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A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is adapted, validated and applied to spinning gear systems with emphasis on predicting windage losses. Several spur gears and a disc are studied. The CFD simulations return good agreement with measured windage power loss.
Although typically considered a late bloomer in the call to wind energy arms, the United States is now the number one wind power producer in the world with over 25,000 MW installed by the end of 2008, according to the Global Wind Energy Council in January 2009.
A high number of wind turbine gearboxes do not meet their expected design life, despite meeting the design criteria of current bearing, gear and wind turbine industry standards and certifications.
Big gears and wind turbines go together like bees and honey, peas and carrots, bread and butter and—well, you get the idea. Wind isn’t just big right now, it’s huge. The wind industry means tremendous things for the energy dependent world we live in and especially big things for gear manufacturers and other beleaguered American industries.
The global wind energy market has seen average growth rates of 28 percent over the last 10 years, according to the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC), creating major challenges for the component supply industry. GWEC also forecasts an average growth rate of 22 percent for the next five years, which if realized, will continue to put pressure on suppliers of turbine components.
Having outlasted the worldwide Great Recession, the Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) forecasts a constant growth in wind energy, i.e.: "increase in worldwide capacity to 460,000 MW by 2015."
"An industrial business with a very important growth potential for the next decade." That's the wind energy as described by Ivan Brems of gear manufacturer Hansen Transmissions International.
Onshore and offshore wind turbines boast some of the most critical assets in order to run effectively.
We talked energy efficiency with some major players in the lubricants industry— but with a focus on their products’ impact regarding energy efficiency of gears and gearboxes in wind turbines.
Long before oil, climate change and energy demand were making headlines in Washington, Minnesota State Auditor Rebecca Otto and her husband installed a wind energy system on their property in Minnesota.
Historically, wind turbine gearbox failures have plagued the industry. Yet an effective oil analysis program will increase the reliability and availability of your machinery, while minimizing maintenance costs associated with oil change-outs, labor, repairs and downtime. Practical action steps are presented here to improve reliability.
Faithful Gear Technology readers may recall that our July 2009 issue contained an update of the deliberations provided by Bill Bradley. Now, almost two years later, there is an ISO/IEC wind turbine gearbox standard out for draft international standard ballot (ballot closes 2011-05-17).
It seems that nothing can hold back the power of the wind—unless, of course, it's the availability of rugged, reliable, specially designed gearboxes. How Gleason is Keeping up with Demand.
Recent breakthroughs in profile grinding software are helping Anderson Precision Gears and others meet wind power’s insatiable appetite for faster production of large, high-quality gears.
This article shows the newest developments to reduce overall cycle time in grinding wind power gears, including the use of both profile grinding and threaded wheel grinding.
The wind turbine industry has been plagued with gearbox failures, which cause repair costs, legal expenses, lost energy production and environmental pollution.
Industrial gear standards have been used to support reliability through the specification of requirements for design, manufacturing and verification. The consensus development of an international wind turbine gearbox standard is an example where gear products can be used in reliable mechanical systems today. This has been achieved through progressive changes in gear technology, gear design methods and the continual development and refinement of gearbox standards.
The United States’ long-held dream of energy independence—as in cheap, clean, free of overseas extortion and renewable energy—could very well be realized in part by the country-wide development of wind turbines...
When Belgium-based Hansen Transmissions was under the ownership of Invensys plc in the late 1990s, the parent company was dropping not-so-subtle hints that the industrial gearbox manufacturer was not part of its long-term plans. Yet Hansen’s CEO Ivan Brems never dreamed that, less than a decade later, he would be working for an Indian company.
Lamentations continue—legitimately so—over the second-citizen status of manufacturing in the United States. The need undoubtedly continues for renewed support by government and educators for making things here once again...
This article describes some of the most important tests for prototypes conducted at Winergy AG during the product development process. It will demonstrate that the measurement results on the test rig for load distribution are in accordance with the turbine measurements.
It’s not too often a trade show so far surpasses organizers’ expectations for size that it must be relocated. This was just the dilemma the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) faced with the Windpower 2009 Conference and Exhibition, which was originally scheduled to take place in Minneapolis, but will now be held at McCormick Place, Chicago.
