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In the last section, we discussed gear inspection; the types of errors found by single and double flank composite and analytical tests; involute geometry; the involute cam and the causes and symptoms of profile errors. In this section, we go into tooth alignment and line of contact issues including lead, helix angles, pitch, pitchline runout, testing and errors in pitch and alignment.
Metrology is a vital component of gear manufacturing. Recent changes in this area, due in large part to the advent of computers, are highlighted in this article by comparison with more traditional methods.
It is very common for those working in the gear manufacturing industry to have only a limited understanding of the fundamental principals of involute helicoid gear metrology, the tendency being to leave the topic to specialists in the gear lab. It is well known that quiet, reliable gears can only be made using the information gleaned from proper gear metrology.
In recent years, gear inspection requirements have changed considerably, but inspection methods have barely kept pace. The gap is especially noticeable in bevel gears, whose geometry has always made testing them a complicated, expensive and time-consuming process. Present roll test methods for determining flank form and quality of gear sets are hardly applicable to bevel gears at all, and the time, expense and sophistication required for coordinate measurement has limited its use to gear development, with only sampling occurring during production.
This section will deal with the use of gear inspection for diagnostic purposes rather than quality determination. The proper evaluation of various characteristics in the data can be useful for the solution of quality problems. It is important to sort out whether the problem is coming from the machine, tooling and/or cutters, blanks, etc. An article by Robert Moderow in the May/June 1985 issue of Gear Technology is very useful for this purpose.
In today's production environment, a variety of different measurement devices is used to assess the quality and accuracy of workpieces. These devices include CMMs, gear checkers, form testers, roughness testers, and more. It requires a high machine investment and a high handling effort - especially if a full end-of-line measurement is needed. One approach to reduce quality costs is to include all measurements in one single machine that is suitable and robust enough for use in production.
The presence of significant errors in the two-flank roll test (a work gear rolled in tight mesh against a master gear) is well-known, but generally overlooked.
News Items About testers
1 Buehler Offers DiaMet Hardness Software Upgrade for Legacy Hardness Testers (December 21, 2018)
Buehler, an ITW company has announced that the DiaMet hardness software upgrade is now available for legacy Wilson testers. The DiaMet Ha... Read News
2 Gleason Gear Testers Handle Day-to-Day Production Rigors (May 18, 2011)
Now roll testing and single flank testing of bevel, angular bevel and parallel-axis gears with diameters up to 2,500 mm can be completed ... Read News
3 Mitutoyo America HR-530 Rockwell Hardness Testers Features Unique Electronic Control and Inside Ring Hardness Testing (February 16, 2018)
Mitutoyo America Corporation is pleased to announce the release of the latest Rockwell Hardness Testers in its HR-530 Series, including t... Read News