 Million on CNC Helical Profile Milling System (April 14, 2011)
A major Chinese compressor manufacturer recently ordered a machine from Holroyd Precision of Milnrow, Lancashire to be used for the rough... Read News
208 Mitutoyo Measuring System Inspects Large and Small Workpieces (October 11, 2012)
Mitutoyo America Corporation announces availability of the innovative, new Ko-ga-me measurement head - designed to bring full capability ... Read News
209 Honing System Offers Increased Part Capacity (April 19, 2011)
The new all-electric HTA hone from Sunnen brings increased part capacity and stroker torque to applications such as bore resurfacing of h... Read News
210 Duo Plus Boasts Efficient Grip System (April 26, 2011)
One of the most important keys to success in modern workpiece production is efficiency. Machines are supposed to perform more than just o... Read News
211 Non-Coplanar Connecting Rod System Does the Work of Three Machines (July 21, 2011)
C & B Machinery of Livonia, Michigan has improved productivity and flexibility of their double disc non-coplanar connecting rod grind... Read News
212 BvL Oberflächentechnik Cleaning Systems Designed to Meet High Cleanliness Demands (April 24, 2017)
The absolute necessity for clean components in the automotive industry requires reliable cleaning technologies. With longstanding experie... Read News
213 Klingelnberg Closed Loop System to be Exhibited Alongside New Products at China International Machine Tool Show (March 29, 2017)
At the China International Machine Tool Show (CIMT) in April, Klingelnberg, the specialist in gear and transmission technology, will unve... Read News
214 Solar Atmospheres Molybdenum Hot Zoned Vacuum Furnace Equipped with Unique Oversized Pumping System (February 27, 2017)
Solar Atmospheres of Western PA recently added a very unique piece of equipment to its fleet of furnaces - a brand new, state of the art ... Read News
215 Renishaw Introduces Additive Manufacturing Systems (May 16, 2012)
Renishaw's new laser melting additive-metal manufacturing process is capable of producing fully dense metal parts direct from 3-D CAD... Read News
216 GKN Sinter Metals Starts Automotive Series Production with 3D Printing System (December 9, 2016)
GKN Sinter Metals announced that the first additive manufacturing (AM) machine in the automotive industry to enable series production of ... Read News
217 Marposs Introduces Touch Probe System (October 10, 2012)
Marposs Corp. announces the new Mida T25P ultra-compact, high accuracy touch probe for machine tools with piezoelectric technology. Altho... Read News
218 Dassault Systemes and Xometry Partner on Instant Part Production in Design Environment (February 19, 2020)
Dassault Systèmes and Xometry recently announced their partnership to provide customers with a seamless, integrated way to produce... Read News