The Fabyan Windmill in Geneva, IL
Capitalizing on a burgeoning new technology where gears are of great import, the gear community gathered en masse at the American Wind Energy Association’s Windpower Expo 2010.
This article reviews mathematical models for individual components associated with power losses, such as windage, churning, sliding and rolling friction losses.
Gear flank breakage can be observed on edge zone-hardened gears. It occurs, for example, on bevel gears for water turbines, on spur gears for wind energy converters and on single- and double-helical gears for other industrial applications.
The turbines are still spinning. They’re spinning on large wind farms in the Great Plains, offshore in the Atlantic and even underwater where strong tidal currents offer new energy solutions. These turbines spin regularly while politicians and policy makers— tied up in discussions on tax incentives, economic recovery and a lot of finger pointing—sit idle. Much like the auto and aerospace industries of years past, renewable energy is coping with its own set of growing pains. Analysts still feel confident that clean energy will play a significant role in the future of manufacturing—it’s just not going to play the role envisioned four to five years ago.
Amidst the energy industry's uncertain future, gearbox manufacturers are focusing on supplying the aftermarket.
Let’s talk about large gears. Not the size or scope or inspection process, but the forecast and market potential in areas that utilize these massive components. We’ll examine key industry segments like energy and mining and tap IHS Economics for a forecast for 2016 and 2017 (spoiler alert: it’s not great). Additionally, we’ll discuss some of the critical factors influencing global big gear manufacturers Ferry-Capitain and Hofmann Engineering.
The complete Industry News section from the July 2014 issue of Gear Technology.
Natural resources—minerals, coal, oil, agricultural products, etc.—are the blessings that Mother Earth confers upon the nations of the world. But it takes unnaturally large gears to extract them.
Over the past few months we've talked with a lot of gear manufacturers. Many of them tell us business is strong, while others are struggling with reduced demand. The difference between them isn't so much in the quality of their manufacturing operations, but rather trends in the end markets they serve.
Uncertainty casts a shadow over future business opportunities for manufacturers serving the new energy markets.
A series of short reports on global manufacturing growth and the gear industry's role.
When a customer needed gears delivered in three weeks, here’s how Brevini Wind got it done.
Industry battles it out for World's Largest Gear title.
Ohio's Lt. Governor Lee Fisher talks about Ohio companies at the forefront of wind turbine industry manufacturing.
East of San Francisco Bay, near the town of Rio Vista, 81 white towers stand 255 feet tall on rolling hills of dry grass harvesting a year-round crop: wind.
It's summertime in the gear industry. Out my window, I see blue skies, green grass and trees swaying in the wind. In the background, I hear crickets chirping.
Nashville - One of the highlights of this year's SME Advanced Gear Processing and Manufacturing Clinic was a tour of the new GM Saturn automobile manufacturing plant outside the city. There in the Tennessee hills is a hopeful vision of the future of the American automobile industry. It may well be the future of American large-scale manufacturing in general.
As an indicator of what’s up-and-coming in the manufacturing technology world, Hannover Messe 2009 reflects the prominence of alternative energy and efficiency.
Glancing back now, The Falk Corp. looks to have had a straight path toward power transmission when it opened in 1892.
IMTS is back in town, From Sept. 7 through Sept. 15, the largest industrial exhibition in the Western Hemisphere will fill one of the largest exhibition centers in the world. A show of this magnitude is a little like the 500 lb. gorilla in your dining room - hard to ignore.
Romax Technology, the gearbox, bearing and driveline engineering specialist, has launched a new design software package that will increase speed, quality, creativity and innovation when designing gearboxes and drivelines. Called Concept, the new product delivers on the Romax vision of streamlining the end-to-end, planning-to-manufacture process with open, easy to use software solutions. It has been developed in close collaboration with engineers in the largest ground vehicle, wind energy and industrial equipment companies around the globe.
Top Secret Code Name: Ginger Mission: Design, prototype and test a transmission for a new device. The transmission must be compact and efficient. It should have almost no backlash, and it must be able to operate in both forward and reverse. Most importantly, the transmission must be quiet. In fact, it shouldn't sound like a transmission at all. It should blend in with the environment and sound like music or the wind. This mission, should you choose to accept it, is top secret. Not even your employees can know what you're working on...
This machine concept facilitates highly productive profile grinding for large workpieces. The range for external and internal gears comprises models for manufacturing workpieces up to 2,000 millimeters – for industrial gear units, wind power, and marine propulsion applications
A good sailor can predict when the weather is about to change. He uses simple tools to measure variables like air pressure, temperature and wind speed. Although those indicators can't perfectly forecast the weather, the sailor can get a good idea of what's going to happen by applying his experience, judgment and even his gut feelings.
Much of the existing guidelines for making large, high-performance gears for wind turbine gearboxes exhibit a need for improvement. Consider: the large grinding stock used to compensate for heat treatment distortion can significantly reduce manufacturing productivity; and, materials and manufacturing processes are two other promising avenues to improvement. The work presented here investigates quenchable alloy steels that, combined with specifically developed Case-hardening and heat treatment processes, exhibits reduced distortion and, in turn, requires a smaller grinding stock.
According to the U.K.-based WITT Energy website (witt-energy.com), “The WITT is the only device in the world that can capture energy from all movement and turn it into electricity. No other energy system can exploit the full spectrum of movement, enabling it to harvest power from water (sea, river or tidal), wind and human or animal motion.”
There exists an ongoing, urgent need for a rating method to assess micropitting risk, as AGMA considers it a “a very significant failure mode for rolling element bearings and gear teeth — especially in gearbox applications such as wind turbines.”
Vibration and noise from wind turbines can be significantly influenced - and therefore reduced - by selecting suitable gearing modifications. New options provided by manufacturers of machine tools and grinding machines, and especially state-of-the-art machines and controls, provide combined gearing modifications - or topological gearing corrections - that can now be reliably machined. Theoretical investigations of topological modifications are discussed here with the actual machining and their possible use.
Crown gearings are not a new type of gear system. On the contrary, they have been in use since very early times for various tasks. Their earliest form is that of the driving sprocket, found in ancient Roman watermills or Dutch windmills. The first principles of gear geometry and simple methods of production (shaper cutting) were developed in the 1940s. In the 1950s, however, crown gears' importance declined. Their tasks were, for example, taken over by bevel gears, which were easier to manufacture and could transmit greater power. Current subject literature accordingly contains very little information on crown gears, directed mainly to pointing out their limitations (Ref. 1).
Gear manufacturers are moving into an era that will see changes in both engineering practices and industry standards as new end-products evolve. Within the traditional automotive industry, carbon emission reduction legislation will drive the need for higher levels of efficiency and growth in electric and hybrid vehicles. Meanwhile, the fast growing market of wind turbines is already opening up a whole new area of potential for gearbox manufacturers, but this industry is one that will demand reliability, high levels of engineering excellence and precision manufacturing.
Iowa Governor Chet Culver weighs in on the importance of the wind turbine industry for manufacturing growth.
For a high-speed gearbox, an important part of power losses is due to the mesh. A global estimation is not possible and an analytical approach is necessary with evaluations of three different origins of power losses: friction in mesh contact, gear windage and pumping effect between teeth.
As I write this editorial, much of America seems frozen solid. It snowed again here in Chicago yesterday, and last night the wind chill was –30ºF (–34ºC). It’s been cold like this for more than a week, and the forecasters are predicting more of the same. After a while, such a deep freeze can be depressing.
As the automotive industry continues to reinvent itself, new transmission technologies are at the forefront of this effort, and there is a whirlwind of new developments being detailed at the German Car Training Institute’s Automotive Transmissions and Drive Trains Symposium North America.
Micropitting has become a major concern in certain classes of industrial gear applications, especially wind power and other relatively highly loaded, somewhat slow-speed applications, where carburized gears are used to facilitate maximum load capacity in a compact package. While by itself the appearance of micropitting does not generally cause much perturbation in the overall operation of a gear system, the ultimate consequences of a micropitting failure can, and frequently are, much more catastrophic.
Examples from gears in wind turbine, automotive and industrial applications.
The load capacity rating of gears had its beginning in the 18th century at Leiden University when Prof. Pieter van Musschenbroek systematically tested the wooden teeth of windmill gears, applying the bending strength formula published by Galilei one century earlier. In the next centuries several scientists improved or extended the formula, and recently a Draft International Standard could be presented.
Minimizing gear losses caused by churning, windage and mesh friction is important if plant operating costs and environmental impact are to be minimized. This paper concentrates on mesh friction losses and associated scuffing risk. It describes the preliminary results from using a validated, 3-D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) program to optimize cylindrical gears for low friction losses without compromising transmission error (TE), noise and power density. Some case studies and generic procedures for minimizing losses are presented. Future development and further validation work is discussed.
In the wide, wide world of moving parts, the gears required for the big jobs—the really big jobs—often experience big problems. Proper lubrication of these gears is paramount in industrial applications such as wind turbines, kilns, sugar mills, crushers, heavy construction, offshore drilling rigs, mining and quarrying.
Chicago has been known as many things over the years—“Hog Butcher to the World,” “The City That Works,” “The Windy City” and “The City of Big Shoulders” among them. Although perhaps lesser known, add “City of Bridges” to the list.
News Items About wind
1 Bonfiglioli Yaw and Pitch Drives Power German Offshore Wind Farm (June 9, 2010)
Germany's first offshore wind farm, Alpha Ventus, features yaw and pitch drives from the Bonfiglioli Group. The wind farm feature... Read News
2 Broadwind Energy Announces Expanded Organizational Structure (February 4, 2009)
Broadwind Energy recently announced an expanded organizational structure and leadership team to support its wind and alternative energy b... Read News
3 GE to Supply Canada with 660 New Wind Turbines (January 22, 2004)
GE Energy has been selected to supply up to 660 wind turbines, totaling 990 megawatts of wind-generated electricity for eight projects to... Read News
4 IQwind is Awarded Red Herring Top 100 Global Company (March 19, 2009)
IQwind, a developer of variable gear technology that improves the energy generation efficiency of wind turbines, announced that it has b... Read News
5 Survey Puts China at the Forefront of Wind Energy Market (November 24, 2008)
An annual wind survey conducted jointly by the Global Wind Energy Council and Greenpeace International expects China to surpass Germany... Read News
6 IQwind and Guascor Partner to Commercialize Variable IQGear Technology for Wind Turbines (September 10, 2009)
IQwind and Guascor announced that they will partner to commercialize and bring to market the IQGear, a high efficiency variable gearbox f... Read News
7 DTR Offers Hobs for Cutting Wind Turbine and Heavy Industrial Gears (January 21, 2010)
DTR Corporation recently announced its full line of high-performance, large coarse pitch hobs for cutting wind turbine and heavy industri... Read News
8 Moventas Invests in Wind Turbine Gear Production, Hires New Executives (August 30, 2007)
Moventas invested approximately 115 million euros in a new wind turbine gear factory in central Finland. Construction will begin in fall ... Read News
9 Moventas Launches Wind Turbine Condition Management System (May 24, 2007)
Moventas introduced its latest wind turbine condition management system at Hannover Messe 2007. The system focuses on the gearbox and a... Read News
10 Moventas Receives Order for Mass Deliveries of Wind Turbine Gears to Acciona (January 14, 2006)
Moventas signed a supply agreement for substantial deliveries of wind turbine gearbo... Read News
11 GE Energy Announces $1.3 Billion in Wind Turbine Projects (December 17, 2003)
GE Energy announced that it has secured contracts and order projections for wind turbine projects in 2004?2005 that are valued at more th... Read News
12 SKFs New Cylindrical Roller Bearings Extend Wind Turbine Gearbox Life (April 11, 2006)
New SKF high-capacity cylindrical roller bearings for wind turbine gearboxes have been engineered to promote longer gearbox service life... Read News
13 Vail Resorts Buys Wind Power to Offset its Electric Power (April 14, 2006)
Vail Resorts announced plans to buy enough wind power credits to offset the power needed for its resorts, retail stores and office buildi... Read News
14 GE Energy Partners with Chinese Co. To Develop Wind Turbine Gearboxes (April 22, 2006)
GE Energy and Nanjing High Speed & Accurate Gear Company (NGC) have agreed to jointly develop gearboxes for GE's 1.5-megawatt wind tu... Read News
15 Broadwind Energy Plans Expansion of Gearbox Capabilities (March 17, 2010)
Broadwind Energy, Inc. recently announced the expansion of its Precision Repair and Engineering services with enhanced megawatt (MW) gear... Read News
16 Broadwind Energy Appoints Brad Foote President (April 1, 2010)
Daniel E. Schueller was appointed president of Brad Foote Gear Works, Inc., the gearing systems business of Broadwind Energy, Inc. Schu... Read News
17 Moventas to Rebrand Industrial and Wind Gear Business (September 25, 2013)
Moventas is in the process of rebranding and differentiating its industrial and wind gear businesses. Changes in its operational struct... Read News
18 David Brown Awarded Grant for Offshore Wind (February 28, 2012)
A gear engineering and manufacturing company has been confirmed as the first successful bidder to develop next generation offshore wind ... Read News
19 Small Wind Sees Increase in Sales Revenue in 2010 (October 24, 2011)
America's small wind turbine industry saw substantial growth in 2010, the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) reported recently, ... Read News
20 Nordex Begins Wind Production in Arkansas (October 5, 2010)
Nordex's newly built wind turbine manufacturing plant in Jonesboro, Arkansas officially opened October 4. "Two years ago, we ann... Read News
21 Romax and Hansen Sign Agreement for Wind Turbine Services (September 24, 2010)
Romax Technology, a drivetrain and gearbox solutions specialist, and Hansen Transmissions International NV, a wind turbine gearbox design... Read News
22 Gleason to Exhibit Large Gear Production Technologies at Windpower 2010 (May 7, 2010)
Wind turbine gears produced by Gleason gear production machines and cutting tools supply over 50 percent of the world's wind energy.&... Read News
23 Floating Wind Turbine Tested in United States (December 18, 2012)
The first ever floating wind turbine in the United States is now in the process of being tested by engineers from the University of Mai... Read News
24 Seco to Offer Milling Solutions at Windpower 2012 (March 22, 2012)
Seco will be highlighting a range of solutions for wind power machining applications at Windpower 2012, including the North American... Read News
25 ZF Opens First U.S. Plant for Wind Turbine Gearboxes (October 4, 2011)
ZF Friedrichshafen AG has opened a plant for the production of wind turbine gearboxes in Gainesville near Atlanta, Georgia. As of 2012, t... Read News
26 AMB Preps for Growth in Global Wind (March 6, 2012)
By 2020, the German government wants to generate 30 percent of electricity in Germany from renewable energies. The trade association for ... Read News
27 GL Certifies Software for RomaxWIND (October 11, 2010)
Romax Technology Limited's virtual development platform, RomaxWIND, has been officially certified by GL Renewables Certification (GL)... Read News
28 Romax Opens Dedicated Wind Energy Technical Centre (June 2, 2010)
Romax Technology will open a new Technical Centre in Colorado in June, in response to the growing demand for their technical consultancy ... Read News
29 Vertical Turning Centers Aim for Wind and Nuclear Parts (June 22, 2010)
MAG's new vertical turning centers with five to eight meter tables are engineered to make short work of large-part manufact... Read News
30 PcTime! Released for PalmOS and Windows Mobile Devices (January 23, 2008)
InfosystemsPro LLC announces the release of PcTime! for PalmOS and Windows Mobile devices. PcTime! makes it easy to calculate production... Read News
31 Governors Ask Administration for More Wind Energy Deployment (September 23, 2011)
A coalition of 24 governors from both major parties and each region of the country has asked the administration to take a series of steps... Read News
32 REpower Systems and Essar Group To Partner in Indian Wind Energy Market (April 22, 2006)
RREpower Systems has entered into a licensed agreement with India's Essar Group to facilitate entry into that country's growin... Read News